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History of the Senate

Introduction The Spanish Period (1521-1898) The Malolos Congress (1898-1900) Philippine Commission (1900-1916) Philippine Assembly (1907-1916) Philippine Legislature (1916-1935) Commonwealth Congress (1935-1946) Congress of the Philippines (1946-1972) Present Congress of the Philippines

The legislature in any society performs the important function of deliberating policies for the people and passing them in the form of statutes. Although the Philippine Legislature was organized only in 1916, it had deep roots in the past. Long before the Spanish rulers came to the Philippines, the people in their barangays were already governed by a set of rules by their chief. Over the long span of Spanish and American rule, various forms of legislative structures were set up to perpetuate the colonial rulers desire to rule the country. The Filipinos, just like other colonized people, fought for independence from colonial rule. During this struggle, they also recognized the critical role that a legislature could play in the movement for independence. After the victory over Spain, they established the Malolos Congress, based on their Constitution. The Philippine Legislature, composed of the Philippine Senate and the House of Representatives, was created under the Philippine Autonomy Act, popularly known as the Jones Law, which was passed by the Congress of the United States and became law on August 29, 1916. It served as the legislative body of the Philippines from October 1916 to November 1935, until it was succeeded by the National Assembly upon the inauguration on November 15, 1935 of the Commonwealth provided in the Constitution of the Philippines. With independence from America in 1946, the legislature was called the Philippine Congress which shared governmental powers with the executive and the judiciary. In 1972, the President declared martial law and Congress was abolished. The bloodless coup of February 22-25, 1986, brought forth a new regime and restored the bicameral congress which is the present set-up of the Philippine Legislature.
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The Spanish Period (1521- 1898)

Under the Spanish rule, the legislative powers were shared by three entities: (1) the GovernorGeneral who could promulgate executive decrees, edicts or ordinances with the force of the law; (2) the Royal Audencia, which passed laws in the form of autos accordados; and (3) the Crown of Spain acting through its councils. Serving as chief legislator was a governor-general who was assisted by two advisory bodies where he stood as president. The other entity exercising legislative powers in the Philippines was the Royal Audencia which was the Spanish Supreme Court in the Philippines. The governorgeneral also stood as the president of this body. Many historians observed, however, that the legislative function during the Spanish period was monopolized by a set of interlocking bodies, where the Chief Legislator, the governor-general, exercising unbounded powers, also stood as president and member of other bodies which were supposed to advise him. Filipino representation was also largely absent in the legislative bodies.
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The Malolos Congress (1898-1900)

In the closing years of the Spanish regime, the revolutionary government of Emilio Aguinaldo inaugurated a Congress on September 15, 1898, at the Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan. This Congress was later on referred to as the Malolos Congress. The Malolos Congress, also known as the Assembly of Representatives, was the lawmaking body of the First Republic. It was a unicameral body composed of representatives, one-third of who were chosen by the officials of the municipalities under the control of the Revolutionary Government, and the others appointed by Aguinaldo to represent the areas under the American Army which could not send delegates. The Malolos Congress is best remembered for framing the Malolos Constitution. The functions and powers of the legislative branch of the First Republic was defined and enumerated by the Malolos Charter as follows: 1. To watch over the interest of the Philippine people; 2. To carry out the revolutionary laws and discuss the vote upon said laws; 3. To discuss and approve treaties and loans; and 4. To examine and approve the accounts presented annually by the Secretary of Finance, as well as extraordinary and other taxes which may be here-after imposed."

Barasoain Church

Several reasons prompted the creation and convening of the Malolos Congress. Primarily, it was established to attract the countrys elitethe intellectuals and the wealthyto join the revolution. Secondly, the creation of a representative government was given primarily to make good impression on foreign powers. A popular Assembly was deemed necessary in order to enhance the image of the new Republic. The delegates to the Congress constituted the cream of the countrys professionals and intellectuals. An official directory of the Malolos Assembly of Representatives listed a total of 201 members who had served the body at one time or another. Most historians, however, have placed the Assembly membership at only 130. The Assembly, despite time constraints, turned out to be a prolific legislature. Its first official act was the ratification of the Act of Declaration of Independence on September 29, 1898. It also passed a number of important laws designed to protect the new Republic from incursions of foreigners and to protect the local business and labor. With the outbreak of the Philippine-American War in February, 1899, the Assemblys activities were hampered by the emergency situation.
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Philippine Commission (1900- 1916)

When the U.S. assumed sovereignty over the Philip-pines after the Spanish-American War, a military government was set up, with the military governor exercising executive, legislative and judicial powers. In 1901, however, the legislative powers hitherto exercised by the military governor were transferred to the Philippine Commission. The legislative body was the Philippine Commission created by the President of the United States in his capacity as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, which act was later ratified by the U.S. Congress in the Philippine Bill of 1902. This body served as the sole legislative body of the Philippines until 1907 when the First Philippine Assembly was convened and created pursuant to the Philippine Bill of 1902. The members of the Philippine Commission were appointed by the U.S. President with the consent of the U.S. Senate, while those of the Philippine Assembly were elected by qualified electors in their respective representative districts into which the country was divided. The presiding officer of the Philippine Commission was also the head of government himself the American governor-general. Its membership, starting in 1901, consisted of five Americans and three Filipinos. Then in 1913, there were five locals to only four Americans. The Commission commenced its legislative work on September 1, 1900, or barely three months after the civil government was established in the Philippines. It started with only five members, all Americans. The original members appointed by the U.S. President were Judge William Taft, chairman; and Dr. Dean Worcester, Mr. Luke Wright, Mr. Henry Ide, and Prof. Bernard Moses, members. It was only in 1913 when the Filipinos finally obtained numerical majority in what was now a nine-man legislative body. This was made possible after Woodrow Wilson was elected president of the United States. The new president, through his new appointed Governor-General Francis Burton

Harrison, assured the Filipinos that his administration would take steps to assure them of a majority in the appointive Commission. Other well-known Filipinos who were later tapped to serve the body were Gregorio Araneta, Juan Sumulong and Rafael Palma. This was maintained up to 1916, when it was replaced by the Philippine Senate, as provided for by the Jones Law. As a legislative body, the Philippine Commission wielded broad powers and discharged vital functions. These included the power to make rules and orders having the effect of law, for raising revenue by means of taxes, customs and import duties. It also appropriated and spent public funds. It also enacted pieces of legislation largely of general application such as those establishing the countrys civil service system and judicial network, organizing the Philippine Constabulary and the police and creating the insular bureaus and offices, municipal and provincial governments.
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Philippine Assembly (1907- 1916)

The Philippine Assembly was convened at the old Manila Grand Opera House on October 16, 1907. Two dominant political groupsthe Partido Nacionalista and Partido Nacional Progresista vied for positions in the Assembly. Minority parties also fielded their candidates as well as independent aspirants. The NP, the party that espoused immediate and complete independence headed by Sergio Osmea, captured majority of the 80 seat Assembly. However, a situation of conflict prevailed, for the legislative arm of government consisted of an elective Assembly composed of Filipinos and an appointive Commission (later to become the Senate), the majority of the members of which were Americans. Such conflicts, however, came to an end when the legislative powers were vested by the Jones Law in a bicameral legislature composed exclusively of Filipinos. From 1907 to 1916, the legislative power was vested in a legislature, with the Philippine Commission as the upper house and the Philippine Assembly as the lower house thereof. Pursuant to the provisions of the Jones Law, the legislative set-up was changed. The Philippine Commission was abolished and the Philippine Legislature, inaugurated on October 16, 1916, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives was established. Thus, the history of Philippine Senate can be traced in relative term from the time the Americans colonized our country.
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Philippine Legislature (1916- 1935)

The Philippine Legislature, in whom legislative powers were vested, was a bicameral legislative body composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Jones Law gave the Philippine Legislature general legislative powers, with limitations that all laws affecting immigration, currency, coinage or tariff and those pertaining to lands of

public domain, timber, mining are subject to the approval of the President of the United States of America. It also gave the Filipinos greater participation in government through the power of confirmation over the appointments of officers in the Executive and Judicial branches of the government.
During its 19-year existence the country went through seven elections from 1916 to 1934to elect members of both chambers of the Legislature. In the first election, on the first Tuesday of October 1916, two senators were elected from each of the 12 senatorial districtsone for a term of six years; the other for three years. In the subsequent general elections, there was to be elected from each district one senator for six years. There were two appointive members for the Senate who were designated by the American governor-general to represent the non-Christian areas of the Archipelago. The elective Representatives served for three years, while the Senators, except half of the 22 who won in the first senatorial race in 1916, had a six-year tenure. The 24-man Philippine Senate was represented by two Senators from each of the 12 senatorial districts into which the country was divided. Eleven of the districts were represented by Senators elected by qualified voters in their respective bailiwicks. The twelfth senatorial district, which was then generally inhabited by non-Christian Filipinos, was represented by two appointive Senators who had no fixed terms. The two appointive Senators were Joaquin A. Clarin and Jadji Butu representing the provinces in Mindanao, Mountain province and Baguio from 1916 to 1918, with the latter only being reappointed in 1926. Altogether, there were 67 Senators who served in the Philippine Senate at one time or another from 1916 to 1935. Over half of these senior solons were reelected at least once. A number of them were elected several times, as in the case of Manuel L. Quezon who repeatedly served as Senator from 1916 to 1935, when he assumed the Presidency of the Philippine Commonwealth. Senate President Pro Tempore Sergio Osmea who was first elected Senator in 1922 was also a multi-term Senator who later emerged as Vice-President. Leadership at the top of the Senate hierarchy was quite firm during its existence through the strong stewardship of Senate President Quezon. Reelected three times in a row, he lorded it over the Senate since its founding and relinquished it only when he became President of the Commonwealth. During its existence, the Philippine Legislature enacted altogether 1,619 laws, covering all subjects of legislation, except foreign affairs. The Philippine Legislature closed its career in the service of our people to pave the way for the final preparations for the framing and adoption of the Philippine Constitution and the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, which were conditions precedent for the attainment of our political independence. On May 1, 1934, it accepted the Tydings-McDuffie Law, which authorized the framing of the Philippine Constitution. back to top

Commonwealth Congress (1935- 1946)

The birth of the Commonwealth of the Philippines ushered another change in the legislative system when a uni-cameral National Assembly was convened as provided in the 1935 Constitution. But the return to unicameralism was short-lived. By virtue of a constitutional amendment in 1940, a twochamber Congress was restored. In accordance with the constitutional amendment of 1940, the Legislature returned to its pre-Commonwealth structure with the restoration of the Senate. Thus in the November, 1941 polls, more aspirants figured in what could be considered as the first synchronized balloting of the country. Elected together with re-electionist President Quezon and Vice-President Sergio Osmea, the Nacionalista Senate bets swamped the opposition. The NP candidates garnered not only the 24 senatorial seats at stake but also 70 of the 89 Lower House slots. Of the 24 senators-elect, the first eight placers were to serve for 6 years, the next eight for 4 years and the last eight for 2 years. After the war, though, a number of those who were to serve for fewer years went on to assume their posts when Congress convened in June 1945. A number of top placers were not able to report for duty partly because some of them were charged or had died. When the two chambers finally got organized in June 1945, the election of officers was given top priority. Senator Manuel A. Roxas, who had ranked second in the 1941 senatorial elections, was elected Senate President, while Senator Elpidio Quirino was chosen President Pro Tempore. On January 4, 1946, the Congress met again in a special session to discuss the first postwar general elections. Three months lateron April 23, 1946that law-making body gave way to the First Congress of the Third Republic. back to top

