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10

PRICES

10.1 Consumer price indices 10.2 Consumer price indices, for the main groups of goods and services 10.3 Harmonized consumer price indices, for groups of goods and services according to the COICOP classification 10.4 Industrial production price indices 10.5 Average purchasing prices for main agricultural products 10.6 Price indices for the main agricultural products 10.7 Price indices for the main products that represent intermediate consumption in agriculture 10.8 Average prices for the main products sold on the agro-food markets, in 2009

SURSA DATELOR
Cercetri statistice: Cercetarea statistic a bugetelor de familie i cercetarea statistic structural n ntreprinderi, pentru elaborarea sistemelor de ponderare folosite la calculul indicelui de preuri; Cercetarea statistic privind preurile i tarifele mrfurilor i serviciilor care intr n consumul populaiei, realizat pe eantioane reprezentative de sortimente, precum i uniti de observare (magazine, piee i uniti prestatoare de servicii), pentru calculul indicilor preurilor de consum; Cercetarea statistic privind preurile de producie ale produselor i serviciilor industriale, realizat pe eantioane reprezentative de produse, sortimente, precum i uniti de observare (operatori economici), pentru calculul indicilor preurilor produciei industriale; Cercetarea statistic privind preurile de achiziie/vnzare ale produselor agricole, realizat la circa 200 operatori economici (procesatori, comerciani, societi comerciale agricole) i n 50 oboare, pe un nomenclator de 180 produse/varieti; Cercetarea statistic asupra preurilor principalelor produse vndute de ctre productorii particulari n pieele agroalimentare, pe un eantion de 138 produse/varieti, n 100 de piee din 95 localiti urbane; Cercetarea statistic privind preurile principalelor produse care reprezint consum intermediar n agricultur, realizat la circa 120 operatori economici (procesatori, comerciani, societi comerciale agricole), pe un eantion de 1260 produse/sortimente.

DATA SOURCE
Statistical surveys: Family budgets statistical survey and structural business statistical survey, to carry out the weighting systems used in the calculation of the price index; Statistical survey on prices and tariffs of goods and services included in population consumption, carried out based on representative samples of assortments, as well as observation units (shops, markets and units rendering services), for the calculation of consumer price indices; Statistical survey on production prices of industrial products and services, carried out on representative samples of products, assortments, as well as observation units (economic operators), for the calculation of industrial production price indices; Statistical survey on purchase/ selling prices of agricultural products, carried out for about 200 economic units (processers, tradesmen, trade agricultural companies) and 50 markets, on a nomenclature of 180 products/items; Statistical survey on prices for main agricultural products, sold by private producers in agro-food markets on a sample of 138 products (varieties) in 100 markets and 95 urban localities; Statistical survey on prices of main products which represent intermediate consumption in agriculture, carried out for about 120 economic units (processers, tradesmen, trade agricultural companies), on a sample of 1260 products/items.

PRECIZRI METODOLOGICE
INDICELE PREURILOR DE CONSUM (IPC) msoar evoluia de ansamblu a preurilor mrfurilor cumprate i a tarifelor serviciilor utilizate de ctre populaie ntr-o anumit perioad (denumit perioad curent), fa de o perioad anterioar (denumit perioad de baz sau de referin). Indicele preurilor de consum se calculeaz numai pentru elementele care intr n consumul direct al populaiei, fiind excluse: consumul din resurse proprii, cheltuielile cu caracter de investiii i acumulare, dobnzile pltite la credite, ratele de asigurare, amenzile, impozitele etc., precum i cheltuielile aferente plii muncii pentru producia agricol a gospodriilor individuale. Preurile sunt colectate din circa 7000 de uniti aflate n 68 de centre de colectare selectate din 42 localiti urbane, n funcie de volumul vnzrilor i de numrul populaiei.

METHODOLOGICAL NOTES
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI) measures the overall evolution of prices for purchased goods and tariffs of services used by the population during a certain period (called current period), as against a previous period (called base or reference period). The Consumer Price Index is calculated only for the elements that form part of the population's direct consumption, excluding the following: consumption from one's own resources, investment and accumulation expenses, interest paid on credits, insurance rates, fines, taxes, etc., as well as expenses for the payment of the work done for the agricultural production of individual households. Prices are collected from circa 7000 units located in 68 collection centres selected from 42 urban localities, depending on the volume of sales and the population number.

