Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

Dustin Hosseini LSA 4 Essay Lexis 9 May 2010 Cambridge ESOL Centre 50724

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis

1.

Introduction

In this paper, the main aim is a discussion of teaching and learning of lexis, specically, the importance of knowing word families through derivations, and understanding and being able to use afxes which are added to the root of a word. First, I will discuss knowing a word and then I will move on to analyze briey word families and derivations. Following this, I will present a few ideas for teaching afxation in the classroom. 2. Knowing a word

Knowing a word comprises several factors that a language instructor should consider when teaching new vocabulary (Bishop et al, 2009; Nation, 2003; Schmitt, 2000; Miller, 1999). As an example, I will use the word mug, used in the sense of a common noun, which is ubiquitously found in ofces. Knowing a word involves understanding its: core meaning/denotation: a ceramic drinking vessel with a handle. phonological structure: generally pronounced /mg/ or /mgz/ if plural. orthographic structure: spelled mug if singular, and mugs if plural. part of speech: it is a countable noun. collocational behavior: a mug of coffee; of tea; of hot chocolate; of beer (though less frequent); other collocations include coffee mug, mug tree. register: mug is, perhaps, a widely accepted and contemporary term for almost any drinking vessel with a handle that is made of a ceramic-like material (such as earthenware or stoneware) and that is used for coffee/tea/hot chocolate but without a saucer. grammatical function: mug can be a subject or a direct object, depending on the context (The mug was on the table. I picked up the mug.), but it can also be used with the possessive (The mugs handle is cracked.). synonymy: mug is synonymous with cup (i.e. a cup of coffee) even where an actual cup (slightly smaller than a mug) is not used; another synonym might include stein, though this is chiey used for beer and ale drinks. connotation: used in this sense, mug is neutral and has neither a negative or positive connotation. polysemy: mug today means either its core meaning as above, or more informally (and usually with a negative connotation), a persons face. This is because, possibly, mugs in the past were decorated with hideous faces (OED Online as of March 2010).
$ Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$ 2

As one can see mug is a relatively innocuous word that is often associated with hot drinks (e.g. hot chocolate). However, if learners were to overhear the word mug in a bar/pub, in for example the UK, it might convey a very different meaning: it could mean someones face or a stupid person (ibid), both examples of homonyms. I feel Bishop et al (2009:18) best sums this section up by saying that, [to] know a word is not simply to know its denition. Words are multidimensional and at times have multiple meanings and thus, polysemy and hyponymy. Learners need to know more about a word than merely its denition, as knowledge of that denition is only the rst step in knowing a word. I will now turn to the area of vocabulary that interests me and provide an analysis of this area. 3. Word families and derivations

Bauer and Nation (1993:253) note that a learners morphological knowledge is signicantly related to reading, and they and others (Schmitt, 2000:65) point out that facilitating and clarifying the learners knowledge of the most useful afxes will assist the learner in furthering their development of the morphological knowledge needed to recognize, understand, and use the various related words within a word family. Schmitt and McCarthy (1997:331) dene a word family as the base word or root, its inections, and derivatives (e.g. scan + scanned, scans, scanning, scanner, scannable, rescan). Some educators (ibid) view root and base as synonymous, while linguists call free morphemes base words, and view any part of a word that carries meaning as a root. Inections in English are formed by attaching a sufx to the base word. These [inectional] sufxes change the tense or number of a word or denote a comparison (Bishop et al, 2009:169). One example is -ed, which is used in regular past and past participial forms of verbs (e.g. baked). Derivatives, on the other hand, are formed by adding a sufx (e.g. -ness, -able) to the end of word; this process usually changes the words grammatical function (ibid), for example: happy [adj.] and happiness [noun].
$ Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$ 3

Prexes (e.g. un-) also contribute to word derivation, but are attached to the beginning of a word. Rather than changing the grammatical function, prexes change the meaning: compare start and restart, both are still verbs and but the meaning has changed. Collectively, prexes and sufxes are known as afxes that are added to the root (ibid), which carries the central meaning in a word before afxes are added. A free-standing root (e.g. the word tree) is a free morpheme. When combined with an afx, a root creates a stem, which may or may not be a word; compare: baker, both a word and a stem, and -ceive + er, which is only a stem (Fromkin et al, 2003:80); other afxes can be added to a stem: re-ceive-er-s. If a root cannot stand alone (e.g. dict from dictate or dictation) then this is a bound morpheme. Prexes and sufxes, are examples of bound morphemes that carry meaning, and respectively modify either a words meaning or grammatical function (ibid). The following examples illustrate derivational afxation: prex un [not] un [not] un [not] un [not] + root read (v.) read (v.) read (adj.) read (v.) + sufx able [able to be] able [able to be] sufx ity [state of being] = new word unreadable (adj.) unreadability (n.) unread (adj.) unread* (v.)

