[Type text] Characteristics of living things: 1. Movement- the matter evacuated 2.

Reproduction- the sexual or asexual process by which organisms generate new individuals of the same kind; procreation. 3. Sensitivity- the state, condition, or quality of reacting or being sensitive to an external stimulus, drug, allergen, etc. 4. Growth- An increase in the size of an organism or part of an organism, usually as a result of an increase in the number of cells. Growth of an organism may stop at maturity, as in the case of humans and other mammals, or it may continue throughout life, as in many plants. In humans, certain body parts, like hair and nails, continue to grow throughout life. 5. Respiration- the process in living organisms of taking in oxygen from the surroundings

and giving out carbon dioxide (external respiration). In terrestrial animals this is effected by breathing air in the other hand the chemical breakdown of complex organic substances, such as carbohydrates and fats, that takes place in the cells and tissues of animals and plants, during which energy is released and carbon dioxide produced (internal respiration)
6. Nutrients- any of the mineral substances that are absorbed by the roots of plants for nourishment 7. Excretion- The act or process of discharging waste matter from the blood, tissues, or organs.

Biology-is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Main Branches of Biology:
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Aerobiology- the study of airborne organic particles Agriculture- the study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications Anatomy- the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans Arachnology- the study of arachnids Astrobiology- bthe study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe— also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy Biochemistry- the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level Bioengineering- the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology Biogeography- the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally Bioinformatics- the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology- the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling

from zygote to full structure Ecology — the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment Embryology — the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth). with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics Biomedical research — the study of the human body in health and disease Biophysics — the study of biological processes through physics. including genetic modification and synthetic biology Building biology — the study of the indoor living environment Botany — the study of plants Cell biology — the study of the cell as a complete unit.often considered a branch of medicine. natural ecosystems. or restoration of the natural environment. as a whole or in a particular area.[Type text]                               Biomechanics. some cross over with biochemistry Mycology — the study of fungi Neurobiology — the study of the nervous system. and other living beings Microbiology — the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things Molecular Biology — the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level. See also topobiology. vegetation. and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell Conservation Biology — the study of the preservation. especially as affected by human activity Epidemiology — a major component of public health research. plants. including anatomy. a microscopic branch of anatomy Ichthyology — the study of fish Integrative biology — the study of whole organisms Limnology — the study of inland waters Mammalogy — the study of mammals Marine Biology — the study of ocean ecosystems. and wildlife Cryobiology — the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings. studying factors affecting the health of populations Epigenetics — the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence Ethology — the study of animal behavior Evolutionary Biology — the study of the origin and descent of species over time Genetics — the study of genes and heredity Herpetology — the study of reptiles and amphibians Histology — the study of cells and tissues. protection. the study of the mechanics of living beings. Entomology — the study of insects Environmental Biology — the study of the natural world. animals. physiology and pathology . Developmental biology — the study of the processes through which an organism forms. by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences Biotechnology — a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter.

and the causes. Organs with systems. 5. environment. 3. 2. weather. including classification.are the recognizable. nature.consist of population of many different species. such as the nervous systems. Molecules and Atoms. processes. physiology.are made up of atoms cells are built of molecules. Cells. .are many types are the working components of living organisms. A multicellular organism is made up of organs and organs system. 7. Tissue. development. including virus or mutation oncogenesis. including o Population ecology — the study of how population dynamics and extinction o Population genetics — the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms Paleontology — the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life Pathobiology or pathology — the study of diseases. Organisms. and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines Physiology — the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Phytopathology — the study of plant diseases Psychobiology — the study of the biological bases of psychology Sociobiology — the study of the biological bases of sociology Structural biology — a branch of molecular biology. 4.is a group of many organisms of the same species. and behavior Level of Organization of life: 1. Population. and other aspects influencing the ocean Oncology — the study of cancer processes. including ocean life. biochemistry.[Type text]                Oceanography — the study of the ocean. and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules Virology — the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents Zoology — the study of animals. 6. and development of disease Parasitology — the study of parasites and parasitism Pharmacology — the study and practical application of preparation. Organs.a group of many cells with similar and coordinated functions (such as sensing odors). Communities. angiogenesis and tissues remoldings Ornithology — the study of birds Population biology — the study of groups of conspecific organisms. self-contained individual. use.combined several tissues that function together. geography.

2. as well as his Nobel Prize winning discovery of the Kreb cycle (also known as citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle). Changed world perspective on origin of species.[Type text] 5 Local Scientist of Biology: 1. Tested with pea plants to establish basic laws for genetics. considered a precursor of modern biotechnology . Watson & Crick: Two scientists who together discovered the shape of the DNA as being double helix. 4.Gregor Mendel: Considered to be the father of genetics. Hans Adolf Krebs: First to describe urea cycle. Louis Pasteur: Among few of the scientists along with Francesco Redi to disprove spontaneous generation. Charles Darwin: Theory of evolution and natural selection. 5. 3. 5 International scientist of Biology: Rudolph Virchow-developed the cell theory and applied it to explain the causes of diseases Aaron Klug-famous for his investigations on the three-dimensional structure of some viruses and chromatin Carl Linne-known as the father of taxonomy Ivan Pavlov-discovery of the "conditioned reflex" Artturi Virtanen-famous for his studies about fermentations and applications to human and animal nutrition.

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