Congress of the Philippines (1946- 1972) The post-Independence Congress became the first legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. That Congress first members were elected during the dying days of the Commonwealth in 1946, and the last barely a year before it gave way to martial law that ushered in the dictatorship in 1973. All told, that legislature consisted of seven Congresses of four years each except the final one, which lasted for only two years. Like its immediate predecessor that emerged following the first amendments of the 1935 Constitution, the Congress of the Philippines had a Senate and a House of Representatives. The members of the Senate were elected at large or nationwide, unlike their predecessors who were elected by regions for a term of 6 years. The Senate was composed of 24 members elected by qualified voters of the country. Certain qualifications

were required for an individual to become a senator: he had to be a natural-born citizen, 35 years of age upon election to the Senate, a qualified voter and a resident of the Philippines for at least 2 years prior to his election. The election of the First Congress16 for the Senate and 104 for the Housetook place on April 23, 1946. The Liberal Party captured nine of the 16 senatorial seats. The rest went to the Nacionalista candidates and their allies. Senator Jose Avelino of Samar was elected as Senate President at that time. In the 1947 polls, six LP betsLorenzo Taada, Vicente Madrigal, Geronima Pecson, Emiliano Tirona, Fernando Lopez and Pablo Davidwere elected. Only two NPs were elected, namely, Camilo Osias and Eulogio Rodriguez. However, a bitter rivalry ensued between newly installed President Elpidio Quirino and LP Senate President Avelino over party presidential nomination for the 1949 national elections. Although the Senate was dominated by the Avelino Wing, with 11 members including himself, the Quirino LPs joined forces with the NPs to oust Avelino as Senate President in early 1949. Senator Mariano Jesus Cuenco replaced Avelino. Altogether, from 1949 to 1971, the last polls before the exit of that Congress, the political leadership shifted from one major political party to the other in both chambers. The Congress of the Philippines followed a certain schedule for the session of both houses. They commenced their regular sessions every fourth Monday of January, although this could be changed as Congress saw fit. Every Congress had four regular sessions lasting for 100 days, excluding Sundays. Special sessions could also be called by the President to tackle major bills left unfinished during regular sessions. Among the powers exercised by the Senate were: 1. Ratification of treaties entered into by the Executive; and 2. Confirmation of appointments made by the President. The shifting of leadership in the Senate was quite active during this period. The power struggle started during the First Congress where Senate President Avelino, together with Melecio Arranz as President Pro Tempore, was ousted from the Senate helm four years later. In the Second Congress (1950-1953), Avelino tried to bounce back but Senator Mariano Cuenco replaced him for good following the formers expulsion from the top. When the Nacionalistas returned to power with Ramon Magsaysays overwhelming victory in the 1953 presidential elections, Eulogio Rodriguez of Rizal assumed the Senate presidency for the first time and remained as its President for nearly a decade. In the Fifth Congress, LP President Ferdinand E. Marcos, who had been elected Senator a few years earlier, toppled Rodrigue from the Senate presidency. Senator Arturo Tolentino of Manila took over from Marcos in 1966. In the 7th Congress, fellow NP Senator Gil J. Puyat of Pampanga and Manila assumed the Senate helm until it was abolished in early 1973. back to top

Present Congress of the Philippines

The 1972 Constitution abolished the bicameral legislature and in its stead established a unicameral body under a parliamentary government. The legislative bodies created during the martial law were the Batasang Bayan, the Interim Batasang Bayan and the Batasang Pambansa. When the popular people power or EDSA revolution broke out in February, 1986, Corazon Aquino was installed as the new President. She issued a proclamation creating a Constitutional Commission to draft a new Constitution for the Philippines. The said commission convened on June 1, 1986, and finished its work on October 15, 1986. A plebiscite, held on February 7, 1987, overwhelmingly ratified the present 1987 Constitution. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with the bicameral congress of the Philippines. Section 1, Article VI of the 1987 Constitution provides as follows:

The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines, which shall consist of the Senate and the House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum.
The present Congress is actually a reincarnation of the Senate of the Philippines under the 1940 amendment to the 1935 Constitution. As mandated by the new constitution, the upper chamber is composed of 24 members elected at large, who serve a term of six years. Senators cannot serve beyond two consecutive terms. The Senate of the 15th Congress is currently headed by Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile, Pro Tempore Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada, Majority Leader Vicente C. Sotto III and Minority Leader Allan Peter "Compaero" S. Cayetano. It has thirty-six (36) permanent committees and five (5) Oversight committees to fuel the wheels of the legislative mill. The Senate or any of its committees may conduct formal inquiries or investigations in aid of legislation. The committees are classified into: (1) standing or permanent; (2) special or ad hoc; (3) joint; and (4) sub. Subcommittees are created to parcel the work of standing or special committees. The "special" committees are created for a particular purpose and dissolved after accomplishing such purpose. Joint committees are those that include members of both houses. The following Senators have, at one time or another assumed the Senate helm: Manuel L. Quezon, 1916-1935; Manuel A. Roxas, 1945-1946; Jose Avelino, 1946-1949; Mariano Jesus Cuenco, 1949-1951; Eulogio Rodriguez, 1952-1963; Ferdinand Marcos, 1963-1965; Arturo Tolentino, 1966-1967; Gil J. Puyat, 1967-1973; Jovito Salonga, 1987-1992; Edgardo J. Angara, January 1993 - August 1995; Ernesto M. Maceda, October 1996 - January 1998; Neptali A. Gonzales, January 1992 - 1993; August 1995 - October 1996 and January 1998 to June 1998; Marcelo B. Fernan, July 1998 to July 1999; Blas F. Ople, July 1999 to April 2000; Franklin M. Drilon, April to November 2000; Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr., November 2000 to July 2001; Franklin M. Drilon, July 2001 to July 2006; Manny Villar, July 2006 to November 2008; and Juan Ponce Enrile, November 2008 to presesnt.

Source: Pastrana and Raval, Essentials and Dynamics of the Senate, 2001; Update of the Legislative Group 2001



When the Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. On March 19, 1812, theConstitution of Cadiz was approved, which led to the colony's first representatives at the Cortes in September 24, 1812 by Pedro Perez de Tagle and Jose Manuel Coretto. However, with Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, his brother Joseph Bonaparte was removed the Spanish throne, and the Cadiz Constitution was rejected by the Cortes on May 24, 1816 with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Illustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century. [edit]Revolutionary


The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the 1899 Constitution of the Philippines. With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish sold the Philippines to theUnited States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the PhilippineAmerican War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured on 1901. [edit]American


When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights. The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then Speaker Sergio Osmea and then Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. [edit]Commonwealth

and Second Republic era

The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution, aside from instituting the Commonwealth which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II intervened. The invading Japanese set up the Second Philippine Republic and convened its own National Assembly. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same set up will continue until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946. [edit]Independent


Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree. As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; on 1973, the Constitution was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the Batasang Pambansa in a parliamentary system of government. The parliament elected a prime minister. The Batasang Pambansa first convened on 1978. Marcos was overthrown after the 1986 People Power Revolution; President Corazon Aquino then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a constitutional commission that drafted a new constitution. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened on 1987. [edit]Summary In operation




Upper house

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Appointment by the President of the United States

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Philippine Commission


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Philippine Commission

Philippine Assembly


Philippine Autonomy Act

Philippine Legislature



House of Representatives


1935 Constitution

National Assembly Unicameral

National Assembly


1943 Constitution

National Assembly Unicameral

National Assembly


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Commonwealth Congress



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House of


never convened

1973 Constitution

National Assembly Unicameral

National Assembly


Amendments to the 1973 Constitution

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1987 present

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House of Representatives

Since Philippine legislature came into existence in 1898, it has repeatedly shifted back and forth between unicameral and bicameral form, thus alternately abolishing and reinstating the upper house of the Philippine Legislature. During Spanish times, legislative powers were exercised by the Crown of Spain acting through its councils, the Royal Audiencia or Spanish Supreme Court, and the Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines. Usually the Spanish Governor-Generals legislative powers were unbounded and Filipinos did not have a voice in the creation of the laws governing them. The Malolos Congress of the First Philippine Republic of 1898-1899, responsible for the creation of the first republican constitution in Asia, theMalolos Constitution, was a unicameral legislature. So was the Philippine Commission, the members of which were appointed by the President of the United States of America. It existed from September 1900 to October 1907, after the 1898 Treaty of Paris where Spain ceded thePhilippines to the United States for 20 million dollars. For the first time, the upper house of the legislature came into being when this unicameral Philippine Commission later evolved into thebicameral, or two-chamber, Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House, created through the mandate of the Philippine Bill of 1902 and inaugurated in October 1907. In this legislature, the members of the lower house were elected by qualified voters in their respective districts while the members of the upper house were appointed by the U.S. President with the consent of the U.S. Senate. The presiding officer of the Philippine Commission was the American governor-general. At first, membership of the Philippine Commission consisted of five Americans and only three Filipinos. Later, however, in 1913, after Woodrow Wilsonbecame U.S. President, there were five Filipinos and only four Americans. In 1916, the Jones Law or the Philippine Autonomy Act made some changes by establishing a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate and composed exclusively of Filipinos. Under this Legislature, there were twenty-four senators, two from each of twelve

senatorial districts. Eleven of these districts elected their own senators. In the first senatorial elections, each district elected two senators, one for a term of six years, the other for a term of three years, and then thereafter elected one senator each election for a term of six years. The twelfth district represented the nonChristian portions of the archipelago. Its Senators did not have fixed terms and were appointed by the American governor-general. Thirteen years later, in 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie Law authorized the framing of the Philippine Constitution. The next year, in 1935, the Senate was effectively abolished in a shift back to unicameralism when the 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly. This lasted scarcely five years, because in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of aHouse of Representatives and a Senate was again adopted. Of the twenty-four senators elected in November 1941, the first eight placers were to serve for six years, the next eight for four years, and the last eight for two years. However, during the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945, Congress was not able to convene. It was only reinstated upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines in 1946 after the Second World War, when Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. On the other hand, the 1973 Constitution abolished the bicameral Congress and created another unicameral legislature, the Batasang Pambansa, under a parliamentary system of government. After the EDSA People Power Revolution of February 1986 which ousted President Ferdinand E. Marcos, the 1987 Constitution restored thepresidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines, effectively reincarnating the Senate. Although there no longer are any senatorial districts and the Senators are now elected at large, the Senate still has twenty-four members.

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Notable Senators
See List of Senators of the Philippines. Philippine Commission (1900-1916) and Philippine Legislature (1916-1935) Manuel L. Quezon, first Senate President, lobbied for a nationally-elected senate established in 1940. Claro M. Recto, (1931-1935, 1942-1946, 1950-1953, 1955-1957, 1958-1960) former senator and statesman Fermin Torralba, (1931-1935) Visayan senator & Senate Secretary during the Early Philippine Republic. Lorenzo Taada, (1947-1953) statesman Vicente Sotto, (1946-1953) The acknowledged "Father " of Cebuano journalism,literature and language, author of The Sotto Law (RA 53), or the "Press Freedom Law". Gil J. Puyat,(1951-1973) statesman Cipriano P. Primicias, Sr., (1951-1963) statesman, Majority Floor Leader and Member of The Council of State, 1953-1963 Arturo Tolentino, (1957-1972) former Philippine vice-president Ferdinand E. Marcos, (1959-1965) former Philippine president Jovito Salonga, (1966-1973, 1987-1992)three-time top elected senator, Marcos opposition leader, former PCGG Chairman. Benigno Aquino, Jr., (1966-1973) Marcos opposition leader and husband of Philippine PresidentCorazon C. Aquino, elected Senator at age 34, making him the youngest ever to be elected to the position Senate of the Philippines under the 1987 Constitution (1987-Present) Senate of the Philippine Congress (Post World War II) (1946-1972)

Raul Manglapus, (1987-1992) former Minister of Foreign Affairs and former presidential candidate, labeled by a columnist the best President we never had [2] Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., (1987-1992, 1998-Present) activist and current Senator Juan Ponce Enrile, (1987-1992, 1995-2001, 2004-Present) former Minister of National Defense under Marcos and current Senator. Joseph Ejercito Estrada, (1987-1992) former Philippine president, first President to be convicted of plunder Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (1992-1998), current Philippine president Blas Ople, (1992-2004) former Director-General of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and former Secretary of Foreign Affairs Miriam Defensor Santiago, (1995-2001, 2004-present) former presidential candidate and current Senator. Manuel Villar, (2001-present) former House Speaker and Senate President Luisa Ejercito Estrada, (2001-2007) the first First Lady to win a seat in the Senate, wife of a former Senator and President. Antonio Trillanes IV (2007-2013)first Senator elected while incarcerated [edit]

Controversial Senate bills and decisions

1992 vote to remove U.S. Bases from the Philippines RP-US Visiting Forces Agreement

See also Top 10 Most Memorable Moments in the Philippine Congress. [edit]

Officers of the Senate

The presiding officer of the Senate is the President, who is the third highest official in the Philippine government and second in line after the Vice President to serve as Acting President in case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President of the Philippines. The other officers of the Senate are the President Pro Tempore, the Secretary, and the Sergeant-at-Arms. All the officers are elected by majority vote of all its members. The President presides over the session; decides on all questions of order; signs all measures, memorials, joint and concurrent resolutions, writs, warrants and subpoenas issued by or upon order of the House; appoints, suspends, dismisses or disciplines House personnel; maintains order; designate an Acting Sergeant-at-Arms if the Sergeant-at-Arms resigns, is replaced, or becomes incapacitated; and exercises administrative functions. The President Pro Tempore acts as President of the Senate when the President is absent or temporarily incapacitated. If the Senate President resigns, dies, is removed or becomes absolutely incapacitated, the President Pro Tempore serves as Acting President until a new President is elected. If the President or President Pro Tempore are both temporarily absent, the Majority Leader, or after

him the Assistant Majority Leader, or any member designated by the President, shall discharge the powers and duties of the President. The Secretary prepares the Order of Business of the Senate for the inaugural session of Congress; opens the first session whenever there is no President nor a President Pro Tempore; keeps the records of the Senate and certifies them; has custody of the official seal of the Senate; appoints (whenever expressly authorized by the Senate), oversees, disciplines and recommends the dismissal of Senate personnel; and performs such other duties as are inherent in his office. The Sergeant-at-Arms is the custodian of the Mace of the Senate and is responsible for security and maintenance of order within the Senate. He serves summons issued by the Senate or its committees or by the President and oversees, disciplines and recommends the dismissal of his subordinates. If the Secretary is temporarily absent or incapacitated, the Deputy Secretary for Legislation acts as Secretary; in the case of the Sergeant-at-Arms, the President designates a person to temporarily serve as such. Manuel L. Quezon served as Senator and Senate President from 1916-1935. He relinquished his post only when he became President of thePhilippine Commonwealth. Sergio Osmea, first elected Senator in 1922, also served multiple terms and later became Vice President. The Senate of the 14th Congress is currently headed by President [Juan Ponce Enrile]], President Pro Tempore Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada, Majority Leader Francis N. Pangilinan and Minority Leader Aquilino Q. Pimentel, Jr. [edit]

