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LONGITUDINAL VIBRATION OF ROD/BEAM & TORSIONAL VIBRATION OF ROD WITH CIRCULAR AREA OF CROSS SECTION

Introduction Like string, rod also is a simple structure. Both its longitudinal and torsional vibration is the simplest among continuous systems. Let us study the longitudinal vibrations of a straight rod of uniform cross section, in the same way as we did in string. LONGITUDINAL Length of rod = L Cross sectional area = A Polar M. Inertia = Ip Mass density = kg/unit volume Mass density = kg/unit Vol Elastic modulus = E Torsional Modulus = G At left end x = 0; at right end x = L At any x, Longitudinal displacement = u Elastic force = P P = stress x area = E x strain x area Strain = u / x P = EA u / x At x = dx, Axialal displacement = u + du Elastic force = P + dP Net force in x-direction = dP dP =
P (u / x )dx 2u dx = EA = EA 2 dx x x x

TORSIONAL

Twist = Elastic Torque = T T = G (Ip x rate of twist) Twist rate = / x T = GIp / x Twist = + d Elastic Torque = T + dT Net Toque about x-axis = dT dT =
T ( / x)dx 2 dx = GI p = GI p 2 dx x x x

Accelerating force

in the element

Accelerating torque
&= & = dJ & (Ip dx) & 2 dx t 2

&= & = d(vol) u& (A dx) u&

=A

2u dx t 2

= Ip

Equating (1.7) and (1.8),

2u 2u dx = EA 2 dx t 2 x 2 2 u u = (E / ) 2 2 t x

Ip

2 2 dx = GI p 2 dx t 2 x 2 2 = (G / ) 2 2 t x 2 2 = c2 2 t 2 x

2u 2u = c2 2 t 2 x

where, equations (1.11) are wave equations and


c2 = (E / ) c 2 = (G / )

and c = velocity of propagation of sound in the media of the rod, in longitudinal wave and torsional wave respectively. Solution The problem is variable separable type and the procedure is same as that used for string. u(x,t) = X(x).T(t) (x,t) = X(x).T(t)

u(x,t)= ( A sin pt + B cos pt)(C sin(c/p)x + D cos(p/c)x ..= (x,t) Unlike string (where only fixed end (boundary) conditions exist), here apart from fixed conditions, free ends are also possible. Therefore there are 4 possible boundary conditions - Free-free; Fixed-fixed; Fixed-free* and Freefixed*. Since the frequencies depend on the end conditions, each case will have different frequency equation. (*For uniform rod these two will be same; but not so if cross section is variable). Study more from class discussions and printed portions of notes taken from William Seto and also Grover. Fixed u(0,or L or both for all t) = 0 Free: Force (0,or L or both for all t) = 0. Force zero means no stress. No stress means no strain in uniaxial case, like this. Therefore u / x = 0, at x = 0 or x = L or both as the case may be.