As shown above, sufxes usually create new derivations and change the grammatical function, while the prex changes the meaning. However, Harley (2006:124) claims that derivational sufxes do not always change the grammatical function and she presents the example dog [n.] and dogness [n.], and another example is photograph and photographer. Yet the semantic features have changed: dog and photographer are animate nouns, whereas the others are inanimate. Additionally, some combinations are not always possible (e.g. read [v.] and unread* [v.]). Finally, inectional sufxes always come after derivational sufxes (e.g. weaknesses, not weaksness).

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

4.

Implications for the learner

Fromkin et al (2003:82) give a very good example of why derivational afxation merits attention through an example from Lewis Carrolls Alice in Wonderland: I never heard of Uglication, Alice ventured to say. What is it? The Gryphon lifted up both its paws in surprise. Never heard of uglifying! it exclaimed. You know what to beautify is, I suppose? Yes, said Alice, doubtfully: it meanstomakeanything prettier. Well, then, the Gryphon went on, if you don't know what to uglify is, you are a simpleton. Fromkin et al (ibid) suggest that most native speakers of English would understand the meaning of uglication, because they likely know the meaning of the words individual parts, namely the root (ugly) and the afxes (-fy [here denoting a transformation] and -ation [denoting an action], so the act of making something/someone ugly). In contrast, learners of English might struggle with understanding Carrolls words and the afxes of those words, despite potential clues (e.g. beautify) if those learners lack a basic knowledge of afxation. In addition, an inability to distinguish appropriate afxes can cause issues in usage (e.g. cleanliness is possible, but not cleanity). However, as Bishop et al (2009:172) suggest, teaching learners how to recognize and use word parts (morphology) will help learners expand their vocabularies and make guesses. Furthermore, afxations often change the orthographical and phonological structure of a word. A spelling change has occurred (y to i) and the primary stress of the word has moved from the primary position as in ugly to the penultimate as in uglication. Compare:

ugly / gli

uglify gl fa

uglication glf ke n

In addition, secondary stress occurs as a result of stress-shifting (Harley, 2006:163) in uglify and uglication.

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

5.

The L2 learner group

The group consists of 9 students of varying cultural and linguistic background, with L1s including Arabic, Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese, Greek, Italian, Russian, and Spanish. Most of the students wish to enter full time university studies in the U.K. The students range in level between IELTS 5.5-6.0. One key to successful university studies is expanding the learners knowledge of word families and derivatives as greater knowledge of these leads to greater literacy (Bauer and Nation, 1993). The learners currently have problems in recognizing and producing word derivatives, a knowledge of which they require for successful academic performance. Activities that raise awareness, activate subconscious knowledge, and ultimately conscious, productive knowledge of afxation will greatly assist these learners achieve their academic goals. 6. Teaching solutions

All activities are explained in depth; original materials are in the appendices for reference, and are correspondingly listed in relation to the activities (e.g. 6.1 is Appendix 1). 6.1. Semantic maps (borrowed from Bishop et al, 2009:177-9)

One way to raise learner awareness of word families and relationships between words (e.g. spelling changes, meaning) of a family is to create a semantic map of a word. Semantic maps can include inectional and derivational forms, but focus should be on derivations. Doing this will assist in activating the learners subconscious knowledge of vocabulary, and highlight the relationships between words in a family. A suggested procedure: Draw a semantic map on the board (basically a circle with 5-7 lines like a sun). In the circle, write a word (e.g. do, consider). Elicit related words and write them on the board (e.g. redo, reconsider, etc.). Learners discuss the words/relationship between them. Feedback to the class.