Presidents of the Philippine Senate (1907-Present)

Senate of the Philippine Legislature 1916-1935 Manuel L. Quezon

Senate of the Philippine Congress (Post World War II) 1945-1946 Manuel A. Roxas 1946-1949 Jose Avelino 1949-1951 Mariano Jesus Cuenco 1952-1963 Eulogio Rodriguez 1963-1965 Ferdinand E. Marcos 1966-1967 Arturo Tolentino 1967-1973 Gil J. Puyat

Senate of the Philippines under the 1987 Constitution 1987-1992 Jovito Salonga January 1992-1993 Neptali A. Gonzales January 1993 August 1995 Edgardo J. Angara August 1995 October 1996 Neptali A. Gonzales

October1996 January 1998 Ernesto M. Maceda January 1998 June 1998 Neptali A. Gonzales July 1998 July 1999 - Marcelo B. Fernan July 1999 April 2000 Blas F. Ople April 2000 November 2000 Franklin M. Drilon November 2000 July 2001 Aquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. July 2001 July 2006 Franklin M. Drilon July 2006 November 2008 Manuel Villar Jr. November 2008 - Present - Juan Ponce Enrile [edit]

Location of Office Headquarters

The official headquarters of the Philippine Senate is located on Roxas Boulevard, Pasay City, Metro Manila. [edit] [edit]

The Senatorial Office

Qualifications for Election of Senators

To be able to run for office as a Senator, a person should be a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at least thirty-five years old on the day of the election, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election. The candidate should be at least thirty-five years old on the day of the election itself, not on the day of filing for candidacy or the day of proclamation of winners by the board of canvassers. His "residence", on the other hand, is that place where he habitually resides and where he has the intention of returning after his absence. [edit]

Term of Office of Senators

Senators are elected to six-year terms, and may be reelected to a maximum of two consecutive terms. If a Senator voluntarily renounces, or gives up, his office for any length of time, he is still considered to be in office for that length of time until the end of his term. He cannot use that length of time that he was not holding that office as an excuse to run for a fourth term. The first election of Senators under the 1987 Constitution was held on the second Monday of May, May 11, 1987, and the elected Senators served until June 30, 1992. Of the twenty four Senators elected in the 1992 elections, the ones obtaining the twelve highest number of votes served for six years, or until 1998, while the other twelve served for three years, or until 1995. After 1992, twelve Senators are elected every three years, and each Senator serves a full six-year term. The terms are staggered to fill twelve seats every three years in order to fulfill the intent of the framers of the Constitution that the Senate should be a continuing parliamentary body. The staggered terms are to ensure that the Senate will never be entirely vacated at any time and that there will be senior Senators to act as mentors of the new ones.

The Senate is a continuing body which does not cease to exist upon the periodical dissolution of the Congress or of the House of Representatives. Arnault vs. Nazareno (1950) [edit]

Powers, Privileges, Immunities and Prohibitions

Powers In addition to the general powers of Congress, the Senate or any of its Committees has the power to conduct inquiries in aid of legislation and to cite or punish for contempt in connection with proceedings for these inquiries. The Senate also has the exclusive power to ratify treaties. Privileges Salaries

Sec. 17 of Article XVIII of the Constitution of the Philippines provides: Until the Congress provides otherwise, the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos; the Vice-President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, two hundred forty thousand pesos each; the Senators, the members of the House of Representatives, the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and the Chairmen of the Constitutional Commissions, two hundred four thousand pesos each; and the Members of the Constitutional Commissions, one hundred eighty thousand pesos each. However, under a resolution of Congress, Senators are now Salary Grade 33 with a monthly equivalent rate of Php35,0000 while the Senate President is Salary Grade 34 with a monthly equivalent rate of Php40,000 [1]. Under the Constitution, an increase in the salaries of the members of Congress shall take effect only after the expiration of the the full terms of all the members of Congress who approved such increase. Also, members of Congress are required to disclose their annual allowances and expenditures, and all the books of accounts of Congress are required to be open to public inspection and to be audited by the Commission on Audit. Franking Privilege

Sections 1 and 2 of Republic Act No. 69 provide that: All mail matter of Senators and of members of the House of Representatives of the Philippines, addressed for delivery within the Philippines, shall be received, transmitted and delivered in the mails of the Philippines free of postage: Provided, That each such mail matter when addressed to persons or offices other than government officers or offices shall not exceed one hundred and twenty grams in weight.

The envelope or wrapper of such mail matter shall bear on the left upper corner the name and official designation of the official sending the mail matter, and the words "Senate of the Philippines," or "House of Representatives," as the case may be, and on the right upper corner the words "Penalty for private or unauthorized use to avoid payment of postage, P500.00." Immunities

Senators are immune from arrest for all offenses punishable by not more than six years as long as Congress is in session. Also, they cannot be held liable outside Congress for any speech or debate made in Congress or in any of its committees. Prohibitions

To avoid conflicts of interest and undue influence, Senators are prohibited from appearing as counsel before any court of Justice, Electoral Tribunal, or quasi-judicial or any other administrative bodies, and they may not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government. They are also prohibited from having any financial interest in any contract, franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, including government-owned and controlled corporations and their subsidiaries, and they may not hold any other incompatible offices in the government, including government-owned and controlled corporations and their subsidiaries, during their terms of office. (Article VI of the Constitution of the Philippines) [edit]

Senate Committees

The Senate of the 14th Congress has thirty-six (36) permanent committees and five (5) Oversight committees, any of which may conduct formal inquiries or investigations in aid of legislation. These committees are classified into: (1) standing or permanent; (2) special or ad hoc; (3) joint; and (4) sub. "Special" committees are created for a particular purpose and dissolved after accomplishing such purpose, while joint committees are those that include members of both houses. Subcommittees, on the other hand, are created to parcel the work of standing or special committees. See list of Philippine Senate committees [edit]

Senators of the 14th Congress of the Philippines

Officers Senators Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile. Senate President Pro Tempore Jose Pimentel Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada Majority Leader Francis Kiko Pangilinan Minority Leader Aquilino Nene Q. Pimentel Jr.

Edgardo J. Angara Benigno Simeon Noynoy Aquino III Joker P. Arroyo Rodolfo G. Biazon Alan Peter S. Cayetano Pia S. Cayetano Miriam Defensor-Santiago Francis Joseph Chiz G. Escudero Richard Dick Gordon Gregorio Gringo B. Honasan Panfilo Ping M. Lacson Manuel Lito M. Lapid Loren B. Legarda Maria Ana Consuelo Abad Santos Jamby Madrigal Valade Ramon Bong Revilla Jr. Manuel Mar A. Roxas II Antonio Sonny Magdalo F. Trillanes IV Manuel "Manny" Villar Juan Miguel Migz F. Zubiri

There is a vacant senatorial position created after the 2007 elections because Senator Alfredo Fred Lim had been elected and accepted the position of City Mayor of Manila. [edit]

Results of the Latest Senatorial Election

See [election results as of August 8, 2007 6:00 PM, posted on the COMELEC website] [edit] [edit]

See also
List of Senators of the Philippines Politics of the Philippines Floor leaders of the Senate of the Philippines President of the Senate of the Philippines President pro tempore of the Senate of the Philippines Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines Minority leader of the Senate of the Philippines Deputy Speakers of the Philippine House of Representatives Senatorial districts of the Philippines


1. 2.

/ Constitution of the Philippines. Article VI, Legislative Department / Manila Bulletin Online. Article quoting Rafael Salas.

Senate Presidents

Manuel L. Quezon Manuel A. Roxas Jose D. Avelino Mariano Jesus L. Cuenco Quintin B. Paredes Camilo O. Osias Eulogio A. Rodriguez, Sr. Jose C. Zulueta Ferdinand E. Marcos Arturo M. Tolentino Gil J. Puyat Jovito R. Salonga Neptali A. Gonzales Edgardo J. Angara Ernesto M. Maceda Marcelo B. Fernan Blas F. Ople Aquilino Q.Pimentel, Jr. Franklin M. Drilon Manny Villar

(1916-1935) (1945-1946) (1946-1949) (1949-1951) (1952) (1952 & 1953) (1952-1963) (1953) (1963-1965) (1966-1967) (1967-1972) (1987-1991) (1992-93, 95-96, 98) (1993-1995) (1996-1998) (1998-1999) (1999-2000) (2000-2001) (2000, 2001-2006) (2006-Present)

Manuel Luis Quezon

Manuel Luis Quezon was born on August 19, 1878 in Baler, Tayabas (now Quezon), to Lucio Quezon, a native of Paco, Manila and Maria Dolores Molina.He studied law at the University of Sto. Tomas and passed the bar examinations in 1903. He became the fiscal of his home province and was soon elected governor.In the 1907 election, he ran for the Philippine Assembly under the Nacionalista Party, won by a large majority, and became the majority floor leader. In 1909, he was elected Resident Commissioner to Washington, D.C., a post he held until 1916. His most significant achievement was the passage of the Jones Act that provided for the grant of Philippine independence.He was elected senator in 1916 and eventually became Senate President. He headed the first Independence Mission to the U.S. Congress, and brought home the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Law in 1934. The Star of Baler shone as the First President of the Commonwealth after his brilliant performance as the First Senate President. He was steadfast in his vision to deliver the masses from the shackles of colonialism which intensified his efforts to secure independence for his country. Such vision culminated in the establishment of political stability within the framework of the 1935 Constitution, the formulation of policies to ensure the social well-being of the people, and the adjustment of the national economy to the challenges of independent nationhood. He was a dynamic Filipino leader and a true friend of the poor and the oppressed whom he loved and cared so well. Quezon is one of the most illustrious sons our country has ever produced. Quezon was married to Aurora Aragon and had four children. He died on August 1, 1944 in Saranac Lake, New York.

Manuel A. Roxas

Manuel A. Roxas, the third of the Quezon Osmea triumvirate credited with the struggle for Philippine independence from the American regime, was born on January 1, 1892 in Capiz, Capiz, now Roxas City. His parents were Gerardo Roxas and Rosario Acua.Roxas took up a law course at the University of the Philippines where he graduated in 1913 and topped the bar examinations.He became a provincial governor in the days of the Commonwealth, and was later

elected to sit at the House of Representatives. On his first term, he was chosen Speaker of the body. As member of the various independence missions, Roxas contributed greatly to the laying of the foundations of the Philippine independence, as well as to its attainment.When the Pacific War broke out, he displayed more of his multi-faceted characters when he volunteered for military service in defense of the country.During the Japanese Occupation he refused to cooperate with the Japanese military forces by faking illness and evading major services. Still, he served in various other tasks in the interest of the Filipinos. When Congress convened for its post-war session, Roxas was elected Senate President. During his term, he displayed profound statesmanship and intelligence, making his mark as a master of economics. He was among the seven wise men who drew up the Constitutional Convention and accordingly became the last of the Commonwealth presidents and the first for the Republic of the Philippines. An undisputed pillar of Philippine democracy, his selfless dedication to his countrys political and economic development is a timeless virtue worthy of emulation even by succeeding generations. Roxas died in Clark Field on March 15, 1948. His widow was the former Trinidad de Leon whom he left with two children.

Jose D. Avelino
Jose D. Avelino was born in Calbayog, Samar on August 5, 1890. His parents were Alfonsa Dera and Baltazar Avelino.Avelino pursued a Bachelor of Arts degree at the Ateneo de Manila and then went to the University of the Philippines where he graduated with a degree in Bachelor of Laws. In 1934, he was admitted to the Philippine bar and was conferred with a degree of Master of Laws by the University of Santo Tomas. Avelino was a municipal councilor in his hometown of Calbayog from 1917 to 1919. After two years, he was elected representative of the first district of Samar in the house of Representatives. He served in that capacity until 1928. In the same year, Avelino won a seat in the Senate where he represented the ninth senatorial district from 1928 to 1934. He won a second term and during the tenth Philippine Legislature, he served as Majority Floor Leader. With his sharp argumentative prowess, he won the respect of his colleagues for which they elected him President Pro-Tempore and later as Senate President. Through the turbulent postwar years when the administration was subjected to upheaval, Avelino strove to lead the Senate through the straits of reconstruction with vigilance and a strong political will. Avelino retired from public life and devoted himself to the practice of law until his death.

