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# Age Problems Basic Tips: If the condition is like that David is 2 years older than James.

. Then it means age of David = 2 + age of James If the condition says David is twice as old as James then age of David = 2 x age of James After fifteen years Father will be twice as old as his son. But five years ago he was four times as old as his son. Their present ages are: Solution: Suppose that age of father F and age of son is S. After fifteen years age of father will be F + 15 and age of son will be S + 15. And the condition will become F + 15 = 2 x (S + 15) And five years ago Fathers age was F 5 and sons age was S 5. And the condition will become F 5 = 4 x (S 5) By solving both equation you can get F = 45 and S = 15.

## AREA AND VOLUME

Basic Tips: Area of triangle = 1 x base x height 2
height

Area of rectangle = length x breadth Area of Square = (Length) 2 Diagonal 2 Area of Square = 2

base

diagonal

Area of Circle = r2
A

x0

## Area of the sector=

x0 r2 360

x0 2 r Arc length AOB = 360 Volume of Cube = (length) 3 Surface Area of the Cube = 6 (length) 2 lenght Volume of Cuboids = length x width x height Surface Area of cuboids = 2 x (length x width + width x height + height x length)

## Volume of Cylinder = r 2 h Surface Area of Cylinder = 2

r (r + h)

height

Example: A picture in a museum is 7 ft wide and 9 ft long. If its frame has a width of 1 ft all around; The area of frame is: Solution: 9 ft 1ft

11 ft

1ft 9ft

1ft

7 ft 1 ft area of picture is 7ft x 9 ft = 63 ft 2 After the increment of 1 ft all around its width become 9 ft and its length become 11 ft. Therefore the Total area of the figure = Area of picture + Area of Frame = 9 ft x 11 ft = 99 ft 2 The area of frame =Total Area Area of Picture = 99 - 63 = 36 ft 2 Answer Right Angle Triangles to remember:

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13

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45 0 x x 2 45 0 x x

60 0 2x 30 0 x 3

Angles 45 0 : 45 0 : 90 0 Side opposite to respective angle x : x : x 2 Perimeter: Perimeter means sum of outlines. Perimeter of square = 4 x length Perimeter of rectangle = 2 x (length + width) Perimeter of Circle = Circumference of Circle = 2 r Special Case:

30 0 : 60 0 : 90 0 x : x 3 : 2x

In this case the perimeter of shaded region is the sum of mentioned lengths + arc length

Special Case:

In this special case the area of the rectangle is half of the area of square or rectangle.

Special Case: If the area of shaded region is 75% of the area of circle; The value of x = ? If the shaded region is 75% then the unshaded region is 25% of the total circle and the angle of unshaded region is also 25 % of 360 0 = 90 0 answser. Ix x0

Averages
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## sum of the total numbers of elements given total number of elements

* If you want to find the mean or an average of an arithmetic progression (a series which has same difference), like consecutive numbers, consecutive even numbers or consecutive odd numbers, it has Mean=Median. (a) Find the mean of first 11 integers. SOLUTION: Arrange all the 11 integers in ascending or descending order In ascending order 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

In this case 6 is a middle most number which is a median because it is a arithmetic progression so the mean/average= median therefore mean = 6 (b) X has an average of 82 in the first four tests. After taking the next text his average dropped to 80. Find his recent test grade? Solution: In this case we use this number line method as given below. We know that in 4 tests he has an average of 82 but in 5 tests his average decreased to 80. No. of tests 5 Average 80 -2 x 4 82 To find the score the score of final test just multiply the initial no. of tests to the raise or decrease of the average and add to the new average we will get the answer Initial no. of tests= 4 and the decrease of average= -2 and the new average is 80.

So the score of the final test will be 4x(-2)+80=72. Score of the final test= initial no. of tests x (raise or decrease of average) + new average (b) Y has an average of 60 in first four innings. After taking the sixth inning his average become 64. What was his last innings score? Solution: No. of innings 6 x 5 60 Average 64 +4

Score of the final inning= initial no. of inning x raise or decrease of the average + new average Initial innings= 5, raise/decrease of average= +4 and new average= 64 Soothe final score = 5 x (+4) + 64 = 84.