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

Alternatively, a pre-lled semantic map could be given to learners. 6.2. Give a pair/group of learners a semantic map with a root (e.g. scrib/script) and some derivatives already labelled (e.g. transcribe, prescription, etc.). Learners discuss word-root relationship. Encourage learners to experiment and contribute other derivatives. Feedback to the class. Whats my rule? (borrowed from Bishop et al, 2009:179-81)

In this activity, a word element, such as a prex or sufx, is chosen for classroom study. Using index cards (sized A6 or 4x6), the teacher writes out the word large enough to be read by students across a classroom. Raising awareness of the prex un- is one example, as it is used both as a prex (unhappy) and as a natural part of other words (uncle). The procedure: 1. The teacher gives one learner a card with a prexed word (e.g. unhappy), says the word, and tells the learner that this word belongs on the north (or whichever appropriate) part of the room. (The student moves to the north side, while holding the card for others to see.) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. As above, but the teacher uses a non-prexed word, and the student moves to the south side of the room. The instructor then repeats either step 1 or 2, giving other learners a card each. After a few words, the teacher simply shows the learners the card, and asks where it should go. In their groups, learners briey discuss and are invited to point where the word should go. The learners explain their choice(s) and attempt to make a rule for their choice (e.g. un- as a prex, and un- as just part of a word). All cards are distributed and learners decide where they go.

The focus could also be the meanings of the prex un-, namely not, as in uncooked and reversal of an action, as in undo. The exercise has a potentially high surrender value: learners consider afxes and their meanings and can apply this knowledge elsewhere in future tasks, especially involving reading.

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

6.3.

Ten important words plus (borrowed from Bishop et al, 2009:151-53).

I feel this activity is a true gem and should form a part of almost any teachers repertoire of vocabulary activities. This activity gets students to read a text and think about the words that carry important meaning (Bishop et al, 2009:151). This activity would greatly help to raise the learners awareness and deepen their knowledge of how words work and relate to each other. Additionally, it allows learners to engage actively language within a text and gives learners a chance to repetitively analyze, discuss, and use potentially new words, thus facilitating the learning of those words and most importantly, their derivatives. The procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select a text relevant to the learners interests. Learners read then summarize the text in a sentence or two. The instructor/learners select(s) several afxable words. Discuss why they chose the selected words. Learners receive a set of colored cards, each specifying a task. 5.1. Example: a blue card asks learners to list all other possible forms of the word (e.g. the word is consider, others might be considerate, considerable, etc.) 5.2. 5.3. Example: a yellow card asks students to list synonyms or words that have a closely related meaning. Other possible tasks: List antonyms or close opposites. Make several sentences with the word, with one relating to the text. List the part of speech of the different forms you created for the blue card. 6. 7. 8. 9. Learners nd others who have their cards and execute the tasks. Learners feedback to the class, sharing ideas. Another afxable word is chosen, and the cycle begins again. Learners exchange cards with other pairs/groups so that the tasks rotate. 5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.3.3.

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

6.4.

Practicing part 3 (Use of English) of newer CAE exams

This last activity involves using reading clozes that focus on Use of English: Part 3 of the CAE exam, as such exercises can facilitate learner understanding of the context in which word derivations occur. Complete CAE, published by Cambridge includes two sections on Use of English: Part 3 (pg. 22, 124) where learners must manipulate the word to t a text. This exercise presents learners a good challenge; they have to look at the context and think about the derivative that best ts in the blank. Looking at the whole text should help learners choose the correct derivation. A suggested procedure: 7. Learners work alone on a reading cloze, guessing the derivative for each blank (e.g. active > activation). Learners compare answers and identify each words part of speech. Learners identify/record any collocations used (e.g. compete > launch a competition). Feedback to the class. Conclusion

Knowing a word is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a challenge to learners and involves more than only knowing the denition of a word. However, equipping the learner with a functional knowledge of afxation and raising awareness of afxes and word derivations can facilitate vocabulary acquisition as well as augment the learners practical knowledge of word families, and consequently vocabulary. This will enable the learner to read and readily understand more complex texts and eventually produce complex derivatives. Thoughtful exercises that enlighten students on aspects of derivational morphology should ultimately lead to greater linguistic competence overall. Word count: 2498

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

8. $ $ $ $

Bibliography pp.253-279. Huntington Beach, California: Shell Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Boston: Thomson Corporation.