Mariano Jesus L. Cuenco

Senator Mariano Jesus L. Cuenco was born in Carmen, Cebu on January 16, 1888 to Mariano A. Cuenco and Remedios Lopez. He studied at the Colegio de San Carlos of Cebu where he graduated in 1904 with a degree in Bachelor of Arts. He finished law in 1911 at the Escuela de Derecho ( later became the Manila Law School ) and passed the bar examinations in 1913. He entered politics in 1912 when he was elected to the Philippine Assembly representing the fifth district of Cebu. He was re-elected from 1916 to 1928. He ran for the governorship of Cebu in 1931 and became the President of the League of Provincial Governors of the Philippines. In 1934, he was elected delegate to the Constitutional Convention where he was chosen floor leader.Cuenco was Secretary of Public Works and Communications from 1936 to 1939. He was also

appointed Acting Secretary of the agriculture, commerce and labor departments while serving as Secretary of Public Works and Communications in 1938. In 1941, Cuenco was elected Senator and reelected in 1946. From 1949 to 1951, he served as Senate President and Chairman of the Commission on Appointments. His term paved the way for many reforms and his significant contributions resulted in a more efficient legislative body. He continued serving the Senate from 1953 to 1965.` Cuenco was also known as a prolific writer. He was the editor of the Spanish language newspaper El Precursor of Cebu for many years. In 1926, he became a member of the Academia Filipina Correspondiente de la Real Espaola de la Lengua. He was honored by the Spanish government with the decoration Gran Cruz de Isabela la Catolica and by the Holy See with the decoration Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice. Cuenco also wrote in Visayan. Ang Republikang Pilipinhon, Codigo and Roma are among his works.

Quintin B. Paredes
Lawyer, legislator, and statesman, Quintin B. Paredes was born to Juan Felix Paredes and Regine Babila in Bangued, Abra on September 9, 1884. He obtained his elementary education at the school his father had established. He also studied at the Colegio Seminario de Vigan and at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He pursued law at the Escuela de Leyes. He had degrees in Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Laws and Master of Arts. He took and passed the bar examinations in 1906.For the next two years, he practiced law privately, until he was designated Deputy Fiscal of the City of Manila in 1908, and he was promoted to the position of First Assistant City Fiscal in 1930. He also taught Criminal Law at the Escuela de Derecho from 1909 to 1911, and served as its Director from 1911 to 1917. In 1916, after eight years of exemplary service in government, he became Manila City Fiscal. When the municipal government was reorganized the following year, he was asked to join the Bureau of Justice. In 1918, he was named Attorney General. Two years later, in 1920, he was designated Secretary of Justice, and served in this distinguished office until 1921, when he returned to private practice. Paredes joined the parliamentary mission to the United States in 1919. While there, he practiced his profession in the U.S. Supreme Court. He was elected Representative of Abra and reelected in 1929, during which he served as Acting Speaker of the House of Representatives. For his outstanding performance, he was chosen to represent Abra until 1934. From 1933 to 1934, he served as Speaker Pro-Tempore. He was elected to the National Assembly of the Commonwealth Government in September 1935, but resigned in the same year to serve as the Filipino Resident Commissioner to Washington, D.C. On November 8, 1938, after his return to the Philippines, he was reelected Assemblyman and became the Majority Floor Leader. During the war, he served on the Laurel Cabinet as Minister of Public Works and Communications. In the transition period after the war, Paredes was accused of collaboration and treason, along with President Laurel and the rest of Japanese backed Cabinet on January 28, 1948. Two years after the trial began in 1946, Manuel Roxas, first elected President of the two year Philippine Republic, granted them amnesty. Paredes joined the senatorial race in 1949 and won. He duplicated his feat years later in the 1955 elections. At the Senate, he was voted, initially, President Pro-Tempore, and later as Senate President. His industriousness and perseverance made him a most efficient and dedicated public official, thereby instituting a more effective Senate during his term. He retired from public service at the age of 79 in 1963 and served as President and ViceChairman of the General Bank and Trust Company. He died on January 30, 1973.

Camilo O. Osias
This educator-writer from the North was one of the rare and grand old men of the Philippines who displayed vigorously intellect, a tremendous drive and a passion for independence. Osias was born in Balaoan, La Union on March 28, 1889. His parents were Manuel Osias and Gregoria Olaviano. He studied in Balaoan, La Union; Vigan, Ilocos Sur and San Fernando, La Union before he was chosen as one of the government scholars to be sent to the United States. He received his teachers diploma from the Illinois State Teachers College in 1905. He went on to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree at Columbia University where he also received his graduate diploma in administration and supervision. His public service, particularly in the field of education, has earned for him recognition from Otterbein College in Ohio, United States, which awarded him an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1934, and from the National University which gave him an honorary degree of Doctor of Pedagogy in 1961.Osias rose from being a classroom teacher to being the first Filipino division superintendent of schools. He also became the first president of the National University. A prolific writer, Osias authored such well-known books as Philippine Readers, The Filipino Way of Life, the prize winning Jose Rizal : His life and Times and countless other books and articles, a majority of which were on his favorite subject Rizal. He also translated many of the heros major and minor works into English and Ilocano. He was a member of the first Independence Mission to the United States in 1921. In 1929, he went to the United States as resident commissioner to the US Congress until 1935, working zealously for the Independence Bill. As a delegate to the Philippine Constitutional Convention of 1934 for the first district of La Union, he actively participated in committee work and debates on the floor. As legislator and Constitutional Convention delegate, Osias was an outstanding champion of academic freedom and civil liberties which he considered as the true foundation of democratic policy. He was elected senator for the second senatorial district in 1925. Since then, he had been elected several times to the Legislature --- assemblyman in 1935; senator-at-large in 1947 during which he topped the list of winning senatorial candidates; and again as senator in 1961. Osias always advocated a fair, just and equitable allocation of membership in committees he chaired. His contributions to the government still carry his personality --- the pipe-smoking, gleaming-eyed and impeccably eloquent image of the Filipino as a statesman. He died on May 20, 1976.

Eulogio A. Rodriguez, Sr.

Eulogio Amang Rodriguez was born in Montalban, Rizal on January 21, 1883. He was the eldest son of Petronilo Rodriguez and Monica Adona. He had seven children by his first wife, Juana Santiago, namely Eulogio, Jr., Jose, Ruperto, Leonor, Isidro, Constancio and Adelaida. With his second wife, Luisita Canoy, he had three children, namely, Baby, Linda and Rafael. Amang as he was popularly called, first studied at the Spanish-run public school in Montalban, Rizal, then took his secondary course at the San Juan de Letran in Manila, where he completed his Bachelor of Arts in 1896. Eulogio Amang Rodriguez was Municipal President of Montalban, Rizal from 1906-1916; became Governor of Rizal in June 1916; and was reelected in June 1922. He was appointed Mayor of Manila by Governor General Leonard Wood on July 23, 1923, and later served as Representative of Nueva

Vizcaya District from February 1924 to May 1925. He became the Representative of the Second District of Rizal in 1925 and was reelected in 1931 and 1934. He was also appointed Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce by Governor Frank Murphy on July 26, 1934, re-appointed by President Manuel Quezon on January 15, 1940, and served as such until August 28, 1941. After his resignation as Mayor of Manila, he campaigned for a seat in the Senate and was elected senator in 1941. On May 20, 1953, he was elected Senate President, a position he occupied for the next ten years. Amang started his career in politics as a Democrata or a member of the opposition party, and not until there was a general realignment of parties due to the divisive struggle over the approval of the Independence Law in 1933, did he switch to the majority or the Nacionalista Party, to which he remained faithful until the day of his death three decades later. He nursed the party during its darkest hours, and steered it successfully through the political reefs and typhoons that rocked the local scene, thus earning for him the sobriquet Mr. Nacionalista. Unlike so many others, he did not switch parties for personal convenience. As a legislator, he always supported measures improving the lot of common man, for he knew that the upgrading of the masses was the best way of retaining democracy in the country. Many were sometimes politically at odds with him, but they always found him to be a reasonable opponent who played clean in a game known for its mendacity and unpricipled moves. A man of integrity, who played fair even with his opponents, and who could be generous in victory, Eulogio Amang Rodriguez was a man, a politician and a public official of sterling attributes.

jose zulueta

Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand E. Marcos was born on September 11, 1917 in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte. His parents, Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, were both teachers.From 1923 to 1929, he attended the Sarrat Central School, Shamrock Elementary School in Laoag and the Ermita Elementary School in Manila. He finished high school and liberal arts course at the University of the Philippines. While still a student, he was commissioned as third lieutenant (apprentice officer) in the Philippine Constabulary Reserve after having been an ROTC battalion commander. In 1935, Assemblyman Julio Nalundasan, a political rival of his father, was shot dead. Suspicion for the crime fell on the Marcoses. Ferdinand Marcos who was arrested on a charge of conspiracy to murder, was tried, and found guilty in 1939. He argued his case on appeal to the Supreme Court, luckily winning an acquittal a year later. In the summer of 1939 he received his bachelors degree, cum laude from the U.P. College of Law. He would have been a class valedictorian and magna cum laude had he not been imprisoned for the Nalundasan murder. The case prevented him from attending several weeks of classes. He reviewed for the bar examinations while in prison. He bailed himself out in order to take the examination, where he emerged topnotcher in November of the same year. He became trial lawyer in Manila.

During World War II, he served as an officer in the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As a lawyer and a master politician, Marcos led a most a interesting and controversial political career both before and after his term as Senate President. He became Senator after he served as member of the House of Representatives for three terms, then later as Minority Floor Leader before gaining the Senate Presidency. He is one of the legislators who had established a record for having introduced a number of significant bills, many of which found their way into the Republic statute books. He was elected President of the Philippines in 1965 and was reelected in 1969. On September 21, 1972, Marcos imposed martial law and he stayed in power until 1986, after the historic four-day People Power revolution at EDSA. Marcos went on exile in Hawaii, where he died on September 28, 1989. He left behind his wife, Imelda and their three children: Maria Imelda Josefa Trinidad (Imee), Ferdinand Jr. (Bongbong), and Irene Victoria. Thus far, he is the last Senate President to become President of the Philippines.

Arturo M. Tolentino

Arturo M. Tolentino was born in Manila of humble parentage. A self-made man, he is one of the best leaders in the legislative arm of the government. His record in public service speaks for itself. As a student, Tolentino was noted for his excellent scholarship. He was valedictorian of the Mapua High School (1928); valedictorian (cum laude) University of the Philippines College of Law (1934); a bar topnotcher (1934). He obtained the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy (cum laude) with a gold medal award from the UP in 1938., and received the degrees of Master of Law (meritissimus) and Doctor of Civil Law (meritissimus) from the University of Santo Tomas. As a debater and orator, he won seven gold medals (including the Quezon Medal) and two silver loving cups. He held the title of Inter-Collegiate Oratorical Champion of the Philippines in 1934. He successfully debated with American students from the University of Oregon in 1933 and from the University of Washington in 1934. Tolentino has engaged in the practice of law since he passed the bar in 1934, and is a recognized legal luminary.

He has been a law professor in the UP, UST, UE, UM, Arellano University, FEU, Manila Law College, Philippine Law School, San Beda College and the Quezon College. Tolentino was Congressman from 1949 to 1957 and was Senator from 1957 to 1972. He held the Senate Presidency from 1966 to 1967. Never forgotten as a prominent statesman, he was reelected Senator in 1992 and served the term until 1995. Tolentinos meritorious background and exceptional intellectual abilities secured the governments responsibility to the rules of law in good hands. Respected not only for his extemporaneous amendments to major measures and enlightened brand of politics, Tolentino is also known among other thing as a scholar, writer, diplomat, and distinguished author of law books. A recipient of numerous awards, Tolentino is not only brilliant, but is also a man of integrity and high principles.

Gil J. Puyat

Senate President Gil J. Puyat was born on September 1, 1907. His father, Don Gonzalo was the founder of one of the first business empires in the Philippines. Having been exposed to the world of business, Gil was inevitably drawn to a course in commerce for his higher education. This he pursued at the University of the Philippines where he topped his class. Even as a student, he was already immersed in intricate operations of finance and expense, of capital and production, and of management labor handling.He became a member of the Rotary Club of Manila at about the same time that he was also a young professor of economics at the University of the Philippines. Gil Puyats renown for business acumen and foresight in managing the family business caught the eye of the late President Manuel L. Quezon. At the time, the country was predominantly agricultural in activity and the President was advocating industrialization. Quezon named the young Puyat as dean of the College of Business Administration at the University of the Philippines when he was only 33. At this age, he became the youngest dean the UP ever had. An active member of international trades bodies, he acquired international stature in business. The Business Writers Association of the Philippines voted him Business Leader of the Year in 1948 and the Association of Red Feather Agencies voted him Civic Leader of the Year in 1949. In 1953, he received a plaque from the Community Chest of Greater Manila for outstanding services as one of the founders, first president and first campaign fund chairman of the body. The Philippine Institute of Public Opinion (PIPO) awarded him a certificate of honor for demonstrating national leadership in business, economics, the civic and political fields and for his distinguished service to the

youth. Puyat consistently served various other organizations which saw in him a champion of civics and charity. In 1951, he was elected Senator and served the Senate until 1973, the last six years of which as Senate President. As a legislator, Puyat created a sensation unmarked in political history by his reforms and innovations involving the dispensation of the controversial public works funds. He was married to the former Eugenia Guidote. They had seven children. Puyats inspiring and fruitful life ended on March 23, 1980.