Perioadele de referin pentru colectarea preurilor sunt 1-7, 10-17, 21-27 ale fiecrei luni, astfel ca pentru cele aproximativ 1700 de sortimente selectate n eantionul de bunuri i servicii se nregistreaz periodic circa 94000 de preuri. Indicele se calculeaz prin agregarea indicilor individuali la nivel de post de cheltuieli, grup (alimentar, nealimentar i servicii) i total. Ponderile utilizate pentru agregarea indicilor de pre de consum sunt obinute din cercetarea statistic a bugetelor de familie i rezult din structura cheltuielilor medii lunare efectuate de o gospodrie pentru cumprarea bunurilor i plata serviciilor necesare satisfacerii nevoilor de trai. Ponderile se actualizeaz anual, lundu-se n considerare cea mai recent estimare a cheltuielilor populaiei. Indicii armonizai ai preurilor de consum (IAPC) au luat fiin n Uniunea European ca rspuns la necesitatea de a stabili indici comparabili ai preurilor de consum la nivelul statelor membre ale Uniunii Europene, care s permit msurarea stabilitii preurilor la nivelul zonei euro dar i msurarea gradului de convergen a preurilor, criteriu de aderare la Uniunea Monetar European. Diferenele dintre cei doi indici de pre de consum sunt nesemnificative n cazul Romniei i constau n: clasificarea utilizat pentru agregarea i prezentarea indicilor armonizai este cea convenit de CEE/Eurostat/OECD; IAPC reflect evoluia preurilor i tarifelor achiziionate i consumate pe teritoriul Romniei att de persoanele fizice rezidente ct i de cele nerezidente (acestea din urm nu sunt incluse n IPC naional); ponderile aferente anului de baz stabilit n calcul IPC sunt rescalate la luna decembrie a anului precendent n cazul IAPC; perioada de referin utilizat pentru prezentarea IAPC este anul 2005. INDICELE PREURILOR PRODUCIEI INDUSTRIALE (IPPI) msoar evoluia n timp a preurilor produselor industriale fabricate de productori interni, livrate att pe piaa intern ct i pe piaa extern. Indicele preurilor produciei industriale este calculat conform cerinelor i standardelor Regulamentului Consiliului CE nr.1165/1998, amendat prin Regulamentul CE nr.1158/2005 cu privire la statisticile pe termen scurt i acoper aproape n totalitate sectoarele industriilor extractiv i prelucrtoare, precum i sectorul energetic. Preurile colectate sunt preuri de productor, adic includ accizele i alte impozite pe produs, dar nu includ TVA. Preurile sunt colectate de la aproximativ 2000 de operatori economici, selectai n funcie de cifra de afaceri raportat n cadrul cercetrii statistice Ancheta Statistic Anual (structural) n ntreprinderi (ASA) realizat n perioada aferent anului de baz (2005). Gradul de acoperire obinut este cuprins ntre 60% i 100% din cifra de afaceri aferent fiecrei clase CAEN Rev. 2.

The reference periods for price collection are 1-7, 10-17, 21-27 each month; thus, for the approximately 1700 assortments selected in the sample of goods and services, circa 94000 prices are recorded periodically. The index is calculated by aggregating the individual indices at the level of expenditure items, groups (food, non-food and services) and overall. The weights used to aggregate the Consumer Price Indices are obtained from the Family Budget Survey and result from the structure of the monthly average expenditure incurred by a household for the purchase of goods and the payment of services necessary for meeting living needs. The weights are updated annually, taking into account the most recent estimation of the population's expenditure. The Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP) were created within the European Union in response to the need to establish comparable Consumer Price Indices at the level of EU Member States, in order to allow the measurement of price stability in the euro area as well as the measurement of price convergence, a criterion for joining the European Monetary Union. The differences between the two Consumer Price Indices are insignificant in the case of Romania and consist in the following: the classification used to aggregate and present harmonised indices is the one agreed upon by EEC/Eurostat/OECD; the HICP reflects the evolution of the prices of goods and the tariffs of services purchased and consumed on Romanian territory both by resident and non-resident physical persons (the latter are not included in the national CPI); the weights of the base year set in the calculation of the CPI are rescaled to the previous year's December in the case of the HICP; the reference period used for the presentation of the HICP is the year 2005. THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PRICE INDEX (IPPI) measures the evolution over time of the prices of industrial products manufactured by domestic producers, delivered on the domestic and non-domestic markets. The Industrial Production Price Index is calculated in accordance with the requirements and standards of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1165/98 concerning short-term statistics, amended by Regulation (EC) No. 1158/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and covers almost fully the mining and quarrying sector, the manufacturing sector and the energy sector. The prices collected are producer prices, meaning they include duties and other taxes on products, but do not include the VAT. Prices are collected from approximately 2000 economic operators, selected depending on the turnover reported in the annual Structural Business Survey conducted during the period corresponding to the base year (2005). The coverage obtained ranges between 60% and 100% of the turnover corresponding to each CANE Rev. 2 class.

