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Article 1

Title : How To Plant A Tree Author : Audrey Hillman Source : (Internet) http://www.emmitsburg.net/archive_list/articles/gardening/trees.htm

On a recent trip to Seattle my husband and I flew over parts of Montana where the wild fires were visible from the plane. It was easier to understand the scale of the destruction when viewed from 23,000 feet than when seen on TV. It started me thinking about the value of what was being lost, especially the trees. Although fire can be essential in the process of revitalization, it takes a long time for a forest to recover. It made me realize how much I value the trees in my own yard. As I watch the aging process in my trees, I am busy planning the placement of new young trees that in the years to come will continue to provide all the benefits I now enjoy in my mature trees. They help to settle out, and hold, dust and smoke. Trees absorb carbon dioxide produced from motor vehicles and, in return, produce oxygen, helping to reduce both the greenhouse effect and global warming. They provide food and cover for wildlife, which, for me, is a prime consideration in my choice of which trees to plant. Trees, and the shade they produce, help to keep my home and yard cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter when they act as windbreaks. By providing beauty and character, landscaping with trees also enhances the value of our property. If you would like to add trees, or even a single tree, to your landscape, be sure to do your homework. There are trees to suit every situation and, by assessing your needs realistically, you can be sure that the tree you invest your money in will return that investment a thousand times over.

First look at the physical aspect of where you want to plant. Choose a tree that, when mature, will be a suitable size for your site. Also, assess things like available sunlight, wind, drainage and soil pH. (You did do a soil test, right?) Do you want an evergreen or a deciduous tree? Do you want spring or summer flowers? Ornamental bark? Berries? Good fall color? Dense shade or filtered shade? A column shape, weeping or rounded form? Small (10-25 ft), medium(25-40 ft.), or large (over 40 ft.)? There are many trees that offer many combinations of the above so it will be helpful to know what you want before shopping. An experienced nurseryman or landscape/garden designer will be able to help you narrow your choices down, and ultimately buy a tree that is healthy and suited to your needs. And remember, bigger is not always better. The bigger the tree, the longer it will take to become established and put on growth. You may be better off with something smaller that will grow quickly and reach the same height as a larger tree might in the same amount of growing time. The best time to plant your new tree is during the dormant season - early spring before bud break or in the fall after leaf drop. But trees that have been properly cared for in the nursery or garden center can be planted any time during the growing season. Just know that your tree is going to be more stressed if your plant it in July and youll probably have to do some additional watering as well. And by all means, do your new tree a huge favor by planting it correctly. Many people believe that you need to dig a deep hole when planting a tree. The exact opposite is true. Your hole needs to be much wider than deep by at least three to five times the diameter of the root ball. It needs to be only as deep as the root ball or just 1-2 inches less. It is essential that the root flare (area where the trunk ends and the roots begin) be at or slightly above the existing soil line. Make sure the root flare is visible. The bottom of the hole should be firm so that the tree doesnt sink after planting.

Remove or cut away twine, burlap (especially the plastic type) and wire baskets. Loosen the roots to enhance their growth and prevent girdling. Finer root systems can be loosened with your hands. Heavier roots may need to be cut with pruning shears. Next position the tree in the hole, making sure that it is straight, and spread out the roots. Backfill the hole with the soil you took out. You dont need to put in any additives or amendments. Firm the soil gently. Water the tree deeply to begin with, then once a week if it hasnt rained and more if its hot. A good way to judge is when the soil below the mulch is dry, then its time to water. Your final step is to mulch. Add two to four inches around the base of the tree, but not against the trunk. Make a doughnut, not a mound. Mounding mulch around the trunk and covering the root flare inhibits gas exchange and can cause disease and decay of the living bark at the base of the tree. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see in newly planted trees. And I see it everywhere, especially in parking lots around stores and malls. Because of the way these public trees are mulched, many people think that that is how it should be done.

Key Point (Facts): Tree help to settle out, and hold, dust and smoke Tree also absorb carbon dioxide produced from motor vehicles and, in return, produce oxygen, helping to reduce both the greenhouse effect and global warming Provide food and cover for wildlife, which, for me, is a prime consideration in my choice of which trees to plant Help to keep my home and yard cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter when they act as windbreaks When we plant tree , we need assess things like size of site , available sunlight, wind, drainage and soil pH The best time to plant your new tree is during the dormant season Your hole needs to be much wider than deep by at least three to five times the diameter of the root ball Remove or cut away twine, burlap (especially the plastic type) and wire baskets , loosen the roots to enhance their growth and prevent girdling Your final step is to much

