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HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT THREATEN THE ECOSYSTEM

1)ILLEGAL HUNTING REDUCING BIODIVERSITY 2)IMPROPER OR UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT 3)IMPROPER HANDLING DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE 4)OVERUSE OF FERTILISER 5)SLASH AND-BURN AGRICULTURAL METHOD 6)ILLEGAL OR EXCESSIVE LOGGING

DEFORESTATION

GLOBAL WARMING

SOIL EROSION

EUTROPHICATION

1)AIR
+ Air pollution is the release of harmful substances in the atmosphere. + Burning of fossil fuels from vehicles and electrical power station-carbon dioxide ,suspended particular matters,carbon monoxide,oxide of nitrogen and hydrocarbon. + Open burning-carbon dioxide and suspended particulate matter,which cause smog and haze + Industrial processes-oxide of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.

2)WATER + Water pollution can be defined as any contamination of water that has
deteriorate its quality to living things + Effluent from industrial and domestic sources + Agricultural waste and run-off + Discharge of untreated sewage + Leaching of heavy metals from underground lead pipes + Oil spills in the sea

3)NOISE
+ Noise pollution can be define as any noise that affect ones health + Vehicles + Aeroplane + Construction sites + Agricultural and industrial machinery

+ According to world health organization(WHO),noises lower than 55 decibels will not affect our health but those higher than 80 decibals may cause deafness in prolonged exposure +Noise pollution could lead to aggravation of certain diseases, such as high blood pressure,heart deseases and headache.

4)THERMAL
+ Thermal pollution is defined as the release of harmful heat in the environment. + Discharge of warm water from industrial cooling system,electric powergenerating plant,reactor system and so on. + Heat reflection from glasswindowed building + Warm water contains less oxygen.main highly mobile aquatic organism will emigrate from the site while those that are less mobile die. + Some organism that can only survive in narrow temperature range also may die as a result of the thermal pollution. + Warm temperature encourages growth of algae that make the water cloudy,causing many other aquatic plants die due to insufficient sunlight explosure.

+the phenomenom of heat trapped by certain gases in atmosphere,causing the rise of surrounding temperature + Example of greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide,methane,oxide of nitrogen,(CFCs) + Two main sources of carbon dioxide pollution are -burning of fossil fuel -deforestation + The correlation between concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global warming is: -Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases.Its absorbs infrared radiation from sunlight and reflect the radiation back on earth. -carbon dioxide generates in a particular area will eventually spread evenly throughout the earth -Increase of carbon dioxide concentration will increase the amoun of heat reflecte back to earth -Hence, the effect of global warming is greater as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increase.

Thinning of ozone layer


-Ultraviolet radiation breaks the bond in CFCs,releasing chlorine atoms -free chlorine atoms reacts with ozone gases (O3)to produce chlorine monoxide and oxygen molecule. -Free oxygen molecule break the bond in chlorine monoxides,giving free chlorine atoms again. -The free chlorine atoms will repeat the process of thinning the ozone layer.

The cause of the thinning of ozone layer -Icreasing concentration of CFCs in the atmosphere.
-CFCs then persist in the ozone layer for a long time and keep removing ozone gases by reacting with them repeatedly. -CFCs have been used as coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators,propellants in aerosols cans,foamblowing agents for polystryne packaging,and solvent for electronic

The effect of global warming and the thining of ozone layer -Change in weather pattern
-Reduce in agricultural output -rising sea level due to melting the polar ice caps -increased damaged effect of ultraviolet radiation as the shield(ozone layer) is thinning.As a result, incidence of cataract and skin cancer increase and organisms are susceptible to diseases due to weakened immune system.

Development Activities And The Ecosystem Importance -To meet the requiarements for increasing population.For example,more lands
are converted to perform agricultural activities in order to supply adequate food to increasing population -To improve the quality of living

Effects of increase in human population -increased food consumption,hence more people are starving.
-Depleted clean water supply -Increased deforestation,and hence reducing biodiversity -Increased environmental pollution problems. -Overfishing in oceans -Depleted energy resources. -Spreading of desease more easily

Measures taken to ensure a balance of nature -Implementation of laws


-Use of technology -Education -Preservation and conservation of soil,water,flora and fauna of forest and mangrove swamps -practice of biological control -use renewable energy -Efficient use energy