(c) James travels a certain distance at 60 mph and returns over the same route at 40 mph. What is the average rate for the entire trip? Solution:

For this special case in which an object travels a same route for the both given speeds you should apply the formula 2ab a+b

## Average speed= Where x and y are the two speeds.

If the distance between the initial and the final point is D and the speeds are x and y and assume that t1 is the time through which the object is traveling with speed x and t2 is the time required for the speed is the time required for the speed y. Therefore t1=D/a and t2=D/b Average Speed= Total distance Total time = 2D t1 + t2 = 2D D D + a b = 2ab a+b

In this case a=60 and b=40 therefore Average Speed= 2 40 60 4800 = = 48 mph 40 + 60 100

Otherwise the formula for average speed is Average Speed=Total distance Total time

Fractions
Basic Tips:

1 5 of the money in the first game and of the remainder in the next 3 8 game. What proportion of the money was he left with? Mr. X loses

Solution: Suppose that he had total money = x 1 On first game he lost of the total money 3 1 x 3 2 x 3

lost x remainder

## Then 2nd time he lost

5 2 of the remainder ( x ) 8 3

lost x remainder

Mixture Problems
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## % or concentration of solute = weight of solute

x 100

Total weight of mixture In a mixture of 100 ml of acid and water, there is only 20% acid.

Tips: In this question you have 20% acid which is 20 ml out of 100 ml of mixture. If you want to increase the strength or percentage or concentration of an acid then acid would be added. Other wise if you want to decrease the concentration of acid then water would be added and the quantity of acid remains constant. Ina mixture of 100ml of acid and water is only 20% acidic. If you want to increase the strength of acid up to 40%. How much acid would be added? Solution: Mixture = 100 ml acid = 20% of 100 = 20 ml

Suppose that x ml of acid would be added to make mixture 40% acidic. Now after addition of x ml of acid Acid = x + 20 Mixture = x + 100 20 + x 100 = 40 100 + x

% of acid =

x = 33.33 ml

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In a mixture of 100ml of acid and water is only 20% acidic. If you want to decrease the concentration of acid up to 10%. How much water would be added?

## Solution: Mixture = 100 ml Acid = 20 ml

Let us suppose that x ml of water to make the mixture 10% acidic. Now after addition of x ml of water Acid remains constant which is 20 ml and Mixture = 100 + x 20 100 = 10 100 + x

% of acid =

x = 100 ml

* A certain variety of tea worth Rs.30 per kg mixed with a lower quality of tea priced at 20 per kg, so that the mixture is worth Rs.26 per kg. The ratio of the two varieties in the resulting mixture is: Solution: In the questions which you have given the prices of two varieties of such commodity and you have to find out the ratio between the quantity of those two types in the resulting mixture, and the average cost of the resulting mixture has also been given. In these type of questions we use X method.

Tea A

Tea B

11

20 Rs. /kg

30 26 = 4

## NUMBERS AND INTEGERS Basic Tips:

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In case of arithmetic progression like Consecutive no: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ... Consecutive even no: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, ........ Consecutive odd no: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, ..... Median (middle most number of the series) = Mean of the series the mean of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 is: Solution: The difference of the above series is constant; it refers that it is an arithmetic progression, identify the middle number of the series which is 5; therefore the mean of the series is also 5. the mean of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 is: Solution: The difference of the above series is constant; it refers that it is an arithmetic progression, identify the middle number of the series, there are two middle numbers 6 and 8; take an average of 6 and 8 which is 7, it is the median of the sequence as well as the mean.

Examples: The sum of five consecutive numbers is 220. Find the 1st number of the sequence. Solution: We know that it is an arithmetic progression; therefore the median or middle number of the sequence is equal to the mean of the sequence. Our first step is to find the average or mean of the sequence. Average or Mean of the sequence =
220 = 44 5

44 is the middle most number of the sequence; the sequence has 5 numbers therefore the 3rd number of the sequence is the middle most number. Therefore 44 is the 3rd number of the sequence. So, the 1st number of the sequence is 42.

The sum of seven consecutive odd numbers is 91. Find the 4th number of the sequence.

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Solution: It is also an arithmetic progression; therefore the 4th number is the median of the sequence as well as the mean of the sequence. Mean or average of the sequence =
91 = 13 7

Therefore 13 is the 4th number of sequence. The sum of six consecutive even numbers is 90. Find the 6th number of the sequence. Solution: It is an arithmetic progression but sequence contains 6 numbers; therefore the average of 3rd and 4th number of sequence is the median of the sequence as well as the mean of the sequence.

## Mean or average of the sequence =

90 = 15 6

15 is the average of 14 and 16; therefore 14 and 16 is the 3rd and 4th number of the sequence respectively. Therefore 6th number of the sequence is 20.