Jovito R. Salonga

Reputed as The Nations Fiscalizer , Jovito Salongas distinguished record as Congressman for the 2nd District of Rizal later won for him the overwhelming mandate of the Filipino electorate as he consistently topped three Senatorial elections despite lack of material means and at against all odds a record without precedent in Philippine political history, in addition to the remarkable fact that he was elected under three different administrations ( that of Macapagal, Marcos and Aquino ). Salonga was chosen as one of the most outstanding Senators with his significant legislations, some of which inspired public interest: the State Scholarship Law, the Disclosure of Interest Act, the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, and the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees, and the Act Defining and Penalizing the Crime of Plunder. Salonga has been fighting corruption and dictatorship since his youth. The son of a Presbyterian minister from Rizal province, he joined the resistance movement during the Japanese occupation, was captured, tortured and sentenced by a military court to years of hard labor. Released in 1943, he topped the bar examinations the following year and made plans to attend Harvard for his masters degree. He followed up his masters at Harvard with a doctorate from Yale University, but turned down a faculty position there because he felt he should take part in post-war reconstruction in the Philippines. Upon his return, he embarked on a career that quickly established him as one of the most brilliant lawyers in the country. He taught law at leading universities in Manila, and authored several tax texts that are used here and abroad.

When Martial Law was declared in 1972, he was one of its most outspoken opponents. He defended political prisoners who challenged the Marcos regime. In October 1980, after the bombing of the Asian Society of Travel Agents conference at the PICC, Salonga was arrested along with several others and was detained without investigation and without charges. After his release from military custody, he was offered a visiting scholarship at Yale, where he engaged in the revision of his book on International Law. He completed his book on the Marcos years and a program for a new democratic Philippines. Salonga returned to the Philippines on January 21, 1985 and when the Aquino government took over after the People Power Revolution of February 1986, Salonga was named chairman of the Presidential Commission on Good Government, which was tasked with investigating and recovering the ill-gotten wealth of the members of the past regime. With his selfless dedication to duty and his significant contributions to the country, Jovito Salonga continues to serve as brilliant inspiration to all Filipinos. He was Senate President from 1987-1991.

Neptali A. Gonzales

Neptali Alvaro Gonzales, despite his humble beginnings, worked himself through college graduating class valedictorian in the Philippine Law School. He placed 9th in the 1949 bar examinations with the grade of 92.50%. He extensively practiced law and for 31 years, was a professor and reviewer in many leading law schools. He wrote five (5) law books widely used by law students and practitioners. He was Dean of the Institute of Law of Far Eastern University from 1976 to 1986. Venturing into public office, he was elected Vice-Govenor of the Premier Province of Rizal (19671969), Congressman of the First District of Rizal (1970-1973) then the biggest Congressional District of the Philippines with three Cities (Quezon City, Caloocan City an Pasay City) and ten Municipalities (Malabon, Navotas, Mandaluyong, San Juan, Makati, Taguig, Pateros, Paranaque, Las Pinas and Muntinlupa); Assemblyman for the District of Mandaluyong-San Juan (1984-1986) and Senator for two consecutive terms (1987-1998). Before his election as Senator, he was appointed Minister, later Secretary of Justice (1986-1987) by then President corazon C. Aquino.

Many times chosen as an Outstanding Senator, he served as President of the Senate for an unprecedented third time. He was Senate President, first, from January 1, 1992 to January 18, 1993; then from August 29, 1995 to October 10, 1996 and was again elected for the third time on January 26, 1998. He also served as the Minority Leader of the Senates Progressive Coalition from October 10, 1996 to January 26, 1998. Senator Gonzales was the permanent delegate of the Congress of the Philippines to the century-old Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Organization (AIPO). He is also a delegate to the International Labor Organization (ILO). Married to Candida Medina for more than fifty years and father to four children, his family remains a major pillar of his happy and simple life. In recognition of his strong adherence to family values, he was presented with the 1994 ASEAN Father for Public Service Award and the 1996 Ama ng Bayan Awardby the Golden Mother & Father Foundation and the 1996 Special Ideal Parents Award from the Ideal Community Foundation of the Philippines and the Golden Mother & Father Foundation, and the 1996 Golden Parents Special Award from the Golden Mother & Father Foundation. For his outstanding achievements and contributions in the fields of law, education, and public service, he was conferred the degrees of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, both by the University of Bohol and the University of Misamis (1987); Doctor of Public Administration, honoris causa, by the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (1991); and Doctor of Technology Education, honoris causa, by the Rizal Technological Colleges (1995). He was also a recipient of the Dr. M.V. Delos Santos Memorial Medallion of Honor by the University of Manila in 1996. Truly an outstanding legislator, Senator Neptali A. Gonzales earned the distinction of having sponsored the General Appropriations Bill from 1988-1992, 1994 and 1998, considered as the most important pieces of legislation. As a Senator of the Republic, some of the numerous laws he principally authored/sponsored include Republic Act (R.A.) No. 6735, a law providing for a system of initiative and referendum; R.A. 6826, a law authorizing the President of the Philippines to exercise powers necessary and proper during a national emergency; R.A. 6981, a law providing for a Witness Protection, Security and Benefits Program; R.A. 7056, a law providing for synchronized and simultaneous national and local elections beginning 1995; R.A. 7309, a law providing for a victim compensation program to indemnify victims of violent crimes through a Board of Claims; R.A. 7323, a law institutionalizing the Special Program for Employment of Students (SPES) during summer and Christmas vacations; R.A. 7655, a law increasing the minimum wage of househelpers; R.A. 7876, an act establishing a senior citizens center in all cities and municipalities of the Philippines; R.A. 7904, a law requiring Comelec to furnish every registered voter with an official sample ballot, voters information sheet and list of candidates; R.A. 8191, a law prescribing measures for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and providing for the creation of a National Commission on Diabetes; R.A. 8247, a law extending up to June 31, 1997 the deadline for the filing of applications for legal residence of illegal aliens; R.A. 8249, a law expanding the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan; and R.A. 8291, the Revised GSIS Act of 1997. He also co-authored several laws which are of vital importance to the countrys economic, social and political well-being. Indeed, Senate President Neptali A. Gonzales was, in the words of his Senate colleague, Sen. Blas F. Ople, the compleat statesman whose intellect can soar to the heavens but is informed with a deep compassion for the underprivileged from whose ranks he himself came from. His death on September 16, 2001, at the age of 78, was deeply mourned all over the country.

As public official he +has devoted his life to the study of the law and the creation of laws needed by Philippine society. He has carved a distinguished career in law as professor, and dean of the Institute of Law at the Far Eastern University and bar reviewer in different schools. He authored books on constitutional Law, Political Law, Administrative Law and Public Corporations. A noted statesman, government functionary, constitutionalist and freedom fighter, Gonzales served and continues to serve his country with unfaltering commitment and deep concern for his fellowmen. Neptali and his wife, the former Candida Medina, has been blessed with four children : Myrna, Aida, Rhodora and Neptali II.

dgardo J. Angara

Edgardo J. Angara was born on September 24, 1934, in Baler, Aurora. He earned his Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of the Philippines where he was a consistent scholar. He obtained his Master of Law as Dewitt Fellow at the University of Michigan. He is a life member of two international honor societies, the Phi Kappa and Phi Gamma Mu. In 1971, Angara founded with several law classmates the ACCRA law offices, today one of the most prestigious law firm in the Philippines.He subsequently headed the three biggest and most respected law associations in the country the International Bar of the Philippines, the Philippine Bar Association and the UP Law Alumni Association which remains to be the only regional law association in the world. The University of the Philippines gave him the most distinguished Alumnus Award in 1981. The UP College of Law also conferred on him its Highest Professional Award. That same year, he was elected president of the university. A conscientious lawmaker and an indefatigable worker, Edgardo Angaras public life started when he helped draft the 1973 Constitution, authoring landmark constitutional provisions such as the Democratization of Ownership of Public Utilities and the protection of Public Domain from Undue Exploitation by Developers.

He was the lead proponent of the Free High School Act, the Subsidy to Private Education, the Law Defining the Powers of the Ombudsman, the Magna Carta for Health Workers, the Breastfeeding Law, the Establishment of the National Integrated Protected Areas System, the laws granting incentives and special privileges to Senior Citizens; Small Farmers; and Campus Journalists. As a Senate Chief, from 1993 to 1995, Angara, with his aggressive and consensus-building approach, rallied the chamber to pass bills and resolutions for an Executive-Legislative cooperation in economic reforms, which resulted in the Economic Summit of August 1993. It was likewise during his term that the Senate adopted a policy to reimpose the death penalty for heinous crimes and saw the ratification of the Earth Summit treaty, along with five pro-environment treaties, many of which have already been enacted into law. He was awarded the Most Outstanding Alumnus for Legislation by the UP College of Law for his enlightened leadership of the Senate as it enacts legislations to improve the quality of life of the Filipinos and for his devotion to the concerns of education, law and justice, labor, family, arts and culture, environment and health care.

Ernesto M. Maceda

Senator Ernesto M. Maceda has an outstanding record of public service spanning 43 years in high government positions. His career has been marked by numerous outstanding achievements starting from his election at the age of 23 as the No. 1 Councilor of Manila in 1959. Because of his achievements in the City Council, Councilor Maceda was named Outstanding Councilor of Manila . In 1966, Maceda was appointed by then Pres. Ferdinand Marcos to become the Secretary of Community Development. At 29 years old, Maceda was the youngest Cabinet Member in the Marcos Administration. In 1969, he was appointed Executive Secretary in concurrent capacity as Chairman of the Commission on Reorganization. In 1970, the Commerce and Industry portfolio was given to Maceda. In the post, Maceda lauched consumer protection programs and established trade relations with various Eastern European Social countries.

After winning senatorial post in 1971, Macedas bill granting protection to real estate buyers on installment basis was the only bill signed into law before Martial Law was proclaimed. The bill is known as the Maceda Law. After breaking with President Marcos over the Martial Law declaration, Maceda went on exile in the United States where he became the aide and adviser of the late Sen. Benigno S. Aquino. When Sen. Aquino was assassinated in 1983. Sen. Maceda accompanied the widowed Corazon Aquino on the flight from Boston to Manila. Maceda then became one of the leaders of the opposition during the 1984 Batasan Pambansa Campaign and the 1986 snap presidential election. With the overthrow of the Marcos regime, one of Mrs. Aquinos first cabinet appointee was Maceda who was given the Ministry of Natural Resources to head. Maceda then ran under the Aquino Administrations ticket during the 1987 senatorial elections. His stint in the Senate as Senate President from 1996 1998 has been acknowledged for its outstanding quality. Since the opening of the Congress in 1987, Sen. Maceda has received numerous awards from various news agencies and private organizations for his outstanding performance and has been constantly chosen No. 1 Senator by numerous publications, political analysts and Senate reporters. He was credited for having filed the most number of bills, delivered the most number of privilege speeches, and for having the perfect attendance during the 1987 1992 term of the Senate, dubbed by the Philippine Free Press as Mr. Expose . Often called as the most hardworking member of the Senate , Senator Maceda has been at the forefront in addressing vital national issues. Acknowledged to be the Senates Mr. Survivor , Sen. Maceda lived his role as fiscalizer and was responsible for exposing scams in government. He is also considered a staunch supporter of womens rights. Senator Maceda holds the distinction of being the only Filipino to have held five Cabinet positions and is the recipient of over 40 national and international honors and awards. He was appointed by President Joseph Estrada as Ambassador to the United States from 1999-2001. Senator Maceda earned his bachelor of Laws degree, Cum Laude, from the Ateneo de Manila University in 1956. He holds a Doctorate in Public Administration ( Honoris Causa ) from the Polytechnic University of the Philippines and Doctorate in Education ( Honoris Causa ) from the Philippine Normal University. Born in Pagsanjan, Laguna on March 26, 1935, Senator Ernesto Madarang Maceda married former Marichu Vera-Perez. They are blessed with four children.