Bauer, L. & Nation, P., 1993. Word Families. International Journal of Lexicography, 6(4), Bishop, A., R.H. Yopp, & H.K. Yopp, 2009. Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success. Brook-Hart, G. & S. Haines, 2009. Complete CAE: Students Book with answers. Fromkin, V., R. Rodman, N. Hyams, 2003. An Introduction to Language, Seventh Edition. Harley, H., 2006. English Words: A Linguistic Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. McCarten, J., 2007. Teaching Vocabulary: Lessons from the Corpus, Lessons for the " Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Miller, G.A., 1999. On Knowing a Word. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, pp.1-19. "mug, n.3" OED Online. March 2010. Oxford University Press. 7 May 2010. $ $ " $ $ " $ http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/00317693. Teaching. New York: McGraw Hill, pp.129-153. TESOL, Inc. Press. pedagogy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Nation, I.S.P., 2003. Vocabulary. In D. Nunan (Ed.), Practical English Language Nation, P. (Ed.), 1994. New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary. Alexandria, Virginia: $ Schmitt, N., 2000. Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Schmitt N. & M. McCarthy (Eds.), 1997. Vocabulary: Description, acquisition, and Stahl, S.A. & W.E. Nagy, 2006. Teaching Word Meanings. Mahwah, New Jersey: Thornbury, S., 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Longman. Woodard, L., 2007. Lesson Plan: Improve Comprehension: A Word Game Using Root " $ $ $ Words and Afxes. International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English. Accessed on 15 April 2010 from $ $ $

http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/improve-comprehension-word-game-1042.html

Yopp, R.H. & H.K. Yopp, 2007. Ten Important Words Plus: A Strategy for Building Word Knowledge. The Reading Teacher, 61(2), pp. 157-160.

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

10

Appendix 1 From Bishop, A., R.H. Yopp, & H.K. Yopp, 2009. Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success. Huntington Beach, California: Shell Education.

3. Find a Partner
Students are each given a large card on which the teacher has written morphemes, one per card. At the teachers signal, students circulate around the room and find a student with whom they can make a good match. Students stand in their pairs until all students find a partner, and then they share their matches with the group. For instance, if the teacher is working with compound words, cards might include sun, shine, moon, light, down, hill, finger, print, flood, light, fog, horn, foot, ball, hair, cut, home, work, out, house, over, and eat. If the teacher is working with Latin word roots and their definitions, cards might include struct, build, port, carry, spect, see, tract, pull, ped, foot, mis, send, min, little, ject, throw, gress, and walk. You may wish to have students work in groups of three or four. Perhaps you want students to identify words with a common root, and so you have them find classmates whose words contain the same root. Cards might include astronomy, astronomer, astronaut, microphone, telephone, phonics, symphony, import, export, portable, transport, visible, vision, and supervise. Students are likely to find the activity related to this strategy more interesting than drawing lines between words on paper. Further, it gives students the opportunity to talk with one another about their words as they circulate and again as they share their matches with other groups.

4. Semantic Maps
Raising students awareness of the relationships among words assists students as they begin to understand how to unlock their meanings. For some students, it comes as a bit of a surprise that words are related. One of the authors recalls the time her fifth-grade son asked her how to spell finally. When he was told that the word is related to final, he experienced an Aha moment and spelled the word

Shell Education

#50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success

177

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

11

Appendix 1 continued

instantly. Many students have used and read two related words such as final and finally, but they may not have ever explicitly thought about them as relatives. Semantic Maps are useful tools for helping students think about the relationships among words. Semantic Maps are created by placing one word or word element in a circle in the center of a sheet of paper, chart, or board. Students then brainstorm other words that contain that word or word part. Figure 6.6 shows a Semantic Map for the word do, and figure 6.7 shows a Semantic Map for the word run.
FIGURE 6.6 Semantic Map for do

redo

doable

doing

do

does

undo
FIGURE 6.7 Semantic Map for run

dont running

outrun

run

runs

rerun

runner

178

#50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success

Shell Education

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

12

Appendix 1 continued

Figure 6.8 shows a Semantic Map for the Latin root scrib/script. Surrounding the root are words students recognize as containing the root. Students then discuss how each of their words is related to the meaning of scrib/script. A manuscript is a written document; to transcribe is to make a written copy; a prescription is a written order for medicine, and so on.
FIGURE 6.8 Semantic Map for scrib/script