PERCENTAGES
Important formulas:

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is x 100 of

## (2) Percentage Increase/ Decrease = For e.g.

*If the value of stock increases from \$25 to \$30. Find the percentage change or increase. % increase = 30 25 x 100 = 20% increase 25

* Salary of X decreases from 200 to 150. Find the percentage change or decrease. % decrease = 200 150 x100 = 25% decrease. 200

## One special case of Percentage

# If the length of a rectangle is increased by 30% and the width of the rectangle is decreased by 30%, then the area of the rectangle is increased or decreased by what %. Solution: If the length is x% increasing and the width is x% decreasing the net result will always X2 decreasing and it will decreased by the formula is % decreased 100 In this case x= 30

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## PROFIT AND LOSS

Important Formulas: If S.P. > C.P. it refers profit Profit = S.P. C.P. S .P. C.P. x100 % Profit = C.P. S .P. C.P. x100 if profit is based on S.P. then % Profit = S .P.

If C.P. > S.P. it refers loss Loss = C.P. S.P. C.P. S .P. x100 C.P. C.P. S .P. x100 if profit is based on S.P. then % Loss = S .P. % Loss = If you have 20% Profit then Your S.P. = 120% of C.P. If you have 60 % Profit then Your S.P. = 160% of C.P. Find the C.P. of an article, if it made a profit of 40% and its S.P = 42. Solution: If you have 40% profit then your S.P. = 140% of C.P. therefore 42 = 140% of C.P. => C.P. = 30. Find the S.P. of an article whose C.P. = 60 and if it is sell on 25% Profit. Solution: If you have 25% profit then Your S.P. = 125% of C.P. S.P. = 125% of 60 => S.P. = 75

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If you have 20% Loss then Your S.P. = 80% of C.P. If you have 60 % Loss then Your S.P. = 40% of C.P. Find the C.P. of an article, if it made a loss of 40% and its S.P = 42. Solution: If you have 40% loss then your S.P. = 60% of C.P. therefore 42 = 60% of C.P. => C.P. = 70. Find the S.P. of an article whose C.P. = 60 and if it is sell on 25% loss. Solution: If you have 25% loss then Your S.P. = 75% of C.P. S.P. = 75% of 60 => S.P. = 45

If profit is 100% then S.P = 2 C.P. and similarly If profit is 200% then S.P. = 3 C.P. Discount = M.P. S.P. M.P. - S.P. % Discount = x 100 M.P.

## Ratio & Proportion

Important Formulas: Direct Proportion

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If the two quantities are directly related it refers that if one quantity is increased and other one will also be increased and if one is declining the value of other is also declining. For e.g.: If 5 monkeys eat 20 bananas then how many monkeys will eat 28 bananas? Monkeys 5 x Bananas 20 28

We will do cross multiplication method 5 x 28 = x x 20 x = 7 Ans Inverse Proportion If the two quantities are inversely related it refers that if one quantity is increased and other one will be declined and if one is decreased the value of other will increased. For e.g.: If 200 people have a provision for 20 days then how many days 150 people will take to finish the same food? We will do linear multiplication for inverse proportion People 200 150 200 x 20 = 150 x x x = 26 2 days Ans 3 Days 20 x

## Simple and Compound Interest

Basic Tips: 18

Simple Interest is the interest in which Principal amount (amount you invest, lend or borrow) is fixed through out the number of years. In Compound Interest the Principal amount is not remains constant, it increases as annually or semi annually or quarterly. In banking questions or taking loan from bank you will always apply Compound Interest. PRT 100 P = Principal amount, R = Rate % per annum T = Time period per year

Simple Interest =

Total Amount = Principal + Interest Total Amount > Principal A person invested 1500 for 2 years at 5% simple interest. Find his Simple Interest and Amount he will get back. Solution: P = 1500 T=2 R=5 Simple Interest = PRT 100 = 1500 2 5 = 150 100

Amount = P + S.I. = 1500 + 150 Amount = 1650 In Compound Interest we dont have direct formula for C.I. we can evaluate Amount directly then we can evaluate C.I. by Compound Interest = Amount Principal R T ) 100 P = Principal amount, R = Rate % per annum, T = Time period per year Amount =P (1 + A person invested 1000 for 2 years at 5% compounded annually. Find the Compound Interest after 2 years. Solution: P = 1000 R = 5% T=2 R T ) 100 5 2 21 21 A= 1000 (1 + ) = 1000 ( ) = 1102.5 100 20 20 Amount = P (1 +