Marcelo B. Fernan

Marcelo Briones Fernan was born in Cebu City on October 24, 1927. He was married to Eloisa Nolasco with whom he had nine children. As a student, Fernan gained distinction as an outstanding youth leader and scholar. He served as President of the Student Council Association of the Philippines, and was elected Member of the International Honor Societies of Phi Kappa and Pi Gamma Mu.He graduated among the top ten of his class from the College of Law of the University of the Philippines in 1952. The following year, he obtained his Master of Law from the Harvard University in the United States. He likewise led an active civic and social life as President of the Cebu Jaycees Role Club of Cebu West, Cebu Country Club, chairman and President of the Cebu Newspaper Workers Foundation, Inc. He was an Associate and later Professorial Lecturer at the University of the Philippines in Cebu, Dean of the College of Law of the University of San Jose Recoletos now Dean Emeritus, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the University of San Carlos, Secretary General of the Academy of American and International Law Alumni Association and Integrated Bar of the Philippines, Fellow of the International Academy of Trial Lawyer Associations for Asia and the Pacific (LAWASIA) Human Rights Standing Committee, Chairman of the LAWASIA Judicial Section, President of the Fulbright Scholars Association, President of the Philippine Society of International Law, Chairman of the Philippine National Committee of the Asean Law Association and member of the Governing Council, President of the ASEAN Law Association, President of the Fellows on Asia Foundation and Trustee of the Southwestern Legal Foundation in Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. He received awards in civic, legal and educational fields among which are Most Outstanding Law Practitioner in Cebu City; Most Outstanding UP Alumnus in Civic Affair in Cebu City; Most Outstanding JCI Senator in the Philippines in the Field of Education; The Outstanding Filipino (TOFIL) Awardee, Most Outstanding Alumnus of Abellana National School, U.P. Professional Achievement Awardee in the Field of Law, U.P. Cebu Achievement Awardee as Legal Teacher and Practitioner, Most Distinguished Alumnus from the College of Law, University of the Philippines, 1999 Most Distinguished Alumnus from the University of the Philippines Alumni Association, First Recipient of the Southwest Legal Foundations Robert G. Storey International Award for Leadership and First Recipient at the Public Award of the President Sergio Omea Memorial Foundation. He was conferred the titles General Brother of the Agustinian Recollect Order and Knight of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. He was the Most Outstanding Cebuano awardee. Next to the late President Sergio Osmea, he was the second Cebuano in history to be given such highly exclusive and revered recognition.

He received Honorary Doctorate Degrees from the University of San Carlos Cebu City, University of San Jose Recoletos, Cebu City; Centro Escolar University, Member of Angeles University Foundation, Angeles City; De La Salle University, Manila and University of the Philippines-Visayas. He entered the government service as member of the Cebu City Planning Board. Later, he became a member of the Cebu Provincial Board, delegate to the Constitutional Convention and Assemblyman (Assistant Minority Leader) in the Batasang Pambansa. He was appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court and served as Chairman of the Supreme Court Committee on the Revision of the Rules of Court and Chairman of the House Electoral Tribunal. He served as the nineteenth Chief Justice of the Republic and was Chairman of the Judicial and Bar Council and the Judiciary Planning and Implementation Office. During his term as Chief Justice, several bold judicial reforms were instituted, among them the judicial orientation and career enrichment program, updating of the Code of Judicial Conduct and the continuous trial program. In 1995, Fernan was elected as Senator of the Tenth Congress. He became the Assistant Majority Leader and Chairman of the following Senate Committees Justice and Human rights, Labor, Employment and Human Resources Development and Ethics and Privileges. As Senator, he authored highly significant laws, among these are : Republic Act 8246 or the Court of Appeals Regionalization Act, RA 8493 or the Speedy Trial Act of 1998, RA 8557 of the Philippine Judicial Academy, RA 8525 or the Adopt-a-School Act of 1997 and RA 8558 or the Underground Mine Workers Act. He also sponsored RA 8247 or the Alien Social Integration Act of 1995. RA 8282 or the Social Security Act of 1997, and RA 8369 or the Family courts Acts of 1997. At the opening of the Eleventh Congress, Fernan was nominated and elected as President of the Senate and concurrently, Chairman of the Commission on Appointments. During his term as Senate President, the Senate passed the Clean Air Act, the Visiting Force Agreement and the General Appropriations Act of 1999. Fernan resigned from Senate Presidency on June 28, 1999 due to his failing health. Senator Fernan passed away on July 11, 1999 and was laid to rest at the Cebu Memorial Park, Cebu City. His death was deeply mourned all over the country. Fernan holds the record as the only Filipino to head both the Judicial and Legislature, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and as Senate President, respectively.

Blas F. Ople

Senator Blas F. Olpe was born on February 3, 1927 in Hagonoy, Bulacan, to working-class parents. His father Felix Antonio Ople. was a craftsman who repaired boats while his mother Segundina Fajardo, was a simple housewife. The young Ople graduated valedictorian at the Hogonoy Elementary School. Ople fought in the Second World War as a teenage officer of the Del Pilar Regimet, Bulacan Military Area. He also fought under the BMA's Buenvista Regimet until the capture of General Yamashita in 1945. After finishing high school at FEU in 1948, he studied Liberal Arts at UP and MLQU University. He graduated with Liberal Arts degree at the Educational Center of Asia (formerly Quezon College) in Manila.Looking for the so-called greener pasture, the hardworking Bulakeno applied for a job at the Manila Times - Daily Mirror publications where he was hired on the spot as desk editor of the Daily Mirror. He did this on the basis of an instant rewrite test which he passed with flying colors. As journalist, Ople was considered as one of the youngest columnist in that golden era of journalism. He wrote the light and breezy column "Jeepney Tales," for the Daily Mirror, sister publication of the old Manila Times.Aside from the flourishing journalistic career he also headed the Blas F. Ople Associates, a public relations consulting firm. He was co-founder and executive vice chairman of the National Progress Movement or Kilusang Makabansa which raised issues nationalism and social justice in the late 1950s. He wrote political and social commentaries for print media. In 1963 he headed the Executive Planning Group of ht e Magsaysay-for-President Movement. He later served as technical assistant on labor and agrarian affairs to President Ramon Magsaysay and concurrently as special assistant to the late Labor Secretary Terry Adevoso.Ople taught as professor lecturer at UP institution (Rizal studies) and at the Philippine College of Commerce, now Polytechnic University of the Philippines. In 1967, he became assistant to the President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos as labor secretary. He ran for the Senate in 1971 under the banner of the Nacionalista Party but lost. He considered as the "Father of the Labor Code ,"which was signed into law by President Marcos in 1974. The book codified all labor and social regulations in the country. He also fathered the National Manpower and Youth Council (now TESDA) to carry out the training program for skilled worker. Ople initiated in 1976 the overseas employment which has since a major prop of the Philippine economy. The program generated employment for the estimated four to seven million Filipino workers overseas which remitted US $7 billion last year.To further assist the country's overseas workforce he created the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration, the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration, and the Philippine Labor attache corps to carry out the overseas employment program.

In 1975, he was elected president of the 60th general assembly of the International Labor Organization, the first and only Filipino to hold that post. In 1983, Ople was recipient of a Gold Medal of Appreciation from the ILO for his contributions to social justice both in his country and in the international community. In April 1978, he topped the elections for National Assembly representing his home region of Central Luzon, consisting of Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Bataan and Zambales.He then reelected to the regular Batasang Pambansa representing his home province of Bulacan in 1984. In May 1985, he was appointed by president Corazon Aquino as member of the opposition to seve in the Constitutional Commision of 1986. His performance as one of the framers of the 1987 Philippine constitution was considered outstanding. Back to private life, he served as chairman of the institution for Public Policy, a policy research institute. In 1992, Ople ran for the Senate under the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP) and won, placing No. 11 in the 24-man winning state. He served for six years with his co-winners in the top 12. The lower 12 served for three years. He was elected Senate President Pro Tempore in October 1996. He was reelected in same post July 1997. In 1998, he ran for reelection under the ticket of the Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino (LAMP) and won, placing seventh. In the Senate, he chaired the Senate foreign relations committee and served as a member of the Commission on Appointments. He became acting Senate President with the resignation and death of Senate President Marcelo Fernan. In July 26, 1999 he was elected by his colleagues as the President of the Senate and served until July 12, 2000. As writer, he authored the following books Frontier of Social Policy, Workers, Managers, Elites. The Human Spectrum of Development, The Freedom to Achieve, Global but Parochial, the Philippines and the World, and Windows to a Changing World. As a columnist, he writes columns for various newspapers - Horizons, Manila Bulletin, Windows, Panorama Magazine, Interface Graphic Magazine and Balintataw Balita. He is married to the former Susana Vasquez. They have seven children.

Aquilino Q. Pimentel, Jr.

Fearless parliamentarian. Fightingest mayor. Stalwart of democracy. These are but some of the sobriquets given to Aquilino Nene Q. Pimentel, Jr. in his years of public service. He has been called other names by his detractors, including Don Quixote de Pimentel for his courageous but sometimes lonely battle against a dictator, corruption in government, electoral fraud and even foreign imperialism. What sticks in the mind more, however, is the reputation that he, as a public official and private individual, has earned for fearlessness, incorruptibility, integrity and honesty. And, yes consistency. Jailed for Protesting Born into a political family in Cagayan de Oro, the man from Mindanao was catalputed to the national arena as an elected delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1971, representing Misamis Oriental. The complexity of what had promised to be an inspiring political exercise changed when then President Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972. A young and principled lawyer, Pimentel and a few like-minded delegates feared the Concon would produce a Marcos-scripted Constitution and were vocal in their opposition. Pimentel also protested certain provisions as being contrary to the peoples interest. Not surprisingly, in a roundup of those who opposed Marcos, he was arrested in early 1973 and jailed for three months at Camp Crame. Pimentel, who had a young family, bade his wife Bing Be brave. Dont cry, and submitted to the incarceration. He was released from prison in time for the signing of the Constitution. Uncowed by his incarceration, Pimentel refused to sign, along with a few other delegates. In the climate of fear of the Martial Law era, this was a bold move and it widened his repute as an oppositionist. He then lawyered for the National Secretariat for Social Action of the Catholic Bishops Conference to help the poor peasants and the urban poor who were particularly oppressed during the Martial Law era. But he did not fade into oblivion nor did he cease being critical of the dictatorship. Held for Leading Demonstration In April 1978, Pimentel ran for a post in the Interim Batasan elections as an official candidate of the Lakas ng Bayan (Laban) party of Metro Manila with Ninoy Aquino. Members of Marcos Kilusan ng Bagong Lipunan (KBL) party swept the seats. Pimentel and other opposition leaders like Senator Lorenzo Taada, Soc Rodrigo, Teofisto Guingona, Fr. Archie Intengan SJ, and Chino Roces loudly protested the defeat of all opposition candidates and denounced the massive cheating that had taken place. Pimentel was one of those arrested for leading a demonstration against what he termed farcical elections. He had spoken out against Marcos bid to produce a rubber stamp legislature to win legitimacy for his iron-fisted

regime which was increasingly being criticized here and abroad. Pimentel was jailed for two months in Camp Bicutan, Metro Manila. Pimentels second stint in prison did not silence him. In fact, it strengthened his resolve to fight for freedom and to oppose electoral fraud. Ever the parliamentarian, he brought the battle from the streets to the polls in January 1980 when Marcos allowed local elections. His wife Bing recalled they launched his mayoralty bid in Cagayan de Oro with a mere P2,000 in his war chest all the money the couple could muster. But Cagayanons who believed in him contributed to his campaign and penned his name on their ballot. Pimentel won by a 3-1 margin over his KBL rival, who was fielded by Marcos. Pimentel ran under the coalition banner of the National Union for Democracy and Freedom and the Mindanao Alliance which busted KBL dominance in Misamis Oriental. He and his entire slate of candidates for vice mayor and seven city councilors swept the elections in Cagayan de Oro. His candidates for governor and vice governor also won. Ousted as Mayor Pimentel was not to govern his city unhindered. In 1981, while he was on a five-week training course in the United States, the Comelec ousted him for political turncoatism, installing the KBL candidate as mayor. The Comelec cited Pimentel for switching from Laban in April 1978 to the Narional Union for Democracy and Freedom in December 1979 and then running as candidate of the Mindanao Alliance in January 1980. The Comelecs move ired the Cagayanons. Pimentel partisans immediately staged peaceful demonstrations to express their displeasure. About 30 of his supporters also started fasting in protest. Six days later, 10,000 of his supporters marched around the city in a nonviolent show of support for Pimentel who was then on an official trip to the US. Thousands more lined the streets to cheer them on. This first-ever demonstration of People Power came at a time when Marcos did not lightly tolerate dissent. Meanwhile, in Manila, Pimentels lawyer, headed by opposition leaders former Senators Lorenzo Taada and Soc Rodrigo, along with Abraham Sarmiento, Raul Gonzales and Joker Arroyo, claimed that the Comelec had acted without jurisdiction and contented that the electorates will should be respected. The Comelec, however, reaffirmed its decision to oust Pimentel. The conflict made national headlines and photos of demonstrations in Cagayan de Oro appeared in a major daily. To defuse the escalating turmoil, Marcos engineered a truce and reinstalled Pimentel as mayor, pending a Supreme Council decision. Pimentel arrived from the US in time to pick up the reins of city government that had briefly been wrested from him. House Arrest In 1983, while he was in Cebu City, Pimentel was arrested on charges of rebellion and was detained. He had allegedly given P100 to new Peoples Army commander. Bing Pimentel recalled it was horrible time as the family did not know where he was. They traced him to Camp Sergio Osmea and later to Camp Cabahug in the City of Cebu. Even as he was held in the military detention centers, his followers from Cagayan De Oro and other parts of the country visited him by the hundreds to boost his morale and keep his spirits high. Nene Pimentel disputed the charges and was later released. Returning home, he was mobbed by thousand of his supporters upon his arrival at the pier of Cagayan De Oro. Later, he was again arrested