manuscript

transcription

scrib/script

transcribe

scriptures

5. Whats My Rule?
In this strategy, students examine words to try to determine the rule the teacher is using to sort them. After identifying a word element he or she wants the students to learn, the teacher records sample words such as those listed in figure 6.9 on cards large enough to be seen by the entire class from the front of the room. The teacher gives a word card, perhaps undecided, to a student, says the word, and tells the student that the word belongs on the north side of the room (pick any location). The student moves to that location in the room and holds the card for his or her classmates to see. The teacher gives another student the word card uncle and says, This card belongs on the south side of the room. The student moves to the side of the room opposite from where the first student is standing. The teacher distributes several more word cards, pronounces the words for the students, and tells each student on which side of the room to stand. The teacher does not share his or her rule for sorting the words. After several examples, the
Shell Education #50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success 179

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

13

Appendix 2 From Bishop, A., R.H. Yopp, & H.K. Yopp, 2009. Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success. Huntington Beach, California: Shell Education.

Figure 6.8 shows a Semantic Map for the Latin root scrib/script. Surrounding the root are words students recognize as containing the root. Students then discuss how each of their words is related to the meaning of scrib/script. A manuscript is a written document; to transcribe is to make a written copy; a prescription is a written order for medicine, and so on.
FIGURE 6.8 Semantic Map for scrib/script

manuscript

transcription

scrib/script

transcribe

scriptures

5. Whats My Rule?
In this strategy, students examine words to try to determine the rule the teacher is using to sort them. After identifying a word element he or she wants the students to learn, the teacher records sample words such as those listed in figure 6.9 on cards large enough to be seen by the entire class from the front of the room. The teacher gives a word card, perhaps undecided, to a student, says the word, and tells the student that the word belongs on the north side of the room (pick any location). The student moves to that location in the room and holds the card for his or her classmates to see. The teacher gives another student the word card uncle and says, This card belongs on the south side of the room. The student moves to the side of the room opposite from where the first student is standing. The teacher distributes several more word cards, pronounces the words for the students, and tells each student on which side of the room to stand. The teacher does not share his or her rule for sorting the words. After several examples, the
Shell Education #50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success 179

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

14

Appendix 2 continued

teacher shows the next card and asks the students to confer with a neighbor and point to the side of the room where they think the word belongs. The teacher then invites explanations for their decisions and asks for hypotheses about his or her rule, providing a few more examples as necessary. He or she guides the students to the conclusion that the words on the north side of the room all use un- as a prefix. The words on the other side of the room start with the letters un, but the letters do not function as a prefix in those words. The remainder of the cards are distributed, and the students holding them move to the appropriate sides of the room.
FIGURE 6.9 Words that begin with un-

Un- Used as a Prex undecided unavoidable unhappy unfriendly unafraid unclean unwise unwilling unfortunately

Un- Not Used as a Prex uncle until understand underwater union United States under unit unique

To develop students understanding of the two meanings of the prefix un-, the teacher might use the words listed in figure 6.10. Again, the teacher tells the students holding cards on which side of the room to stand. The teachers rule is that when un- is used to mean not, the students stand on the right. When un- indicates the reversal of an action, the students stand on the left. Students carefully study the words to determine the two meanings of the prefix.
180 #50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success Shell Education

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

15

Appendix 2 continued

FIGURE 6.10 Two meanings of the pre x un-

Not unfair unbroken uncertain unbelievable unaware unbeaten uneven unfamiliar unexpected

Reversal of an Action unbend untie uncap unbutton unlock unroll

Concept-attainment lessons such as these guide students to carefully examine words to determine what they have in common and how they differ. Students think about word structure and word meanings and develop new hypotheses with each additional piece of information until they have enough information to draw an accurate conclusion. It is important for students to see all the words that have been sorted so they can revise their thinking as the lesson progresses. An alternative to having students hold the cards is to use tape or magnets to post them on the board in the front of the room.