Key Point (Opinions): Trees are very important for us , it gives many benefits in our daily life Plant a tree is not difficult, we just need to follow the steps in the article Before we plant a tree , many things that we need to do to plant a tree correctly After we plant a tree , we need to take care of it , we are not plant it and let it be When the tree is mature , we can enjoy all the benefits that provide by the tree

Summary

Tree

Steps to plant a tree

Benefits

1 - assess things like size of site ,


available sunlight, wind, drainage and soil pH

1 - settle out, and hold, dust and smoke

2 Choose the best time dormant season

2 - absorb carbon dioxide produced from motor vehicles and, in return, produce oxygen

3 The hole needs to be much wider than


deep by at least three to five times the diameter of the root ball

3 - both the greenhouse effect and global warming

4 After plant a tree , remove or cut away twine, burlap (especially the plastic type) and wire baskets

4 - food and cover for wildlife 5 - Help to keep my home and yard cooler in the summer , warmer in the winter

5 Then , we need to loosen the roots to


enhance their growth and prevent girdling

6 - final step is to mulch to protect the tree

Article 2
Title : Danger at sea , in the air , or underground which do you find the most frightening ? Author : Abraham Sung Source : (Book) 330 English Essays

Of the three different forms of danger , I find that danger underground is the most frightening . I shall attempt to explain why . At sea , storms and rough seas are dangerous to surface vessels . However modern ships are huge and well-made that the dangers are minimal . Futhermore with improved communications and accurate weather forecasting , dangers can be avoided . Only if one happens to be caught in a hurricane out at sea in a small boat , then the dangers become very real indeed . One could lose ones life . On the other hand there is still a chance for survival by swimming . There are many recorded cases where people have swam to safety when their boats sank or kept themselves afloat until help came . Unless one cannot swim or has the misfortune of having ones boat sunk in a sharkinfested area , the chances of surviving are still present . There is still hope . The only way we can fly in the air is an aeroplane , or in recent times , in a glider or a helicopter . The dangers of travelling in an aeroplane are also minimal . Statistics show that it is actually more dangerous to travel in a car . The number of deaths caused by highway accidents far outweigh the number caused by aeroplane crashes . Futhermore , aeroplanes are made to perform well and the pilots are also well-trained . In the case of an emergency , there is still time between the onset of the problem and the possible crash to do something to avert disaster . Many a brave pilot have saved his passengers through skill and determination in times of emergency .

When it comes to danger underground , that is something that frightens me the most . I have no fear in water or in the air , but the very thought of stepping into a dark gloomy cave is enough to give me goose-bumps. I visited the Batu Caves once , and that was more than enough for me . Being in a cave gives me claustrophobia . I feel hemmed in , stifled and totally devoid of alternatives should the earth collapse on top of me . In mining accidents , many lives had been lost through cave-ins landslips . These unfortunate events are quick and absolute . The victims have practically no chance of surviving . Can you imagine how a victims feels when he sees tons of mud and earth falling onto him and planning him down so completely that he cannot even move ? The few seconds or few minutes that he is conscious of being alive must be the most frightening thing of all . What goes on his mind when he is sure to die ? I dare not even imagine . I would take on pirates in the high seas , or do the most dangerous sky-diving stunts but you would never catch me exploring a cave , or digging for gold in a dark ominous mine . At sea or in the air I still have some fighting chance if ever danger threatens . Underground , the dangers are too overwhelming . I do not like the position where I have no chance at all . It is not my desire to die without being to do anything about it .

Key Point (Facts) : At sea , storms and rough seas are dangerous to surface vessels Modern ships are huge, well-made and with improved communications and accurate weather forecasting that the dangers avoided Only if in a hurricane out at sea in a small boat , the dangers become real indeed Aeroplanes are made to perform well and the pilots are also well-trained There is still got time between the onset of the problem and the possible crash to do something to avert disaster Many lives had been lost through cave-ins In cave , the victims have practically no chance of surviving , dangers are too overwhelming

Key Point (Opinions) : At sea and in the air , we stil have chance to survive , but if in cave , the chance to survive are so minimum At sea , we can swim , o r we will wear life jacket before we going to the sea In the air , we also can wear the parachute when emergency In cave , underground , we cannot do anything if landslide happen I support authors point that underground is the most frightening compare to sea or in the air

Summary :

Sea

Air

Underground

storms and rough seas are dangerous to surface vessels Modern ships are huge, well-made and with improved communications and accurate weather forecasting, danger can avoided

made to perform well and the pilots are also welltrained still got time between the onset of the problem and the possible crash to do something to avert disaster

Many lives had been lost through cave-ins In cave , the victims have practically no chance of surviving , dangers are too overwhelming

Only if in a hurricane out at sea in a small boat , the dangers become real indeed