for allegedly engaging in ambuscades. His supporters contributed centavos and pesos in small denomination to bail him out. Subsequently, Pimentel was placed under house arrest which lasted for almost seven months. From the confines of his home, Pimentel continued to keep abreast of national news. He helped rally the opposition, ran the city and launched his bid as assemblyman for the Batasang Pambansa. He was, if anything, not quite. He protested relentlessly and fearlessly against injustice, fraud, corruption and Marcos dictatorial rule. OUSTED AND REINSTATED Then, in the aftermath of the assassination of Marcoss chief rival, Benigno Ninoy Aquino in 1983, Pimentel won a seat in the Batasan Pambansa elections of 1984. But the Marcos government ousted him on the allegation that he had cheated in the elections. The Supreme Court itself recounted the ballots in an electoral contest. The feisty Pimentel, a relentless critic of the Marcos regime, was often seen with Ninoys widow, Cory, as they rallied the opposition. At one point, Cory asked him to be her running mate in the 1995 Snap Elections and he agreed. However, at the 11th hour, when Cardinal Jaime Sin brokered a political marriage between Cory and Salvador Doy Laurel, Jr., Pimentel graciously stepped aside and let history run its course. The widow toppled the dictator who fled the country. Upon her ascent to power President Aquino appointed Pimentel as Minister of Local Government. He had the unenviable task of dismantling the structure of dictatorship and corruption left behind by the Marcos regime. Pimentel wielded the axe deliberately, gaining a breathing space for the new administration. His critics alleged he had sold positions in the new government, but none could make the charge stick. Pimentel incurred the ire of some but also the respect of those who saw that he did it without fear or favor or taint of corruption. Pimentels next assignment in the Aquino administration were as presidential adviser and chief negotiator with the Muslim rebels. He resigned from those post to run for the Senate in the 1987 elections. As Senator, he authored and sponsored several key pieces of legislation, among them the Local Government Code of 1991, the Cooperative Code, the Philippine Sports Commission Act, the Act Creating the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, and the Peoples Small-Scale Mining Act. He also authored and co-sponsored the Generic Drugs Act and the Act Establishing the Philippine Police under a Reorganized Department of Interior and Local Government. Pimentel lost bid for the vice presidency in 1992 when he stood as Jovito Salongas running mate. During the hiatus in his political career, he established his law practice in Metro Manila, gaining repute as a brilliant and meticulous lawyer, further enhancing his national stature. DAGDAG/BAWAS Back in the arena of politics, Pimentel was cheated of victory in the 1995 senatorial race through the Dagdag/Bawas scheme. He launched what some termed a quixotic campaign against electoral fraud, but drew enormous support from the populace who sent in their donations to help fund the recount. His quest was not so forlorn after all. Before the Senate Electoral Tribunal, Pimentel established by incontrovertible evidence the existence of a massive Dagdag/Bawas fraudulent count. He also sued the cheaters before the criminal courts where the cases are still being tried.

In the 1998 elections, convinced of the mans integrity and inspired by his passion for truth and electoral reform, voters resoundingly returned Pimentel to the Senate for a six-year term. Today he serves as Chairman of the powerful Blue Ribbon Committee (the Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations) and the Committee of the Local Government. As chair of the Blue Ribbon Committee, he has recommended the prosecution of top government officials of previous administrations in relation to the Expo Pilipino centennial scam and the misuse of the funds of the Retirement and Separation Benefits Systems of the Armed Forces. He has also recommended the prosecution of certain personnel of the Land Registration Administration for involvement in faking of land titles. Recently his committee also conducted series of investigations into the allegation of Governor Luis Chavit Singson on jueteng scandal. As Chair of the Committee on Local Government, he has supported far-reaching amendments to further strengthen the role of local government units in national development. He has also gotten senate approval to return the police to the supervision of LGUs and has authored a law to fix the date for elections of ARMM officials. Yes, in just a few short years, Nene Pimentel has made the leap from feisty oppositionist to inspiring leader, from parliamentarian to respected statesman. Today he would say lifes meaning is found in serving God, country and people, especially the poor.

Franklin M. Drilon
Senator Franklin M. Drilons humble beginnings began in Molo, Iloilo with his early education in the public school system where he graduated from the Baluarte Elementary School in 1957 and High School at UP Iloilo College in 1961. He finished his Bachelor of Arts in 1965 at the University of the Philippines in Diliman then went on to pursue his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1969. On the same year he took the bar and passed with flying colors third place. He joined the Sycip, Salazar, Luna, Manalo and Feliciano Law Offices immediately after passing the bar. In 1974, he started his career with one of the premiere law firms of the country Angara, Abello, Concepcion, Regala and Cruz Law Offices whre he he was Senior Associate and eventually elected as its Managing Partner in 1986. The significant year of 1986 where we gained back our democracy saw Senator Franklin M. Drilon start his career in government. He was appointed Deputy Minister for Industrial Relations of then Ministry of Labor from 1986 1987. Thereafter, he assumed the post of Secretary of Labor till January of 1990.His expertise in industrial relations and his past achievements in the private sector and as Labor Secretary became a big plus when he was appointed Secretary of Justice in 1990 and subsequently, Executive Secretary of the Cabinet of President Corazon C. Aquino in 1991. In July 1992, he was again appointed as Secretary of Justice. During his tenure, he had instituted a monitoring system in the Justice Department where he effectively monitored the over 250,000 cases filed in various Prosecution Offices all over the country. Senator Franklin M. Drilons exemplary career in government earned him the distinction of having been appointed to several Cabinet posts under two Administrations. His previous government positions

also included assuming positions of leadership in nineteen (19) other government agencies and institutions. To Senator Frank M. Drilons credit is the privilege of being the first among the newly elected solons of the 10th Congress to file his Senate bills. He brings with him into the Upper Chamber his deep-rooted crusade for Justice Agad which he had activated as Secretary of Justice. His initial batch of Senate Bills all propositioned improvements into our criminal justice system. Even before the formal inauguration of the 10th Congress, Senator Franklin M. Drilon had likewise introduced legislation through various other Senate Bills he had earlier also filed, on the improvement of our economy and the electoral process through proposed amendments to the Foreign Investments Act of 1991 and the Omnibus Election Code. The dynamism of Senator Franklin M. Drilon continues as he contributes this time to the Legislature his well honed skills from both the Judiciary and the Executive Department as well as the private sector. He was Chairman and Member of various Senate Committees and Senate Majority Leader (1988 2000). He is married to Mila Serrano Genuino. He had two children, Eliza and Patrick, with his first wife, the late Atty. Violeta Calvo Drilon.

Manny Villar
The public life of Manny Villar straddles both the worlds of business and politics. He is one of the few who managed to excel in both. Working Student He was born to a simple family on December 13, 1949 in Moriones, Tondo, Manila. His father, Manuel Montalban Villar, Sr., a government employee, hailed from Cabatuan, Balazan, and Tanza, Iloilo and his mother Curita Bamba, a seafood dealer, came from Pampanga and Bataan. Manny is the second child in a brood of nine. At a very young age, he was already helping his mother sell shrimp and fish in the Divisoria Market. With the burning desire for a better future and a strong determination to improve his familys living conditions, Manny worked hard in selling shrimps and fish to be able to send himself to school. I learned from my mother what it takes to be an entrepreneur, he revealed. And it means working really hard to achieve your dreams. In Divisoria, he marveled at the volume of sales that Chinese merchants were making, thus he vowed early on to become an entrepreneur. Hard work, persistence, and perseverance became his guiding principles in life. This earned him the title Mr. Sipag at Tiyaga. He continues to inspire Filipinos with his life story and encourages each and every kababayan to improve their quality of life and fulfill their dreams through the very values he believes in -- sipag at tiyaga. Entrepreneur

Manny Villar was a working student at the University of the Philippines, the premier institution of higher learning in the country, where he obtained his undergraduate and masters degree in business administration and accountancy. By then, he was also putting in long hours as fish and shrimp trader, where the action starts during the ungodly hours of the morning when the catch lands on the market. After graduation, he tried his hand as an accountant at the countrys biggest accounting firm, Sycip Gorres and Velayo (SGV). He resigned shortly though to venture on his own seafood delivery business. When a restaurant he was delivering stocks to did not pay him, he printed out meal tickets which he persuaded the restaurant owners to honor. He then sold these tickets at a discounted price to office workers. It took him one year to liquidate his receivables. He worked briefly as a financial analyst at the Private Development Corporation of the Philippines. His job was to sell World Bank loans, despite the attractive rates of which there were no takers. Convinced that he could make it on his own again, he quit his job and promptly availed of one of the loans. So with an initial capital of P10,000 in 1975, Villar purchased two reconditioned trucks and started his sand-and-gravel business in Las Pias. Housing Innovator It is here while delivering construction materials to big developers that Manny Villar came up with the idea of selling house and lot packages when the convention then was for homeowners to buy lots and build on them. Manny Villar became the housing industry leader, and the biggest homebuilder in Southeast Asia, having built more than 100,000 houses for the poor and middle class Filipino families. He then initiated mass housing projects to achieve economies of scale. His various innovations practically created the countrys mass housing industry. The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism calls him the dean of the (Philippine) real estate industry. Awards and Distinctions For his business achievements, he was made cover story in the Far Eastern Economic Review. And his life story was also featured in Asiaweek, Forbes, AsiaMoney and Asian Business Review. He garnered various awards such as the Ten Outstanding Young Men Award (1986) by the Philippine Jaycees, Agora Award for Outstanding Achievement in Marketing Management (1989), Most Outstanding CPA by the Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants (1990) and Most Outstanding UP Alumnus (1991). Political Career In a stunning political debut in 1992, Villar won with the most overwhelming mandate among congressmen in Metro Manila. He promptly applied his economic and managerial expertise as a key member of the Houses economic team, marshalling in economic reform measures of the Ramos Administration such as the New Foreign Investments Act and the restructuring of the Central Bank of the Philippines. He was the House representative in the governments negotiations with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington D.C. in 1992.

He also oversaw various infrastructure projects in his districts like the construction of concrete roads and the Alabang-Zapote Flyover. He introduced the Friendship Route to ease the traffic problems in southern Manila by persuading subdivision homeowners to open up their roads to the general public. He succeeded in passing Republic Act 8003 Declaring Certain Areas in Las Pias as Tourist Spots. The law formalized his program of rehabilitating historical and cultural landmarks in Las Pias starting with the world-famous Bamboo Organ Church. The ongoing project dubbed as Las Pias Historical Corridor covers the stretch of the Old District and may even rival the Intramuros and Vigan restoration projects. A staunch environmentalist, he initiated a privately funded tree planting drive in his district. He developed a P10-million tree nursery beside his home. He also quietly led a dedicated tree-planting drive complete with maintenance and watering of tree seedlings planted in the open spaces of the community. When he realized that many poor students could not go to school because they do not even have fare money, he organized the Manpower on Wheels Program, a livelihood training school housed in a van that makes the rounds in depressed areas. The program has since produced more than 5,000 graduates and has been awarded by various government and civic organizations for its innovative scheme. During his first term, he steered Las Pias and Muntinlupa to cityhood. As a developer, I have always envisioned these two communities as the Twin Cities of the South of Manila. In fact, Las Pias and Muntinlupa are the two fastest growing communities in the country today, he pointed out. For his constituency work and personal vow, he extended grants of home sites to some 10,000 poor families in Barangay CAA, Las Pias City. Two major roads were also opened in his district; the SucatPulanglupa Link Road to Paraaque and the Zapote-Molino (Daang Hari) Link Road to Cavite, thus alleviating the traffic congestion in the area. During his second term, he was able to upgrade the Las Pias District Hospital with a new building and better facilities. He also launched the Sagip-Bukas Drug Prevention Program on all the private and public schools of Las Pias to educate the youth about the dangers of drug abuse. He also nationalized the Las Pias High School to upgrade its facilities. By the end of his second term of office, Villar had already proven beyond doubt his capacity for excellence as a true Filipino entrepreneur and a brilliant public servant who can get things done. Champion for Entrepreneurs In 1995, Manny Villar ran for re-election and won an unprecedented 142,000 votes, the highest number of votes for a congressman in the entire country. Winning media acclaim as an outstanding congressman as well as the respect and recognition of his peers, he was elected to chair the Committee on Entrepreneurship. As one of the leading entrepreneurs in the country, he championed the cause of small and mediumsized enterprises. He authored and passed into law the landmark New Magna Carta for Small and Medium Enterprises (RA 8289). He initiated creative legislation such as establishment of the Small and Medium Enterprises Stock Exchange and Business One-Stop-Shop centers, the latter he immediately implemented in Las Pias City with the help of local officials. Speaker of the House