6. Word Sorts
We described word sorts in Chapter 5 as a way to reinforce and extend understanding of target words. Sorts are also useful for helping students think about word parts. Here we describe an open sort, one in which the students are free to sort words according to any criterion they choose. The students, and not the teacher, determine the basis for the initial sorting of the words. Ultimately, however,
Shell Education #50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success 181

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

16

Appendix 3 From Bishop, A., R.H. Yopp, & H.K. Yopp, 2009. Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success. Huntington Beach, California: Shell Education.

yelled at a major. The courage (or foolishness) displayed by the corporal who shouted at a superior officer became transparent. (The linear array she correctly generated was, from lowest to highest rank, as follows: corporal, captain, major, colonel, general.)

5. Ten Important Words Plus


An enhancement of the Ten Important Words strategy described in Chapter 4, Ten Important Words Plus furthers student thinking about words that carry important meaning in a text (H. K. Yopp and Yopp 2007; R. H. Yopp and Yopp 2007). After students write a summary sentence, the teacher or students select several words for discussion. The teacher distributes colored cards that contain different tasks, and students meet with two or three peers who are holding cards of the same color. For example, the teacher might select the word population from a reading about the impact of humans on the environment. The task on the blue card reads, Think of as many other forms of this word as you can. For example, forms of happy include happiness, happiest, unhappy. Students with blue cards meet in small groups to generate a response to this task and prepare to share their answer with the entire class. Simultaneously, students with yellow cards prepare a response to the task, List synonyms for the word or words highly related in meaning. Students with green cards prepare a response to the task, Generate sentences in which you use the word. One sentence should relate to the content of the text. Other sentences should use the word in a different context. Additional tasks might include the following: List antonyms or close opposites. Identify where you might expect to see or hear this word. Be specific. For example, you might expect

Shell Education

#50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success

151

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

17

Appendix 3 continued

to find the word sparkling in an advertisement for jewelry. Where else? Use a dictionary and share a definition or definitions of the word. Note multiple meanings, if any. Draw a picture that conveys the meaning of the word. Act out the word. Create a semantic map of the word, displaying it in relation to other words of your choice. Share a connection between this word and something in your life. Return to the text and find one or more sentences in which the word is used. Explain the meaning of the sentence(s) you find. Comment on any text clues the author provided to make the meaning clear. Each small group of students shares its responses with the class, and then another word from the reading is selected. Students again discuss the task in their small groups and share their responses with the whole class. After the students have completed the same task with two or three different words, the teacher asks them to exchange cards with someone who has a different color. This gives students an opportunity to meet with different students and complete a different task. Teachers must remember that not all words are a good match for all tasks. For example, it might be difficult for students to generate different forms of some words or identify synonyms for other words. Sometimes we put two tasks on a colored card, one on the front and one on the back, and instruct students to complete the task on the front for the first word we assign and the task on the back for the second if it is a more appropriate task for the word.
152 #50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success Shell Education

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

18

Appendix 3 continued

Ten Important Words Plus actively engages students in thinking and talking about words, their meanings, and the contexts in which they are used. Students read the words, identify those words that are significant to the content of the text, talk about them, write sentences, and then examine them in finer ways through the Plus portion of the Ten Important Words Plus strategy. We have found this strategy to provide rich experiences with words that enhance students understanding of the words as well as their understanding of the text in which they were found.

Using Words
In addition to thoughtful introduction to words followed by multiple exposures to them, students need many opportunities and reasons to apply words they are learning. Because it is unlikely that students will spontaneously begin to use new words, the teacher must structure experiences that necessitate their use.

1. Oral Presentations
One way to prompt the use of new words is to ask students to prepare presentations related to the content in which the words are embedded. For example, if students learned the words fault, fold, and wave in their study of earthquakes, assigning them to prepare and deliver oral presentations about topics related to earthquakes will prompt them to use both general academic and specialized content vocabulary. Students will review the material, prepare their presentations, rehearse them, and then present them. At each stage of the process, they think about and utilize the target words. Asking them to include visuals in their presentations, such as diagrams and illustrations, further supports their understanding of the words and will reinforce their classmates understanding as well. Presentations can take several forms, including electronic presentations (such as PowerPoint), readers theater presentations, and speeches.

Shell Education

#50266Vocabulary Instruction for Academic Success

153

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

19

Appendix 4 From Brook-Hart, G. & S. Haines, 2009. Complete CAE: Students Book with answers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

20

Appendix 4 continued

Dustin Hosseini - Centre 50724 - LSA 4 Essay: Lexis$

21