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C.I. = A P = 1102.5 1000 = 102.5 OR Amount after 1 year = 1000 + 5% of 1000 = 1050 Amount after 2 years = 1050 + 5% of 1050 = 1102.5 C.I. = A P = 1102.5 1000 = 102.5 A person invested 1000 at 20% for a year compounded semi annually. Find the amount he will receive at the end of 1 year. Solution: For this case in which you have compound interest is compounded semi annually, Interest will be applied for every 6 months or half yearly with half rate. P = 1000 T = 1 year R = 10% (per 6 months)

Amount after 6 months = 1000 + 10% of 1000 = 1100 Amount after 1 year = 1100 + 10% of 1100 = 1210

SPEED PROBLEMS
*Distance= Speed x time There are some cases in we have two objects. Case1: When both objects A and B are moving in the same direction. Speed of A= SA Speed of B=SB So, the Case2: Net Speed of the Objects = SA SB.

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When the both objects A and B are moving in the opposite direction or moving towards each other from opposite direction. Speed of A=SA Speed of B= SB

## Net Speed= SA + SB Speed of Stream = Speed of downstream - Speed of the upstream 2

Speed of Boat / man is still water = Speed of downstream + Speed of the upstream 2 In some special cases in which we have two objects and one of them is natural like Air or Stream and the other object is airplane or boat is traveling on a certain route and takes his return journey a same route. S ' t1 t 2 = S t1 + t 2

## We should apply the formula

S= Speed of the natural objects like Air or Stream, S=Speed of boat or airplane (a) A man rows upstream for 3 hours. His speed, in still water is 5 km/hr. he rows the same distance downstream in 2 hours. What is the stream in km/hr? Solution: In this case S= 5 km/hr and S=unknown t1=3 and t2=2

## So put it in the formula S = 3 2 5 3+2

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S= 1 km/hr (b) A plane flying at a constant air speed of 600 mph takes 5 hours to fly from Karachi to Lahore against the wind and 4 hours to fly back from Lahore to Karachi with the wind. What is the wind speed? Solution: In this case S=600 mph and S = unknown Put it in the formula S = 600 54 5+4 t1=5 and t2=4

S = 66.67 mph *A train leaves Lahore to Karachi at 9:30 PM with a speed of 50 km/hr. Another train also leaves Lahore to Karachi at 11:30 PM with a speed of 60 km/hr. How many km from Lahore they will be together? Solution: In this special case you have to find the distance from the initial point where the two objects are traveling in a same direction and the second one is about to catch the first one and they started traveling after a certain gap of time. You should take out the LCM of the two speeds, which are 50 and 60; first train had traveled already 100km before the second train starts its journey therefore they have a gap of 100 km, because they are moving in same direction, the net speed will be the difference of their speed which is 60 50 = 10 km/hr it means that the second one is traveling 10 more km than the 1st train. The difference between them is 100 km and the second train will capture the 1st one in 10 hours. Therefore the total distance covered by the second train in 10 hours will be Distance = Speed x Time = 60 x 10 = 600 km

OR You should take out the LCM of the two speeds, which are 50 and 60 therefore the LCM is 300and the difference of the time leave is 2 hrs. Distance (where the 2nd train will catch the 1st one) =LCM of Speeds x Difference

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## of the time when they leave = 300 x 2 = 600 Km.

Work Problem
Basic Tips: If a man can do a piece of work in 5 days while his wife is able to do the same work in 10 days. If they work together how much time they will take for doing the same work? Solution: Man is more efficient than his wife because he is taking less time than his wife for the same work. If they work together, they are able to finish the whole work in less than 5 days because the man is more efficient and he will do the most part of the work as compare to his wife. First of all we have to evaluate their individual rates or work of one day. Man is able to do the work in 5 days => Rate of man = Wife is able to finish in 10 days => Rate of Wife = 1 10 1 x 1 5

Man + Wife together can finish the work in x days => Rate of Man + Wife = Rate of Man + Wife = 1 x 1 x x = 1 5 Rate of Man + Rate of Wife + 2 +1 = 10 3 1 days 3 1 10 3 10

If 3 men or 6 boys can do a piece of work in 20 days. How many days will 6 men and 8 boys take to do the same work?

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## Solution: Men 3 6 or and Boys 6 8 Days 20 x

For this or and and condition. If you have two categories workers like men and boys make two fractions given as below Men And condition Or condition = Make it reciprocal Which is = 6 3 x 20 1 6 6 therefore your answer is 6 days. + Boys 8 6 x 20

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