It was no surprise then to those in the know when he gained the remarkable acclaim of 171 of 220 congressmen as the Speaker of the 11th Congress of the House of Representatives. In a time when the country is slowly recovering from a host of economic and political crises, the election of the brown taipan at the helm of Congress signaled a watershed event in the Philippine political history. The rise of Manny Villar ushered in a new consensus of leadership based on managerial skills and not simply on oratory and rhetoric. By his first year in office, Villar undertook three pathbreaking reforms. He succeeded in marshalling consensus in the House to reform the pork barrel system by limiting congressional discretion projects to the set parameters of the Executives development policies. Secondly, he launched a revamp of leadership by appointing at least seven neophyte congressmen to head powerful committees like ecology and banks. Finally, he set a strong and principled stance on environment protection legislation with the passage of the Clean Air Act, a measure that for more than ten years three previous congresses were not able to pass.On his second year in office, Manny Villar steered the 11th Congress into a recordbreaking achievement in legislation and economic reforms. Among the pioneering measures he shepherded into law were the Retail Trade Liberization Act, the New Central Bank Act, the New Securities Code, and the New Banking Act. On November 13, 2000, he became the first House Speaker in Philippine history to impeach a President, paving the way for the elevation of the articles of impeachment to the Senate. Senator of the Republic In the national elections held last May 14, 2001, despite being a relative newcomer in national politics, Manny Villar posted one of the most impressive showings in the national polls. On his first day in office, he filed 204 bills covering a comprehensive legislative program of action the first among neophyte senators and the third highest filer among the senators of the 12th Congress of the Philippines. After being elected by his colleagues, he assumed the position of Senate President Pro-Tempore, the second to the highest post in the higher Chamber of Congress. He is presently the Chairman of the Committee on Finance and the Committee on Public Order and Illegal Drugs. He is also the Vice Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations and Committee on Agriculture. He authored 44 laws during the 12th Congress, among them are: RA 9178 Barangay Micro Business Enterprises Act, RA 9189 Overseas Absentee Voting Act, RA 9208 Anti-Trafficking of Persons Act, RA 9257 An Act Granting Additional Benefits and Privileges to Senior Citizens, and RA 9262 Anti-Violence Against Women and their Children Act. He has filed Bills aimed at providing business opportunities for the people and improving the Filipinos quality of life through basic health care, decent shelters, responsive social services, and high quality education. Outside the Senates halls, Villar actively sponsors Sipag at Tiyaga Caravan Kaalaman, a livelihood training program that provide skills and inspiration to people that will allow them to venture into their own businesses. The caravan travels all over the country conducting livelihood seminars that are consistently widely attended and appreciated. He has also spearheaded the building of schools, sending out medical missions and setting up relief operations whenever or wherever needed. He led the inauguration of the Las Pias-Muntinlupa-LagunaCavite (LPMLC) link road, more popularly known as Daang Hari, as part of his road improvement program aimed at easing traffic in the south of Metro Manila. According to him, an efficient and rationalized road network is one of the fundamental requirements in improving commerce and spurring economic progress.

In February 2004, he was elected as President of the Nacionalista Partythe countrys oldest and grandest political party. He was also named the Most Distinguished UP Alumnusthe highest recognition given by the UP Alumni Associationfor his exemplary public service and achievements. Senator Manny Villar, despite his numerous accomplishments and heroism, has remained simple and unaffected. A true family man, he is a devoted husband to Rep. Cynthia A. Villar (Lone District of Las Pias), and a loving father to sons Paolo and Mark and daughter Camille.

SENATE PRESIDENT JUAN PONCE ENRILE Fifteenth Congress Upon the opening of the Fifteenth Congress on 26 July 2010, the honorable JUAN PONCE ENRILE was elected unanimously by his peers to the third highest position in the country, the Senate Presidency, a position he is now serving for the second time. He is now on his fourth term as Senator. Juan Ponce Enrile earned his Bachelor of Laws from the University of the Philippines in 1953. He graduated cum laude and salutatorian. He took his oath as a member of the Philippine Bar in 1954. He ranked No. 11 among the successful bar candidates with a rating of 91.72%, one of the highest in the history of the Bar. He made a perfect score of 100% in Commercial Law. He took post-graduate studies at the Harvard Law School where he obtained his Master of Laws degree in 1955, specializing in taxation and corporate reorganization. He practised law for twelve years from 1954 to 1966 as a law partner at the Ponce Enrile, Siguion Reyna, Montecillo, Belo and Ongsiako Law Offices. He also served as a Professor of Law at the Far Eastern University - College of Law from 1956 to 1964. In January 1966, the young s career in the public service which would last for more than four decades. Recognized for his expertise in tax matters, he was appointed Undersecretary of Finance at the beginning of 1966. Shortly thereafter, he was made Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Philippine National Bank. Then he was designated as a concurrent Acting Head of the Insurance Commission. As such, he revised many of the rules and regulations in the Insurance Commission with the end in view of making the industry more transparent and stable. As proof of its relevance, many of these rules and regulations issued during his incumbency are still included in the current Insurance Code. He also served as Acting Commissioner of Customs until December 1968. While he was in the Finance Department, he was appointed Acting Secretary of Finance and concurrent Chairman of the Monetary Board of the Central Bank of the Philippines. In December 1968, in recognition of his integrity and reputation held before the Philippine Bar, of Justice where he served until February 9, 1970.

On February 10, 1970, he was appointed Secretary of National Defense until August 1971 when he resigned to run for the Philippine Senate. He was re-appointed Secretary of Defense in January 1972. In 1986, he led the historic EDSA People Power Revolution that served as model for subsequent bloodless revolutions all over the world. Together with idealistic members of the military and with the support of the Catholic church, people flocked to EDSA in solidarity to the man and his vision of restoring democracy to the nation. His first term in the Philippine Senate was from 1987 to 1992, during which he served as the lone Minority in the Senate. His second term was from 1995 to 2001, during which he was designated as Chairman of the Committees on Ways and Means, and Government Corporations and Public Enterprises. He also served in the House of Representatives from 1992 to 1995. In the legislature, Senator Enrile focused his efforts at refining fiscal measures to make sure that the government's need for revenue is balanced with the protection of the masses from undue tax burdens. He was the author of Republic Act No. 8424 also known as the Comprehensive Tax Reform Law, which exempted Overseas Contract Workers from paying income taxes in the Philippines on their income earned abroad. In the same law, his recommendation that homeowners be exempted from the payment of capital gains provided they invest the proceeds from the sale of their homes in buying or constructing other homes for themselves was also approved. He also sponsored the provision in the law exempting all Filipinos residing abroad from the payment of Philippine income tax on their income earned abroad. In the previous Tax Code, the same income was taxed in the Philippines even if it had already been subjected to tax in the foreign jurisdiction. One of the Senator's advocacies involved a review of the performance of the power sector. Senator that there was a need to refine the process of computing electrical charges to make the industry more efficient and to help households from being charged with inordinately high electric bills. For this reason, the Senator was very vocal in his criticism of the Electric Power Industry Reform Act. When the bill was submitted for voting, he cast the lone dissenting vote on the grounds, among others, that the EPIRA law, which institutionalized the imposition of the Purchase Power Adjustment (PPA), would subject the ordinary users to unnecessary increase in rates. Cognizant of the Constitution's prohibition against the formation of monopolies, Senator Bill as a means to discourage the formation of cartels and to curb the manipulation of the prices of basic commodities. Also, recognizing the need for security and the protection of civilians in the aftermath of the September 11-tragedy, the Senator filed the Anti-Terrorism Bill. His Senate term ended in 2001. In 2004, inspired by the people's confidence in him, he sought to run for senator once again and, with an overwhelming vote, he was elected to the 13th Congress. He immediately resumed pursuing his major advocacies for consumer protection and reforms in the electric industry, as well as in our revenue system. Among the first bills he introduced were: the Anti-Trust Bill, Amendments to the Electric Power Industry Reform Act (EPIRA), increasing the tax exemptions of individual tax payers and other revenuerelated measures. " He was active in plenary debates and was constantly vigilant over vital pieces of legislation taken up on the Floor, such as the Sin Taxes (RA 9334), Expanded Value Added Tax or EVAT (RA 9337), A 9367), Amendments to the Automated Elections System (RA 9369), and the General Appropriations Act, among others. Rarely was a bill passed into law without being scrutinized and examined by Senator Enrile. To fulfill his campaign promise "or Enrile meticulously studied and filed a bill proposing major amendments to the Electric Power Industry Reform Act (EPIRA). Since he cast the lone negative vote against EPIRA in 2001, he wanted to pursue his advocacy for the protection of electric power consumers

against unjust and unreasonable power rates. He was eventually designated as Sub Committee Chair of the Committee Energy to facilitate committee consideration of the amendments to EPIRA. One of the most important pieces of legislation acted on by Congress was the Anti-Terrorism Bill. Having filed the original bill in 1995, and having been the Defense Minister for many years, Senator ver the sponsorship of the measure on May 22, 2006. After going through long and tedious deliberation, this measure was later signed into law as the Human Security Act of 2007. Faithful to his vow to expose and oppose any program or measure that he believes to be inimical to national interest, he delivered speeches inquiring into the status of the tax credit scam, on the anomalous banking transactions of the Standard Chartered Bank, and on the present state of the insurance industry, which became the bases for investigations conducted by the appropriate Senate committees. Furthermore, as a member of the Committee on Government Corporations and Public Enterprises, he participated in the inquiry, in aid of legislation, on the anomalies that have been taking place in ings Corporation. Senator p of the Committee on Justice and Human Rights following the re-organization of the Senate when the Third Regular Session began. Without fail, and characteristic of his dynamic and pro-active disposition, Senator Enrile immediately conducted committee work and facilitated the passage of these measures: 1) An Act Strengthening the Office of the Solicitor General(R.A. No. 9417); 2) An Act Reorganizing and Strengthening the Public Attorney's Office(R.A. No. 9406) ; and, 3) numerous corresponding bills for creating additional branches of trial courts in various areas nationwide. Other measures that were subjected to committee consideration includes: An Act Defining as a Crime the Act of Driving any Motor Vehicle while under the Influence of Alcoholic Beverages and/or Prohibited Drugs; An Act Providing for the Payment of Survivorship Benefits to the Spouse of a Deceased or Retired Justice of the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals; An Act Adopting a Salary Schedule for the Members of the Bench and other Lawyers in the Judiciary; and, An Act Providing for the Retirement Benefits of the Judiciary. Also in the Thirteenth Congress, Senator Chairman of the Committees on National Defense and Security, and Banks, Currencies and Financial Institutions and a member of 15 other standing committees including Foreign Relations, Blue Ribbon, Constitutional Amendments, Revision of Codes and Laws, Public Order and Illegal Drugs, among others. He was also the Chairman of the Committee on Finance of the Commission on Appointments. In the Fourteenth Congress, Senator of the Committee on Finance, during which he shepherded the timely passage of the annual general appropriations act. Backed by the support and trust of his peers in the chamber, Senator Enrile as the Senate President on 17 November 2008. In all humility, he accepted the responsibility entrusted to him, saying that To lead the Senate with its great minds, strong advocacies, varying and independent political beliefs and leanings, is not an easy task. But it is precisely this variance in points of view and the battle of great ideas that provide the dynamism we need to craft legislation that takes into account and balances the competing interests involved with the end in view of serving the greater good of the people to whom we owe our mandate. Under his leadership, the Senate passed vital pieces of legislation such as the CARP Extension, AntiTorture Act, Expanded Senior Citizens Act, Anti-Child Pornography Act, National Heritage Conservation Act, Real Estate Investment Act, among many others. Institutional reforms were also implemented within the Senate to improve the daily conduct of business by the institution, as well as improve the welfare of its officers and employees.

Also under him, the Senate also collaborated with the House of Representatives on two crucial issues which are now considered historical milestones. First was in December 2009 to take up Proclamation No. 1959 of the previous administration, declaring a state of martial law and suspending the writ of habeas corpus in the province of Maguindanao, while the second occasion was in May 2010, when Congress convened to constitute itself as the national canvassing board to canvass the votes for president and vice president, and thereafter proclaim the winners. Now on his fourth term in the Senate, Senate President s to discharge my duties and responsibilities with honor, with total devotion to our institution, and with fairness to all members. No partisan consideration will blur or color the treatment of any member of the Senate. We are all Senators elected by the people to serve them with dedication to their interest and well-being and devotion to our responsibilities. Furthermore, in his acceptance speech, he enjoined his colleagues to uphold the independence and integrity of this Senate, without abandoning our duty to cooperate with the other departments of the government to achieve what is good for our people. With those words and by his example, Senator Juan Ponce ed the wavering faith and hope of the people in the countrys legislature.