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An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls.

An embedded system has specific requirements and performs pre-defined tasks, unlike a general-purpose personal computer.

An embedded system is a programmed hardware device. A programmable hardware chip is the 'raw material' and it is programmed with particular applications. This is to be understood in comparison to older systems with full functional hardware or systems with general purpose hardware and externally loaded software. Embedded systems are a combination of hardware and software which facilitates mass production and variety of application A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as in the case of an anti lock braking system in a car. * EMBEDDED SYSTEM is a combination of SOFTWARE and HARDWARE. * An Embedded system is a system, that has a computing device embedded into it. * These are the controllers, processors, arrays or other hardware using dedicated (embedded) logic or programming

(code) called firmware or a microkernel * Embedded systems are designed around a C which integrates Memory & Peripherals Embedded systems: What are they? A special purpose computer built into a larger device Special-purpose Embedded systems have a (more or less) well-defined purpose Contrast with: general purpose computers (PCs etc) Built into a larger device Embedded systems are (usually) part of a larger device, augmenting its capabilities WHY EMBEDDED SYSTEMS It is EMBEDDED because the Micro Controller is inside some other system. For Example a Micro Controller is EMBEDDED into your TV, car, or appliance The consumer need not think about how to make it perform or process

* Avoids lots of Electronics Components * Built in rich Features * Reduces the cost, space * Less Down Time for Maintenance * Probability of Failure is reduced * Easy interface with Computers CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM Sophisticated functionality Real-Time Operation Low Manufacturing Cost Low Power Consumption Eliminates Necessity of Complex Circuitry Smarter Products Smaller Size User Friendly State of the Art Technology Four General Embedded Systems Types General Computing Applications similar to desktop computing, but in an embedded package Video games, set- top boxes, wearable computers, automatic tellers Control Systems Closed- loop feedback control of real- time system Vehicle engines, chemical processes, nuclear power, flight control Signal Processing Computations involving large data streams Radar, Sonar, video compression Communication & Networking Switching and information transmission Telephone system, Internet FEATURES OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM Real-Time Operation Reactive: computations must occur in response to external events Correctness is partially a function of time Small Size, Low Weight

Hand- held electronics and Transportation applications -- weight costs money Low Power Battery power for 8+ hours (laptops often last only 2 hours) Harsh environment Heat, vibration, shock, power fluctuations, RF interference, lightning, corrosion

Safety- critical operation Must function correctly and cost Must not function in correctly sensitivity


* SYSTEM CLOCK - Steps C / P Through Each Instruction * READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM): Permanently Loaded With Instructions (FIRMWARE) * RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) * STORES DATA IN PROCESSING / SHARES DATA WITH EXTERNAL PARTNERS * REAL TIME CLOCK (RTC) * COMMUNICATIONS CIRCUITRY - Ethernet Port, Printer Port, Communications Port (RS232c, RS485, RS422,

IEEE488) EXAMPLES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Automatic Teller Machines or ATM's & Bank Vaults

Automotive & Automobile Engine Management systems: Electronic Dashboards, ABS brakes, transmission

controls. heart Supervisory Control and Blue Control Computer Global Tooth Systems enabled Network Synchronization Cryogenics, (BIOS and Electric chips, Navigation Applications Power) RTCs) Systems Appliances etc. Acquisition (SCADA) systems (Manufacturing, motherboards Positioning Household monitors, Data

Controls for Digital Equipment: CD Players, TV Remote, Programmable Sprinklers, Household Appliances, etc.

Medical instruments controls - CT scanners, MRI Scanners, ECG, Pacemakers and implanted pumps, implanted

Telecommunications (Private Branch Exchanges, Custom Premises Equipment) EMBEDDED - DESIGN METHODOLOGIES * A procedure for designing a system * Understanding your methodology helps you ensure you didnt skip anything. * Compilers, software engineering tools, computer-aided design (CAD) tools, etc., can be used to: help automate methodology steps;

keep track of the methodology itself. EMBEDDED DESIGN GOALS Performance. Overall speed, deadlines. Functionality and user interface. Manufacturing cost. Power consumption. Other requirements (physical size, etc.)

TYPICAL EMBEDDED SYSTEM HARDWARE COMMERCIAL OFF-THE-SHELF COMPONENTS (COTS) e.g. wireless radios, sensors, I/O devices, Cheap APPLICATION-SPECIFIC ICS (ASICS) ICs tailored to meet application needs, Good performance for their intended task(s), Original Ess were ASICs only DOMAIN-SPECIFIC PROCESSORS DSPs Microcontrollers Digital Signal Controllers Microprocessors

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS - EARLY HISTORY Late 1940s: MIT Whirlwind computer was designed for real-time operations. Originally designed to control an aircraft simulator. First microprocessor was Intel 4004 in early 1970s. HP-35 calculator used several chips to implement a microprocessor in 1972. Automobiles used microprocessor - based engine controllers starting in 1970s. Control fuel/air mixture, engine timing, etc. Multiple modes of operation: warm-up, cruise, hill climbing, etc. Provides lower emissions, better fuel efficiency.



Microcontroller is a highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller. Typically, this includes a CPU, RAM, some form of ROM, I/O ports, and timers. A Microcontroller is designed a very Atmel, specific task to control PIC, a particular Maxim, system. Motorola As a result, the parts can be simplified and reduced, which cuts down on production costs Microchip


The Digital Signal Controller (DSC) is a powerful 16-bit (data) modified Harvard RISC machine that combines

the control advantages of a high performance 16-bit Microcontroller (MCU) with the high computation speed of a fully implemented digital signal processor (DSP) to produce a tightly coupled single-chip single-instruction stream solution * DSP & RTOS for Microchip embedded dsPIC, systems Texas design. Instruments

Specialized digital microprocessor used to efficiently and rapidly perform calculations on digitized signals that originally Analog analog Devices, in form Texas (eg voice) Instruments The big advantage of DSP lies in the programmability of the processor, allowing parameters to be easily changed



Very large-scale integration, the process of placing thousands (or hundreds of thousands) of electronic on all modern chips employ VLSI a architectures, or ULSI single (ultra large scale chip. integration) Nearly


Altera, Cypress, Cirrus Logic, Xilinx TYPES OF MICRO CONTROLLER More than 140 Types of Micro Controllers Available Some of the examples are .., Microchip PIC, dsPIC, rfPIC Atmel AVR, ARM, 89cxx Analog Devices Texas Instruments ST Microcontrollers Zilog, Cypress, Maxim, Dallas, Motorola, etc.,

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS IN TODAYS WORLD SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS - Real-Time Video, Set-top Boxes, DVD Players, Medical Equipment, Residential Gateways DISTRIBUTED CONTROL Network Routers, Switches, Firewalls, Mass Transit Systems, Elevators

SMALL SYSTEMS - Mobile Phones, Pagers, Home Appliances, Toys, Smart Cards, MP3 players, PDAs, Digital Cameras, Sensors, Smart Badges

BENEFITS State Eliminates


EMBEDDED necessity Smarter Smaller Lower User of the of

CONTROL complex

DESIGN circuitry products size cost friendly



FUTURE OF EMBEDDED CONTROL Intelligent products are used everyday - Mobile Phones, Printers, Washing Machines, Microwave Ovens, Water Air Conditioners etc. New generation Embedded Control will include Internet connectivity, RF controls & Blue Tooth.




OPPORTUNITIES Hardware Software Device



AREAS Design Design Driver


CONTROL Engineer Engineer Developer Developer Engineer Programmer

Kernel Network RTOS Software Engineer in Research &






EMBEDDED AXES CG Converge Future



APPLICATIONS technologies Smith Labs Software IBM LUCENT MASCON


Telematics Visteon WIPRO TCS Infosys



and so on



NEW TRENDS IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM H/W Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in LCD/CRT Systems-on-chip 32-bit interfaces DMA, interfaces Built-in interfaces New to to interrupt disk SOCs Usual (or RISC RAM and or appearing Ethernet/802.11 almost every and timing flash desired) specs: CPU ROM controllers memory interfaces week!

Examples Intel StrongARM SA-1110, Motorola PowerPC MPC823e NEC VR4181 Many, many more

EMBEDDED SOFTWARE PROPERTIES TIMELINESS Need However, Time: RTOSes often But: even to with Physical find systematically reduce the removed characterization computation infinitely fast computers, time that processes abstractions from of a theories task to would regain a does still evolve of single number take have to be of dealt over control computation (its priority) time with time time! Timeliness Concurrency Liveness Interfaces Heterogeneity Reactivity

CONCURRENCY Cons: FSM Pros: Too One In Challenge: Classic the reconcile physical sequentially But: approach: Estrel: based, Higly static for compile world, of (semaphores, multiple software with the etc) monitors things happen of the good away provide at real once world foundation insufficient (Estrel) language behavior programs some systems



potentially concurrency synchronous/reactive deterministic reliable

LIVENESS Correctness Must consider





Programs isnt things like just timing,

must about power getting consumption, fault the

not right security final and

terminate no answer robustness

Unlike the traditional Turing model of computation, halting is undesirableDeadlock is an absolute norecovery,

REACTIVITY Fault-tolerance can be a major issue react continuously Must Resources and with adapt demands Real-time Transform a data input react at their own speed to Interactive (or a Reactive environment, to may at the changing change same the data speed output of the (e.g. controlling matrix Transformational systems: human) systems multiplication) systems speed conditions frequently constraints Safety-critical