Colectarea se realizeaz o dat pe lun i const n nregistrarea preurilor la nivel de sortiment, considerat reprezentativ de ctre fiecare operator economic inclus n eantion. Indicele se calculeaz prin agregarea indicilor individuali la nivel de produs/operator economic, produs PRODROM, clas CAEN Rev. 2, diviziune CAEN Rev. 2, seciuni CAEN Rev. 2 i total industrie. Ponderile utilizate pentru calculul indicilor preurilor produciei industriale sunt stabilite separat pe destinaii (piaa intern sau piaa extern). Valorile de ponderare pentru toate nivelurile de agregare s-au determinat din Ancheta Statistic Anual (structural) n ntreprinderi (ASA) realizat n perioada aferent anului de baz (2005). PREURILE MEDII I INDICII PREURILOR PRINCIPALELOR PRODUSE AGRICOLE Observarea i culegerea preurilor care intr n calcularea preurilor medii se realizeaz pe canale de vnzare reprezentative, n funcie de natura produsului, utiliznd un eantion de 100 de piee agroalimentare, 50 oboare, circa 100 procesatori, circa 60 angrositi i 50 societi comerciale agricole i uniti de cercetare i producie agricol. Preurile nu includ costuri de transport, stocare etc., subveniile pe produs i TVA. Colectarea preurilor se realizeaz cu frecven sptmnal n pieele agroalimentare i lunar n oboare, la procesatori, angrositi i la societile comerciale agricole. Preurile medii anuale ale produselor vndute n pieele agroalimentare sunt obinute ca medie aritmetic simpl a preurilor sptmnale. Preurile medii anuale ale produselor agricole achiziionate de operatorii economici sunt obinute ca medie aritmetic simpl a preurilor medii lunare, la nivel de produs/ar. Indicii preurilor produselor agricole msoar variaia n timp a preurilor de vnzare a acestor produse de ctre productorii agricoli interni. Indicii individuali sunt agregai la diferite nivele de clasificare ale produselor de origine vegetal sau animal, pn la obinerea indicelui pentru total produse agricole. Sistemul de ponderi utilizat n calculul preurilor medii i al indicilor lunari ai preurilor la nivel de produs se bazeaz pe datele (cantiti) care provin din cercetrile statistice Producia vegetal la principalele culturi i Efectivele de animale la 1 decembrie i producia animal, din anul 2005. Sistemul de ponderi folosit n calculul indicilor agregai este obinut pe baza datelor din Conturile Economice n Agricultur - 2005. Indicii preurilor principalelor produse care reprezint consum intermediar n agricultur (input-uri) msoar variaia n timp a preurilor de vnzare a acestor produse ctre productorii agricoli interni.

Prices are collected once a month. They are recorded at the level of assortments considered representative by each economic operator included in the sample. The index is calculated by aggregating individual indices at the level of products/economic operators, PRODROM products, CANE Rev. 2 classes, CANE Rev. 2 divisions, CANE Rev. 2 sections and for industry overall. The weights used to calculate Industrial Production Price Indices are established separately according to the destination (the domestic market or the non-domestic market). The weighting values for all aggregation levels were determined from the annual Structural Business Survey conducted during the period corresponding to the base year (2005). AVERAGE PRICES AND PRICE INDICES FOR THE MAIN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS The observation and collection of the prices that are taken into account for the calculation of average prices are performed based on representative sales channels, depending on the nature of the product, using a sample of 100 agro-food markets, 50 fairs, circa 100 processors, about 60 wholesalers and 50 agricultural trading companies and agricultural research and production units. Prices do not include the costs for transport, storage etc., the subsidies on products and the VAT. Prices are collected weekly in the agro-food markets and monthly as regards the fairs, processors, wholesalers and agricultural trading companies. The annual average prices of the products sold in agro-food markets are obtained as a simple arithmetic mean of weekly prices. The annual average prices of the agricultural products purchased by economic operators are obtained as a simple arithmetic mean of monthly average prices, at product/country level. The price indices for agricultural products measure the change over time in the prices at which these products are sold to domestic agricultural producers. Individual indices are aggregated at various crop or animal product classification levels, until obtaining the index for agricultural products overall. The system of weights used in the calculation of average prices and monthly price indices at product level is based on data (quantities) resulting from the statistical surveys Crop production for main crops and Livestock on December 1 and livestock production of 2005. The system of weights used to calculate aggregate indices is obtained based on the data from the Economic Accounts for Agriculture - 2005. The price indices for the main products that represent intermediate consumption in agriculture (inputs) measure the change over time in the prices at which these products are sold to domestic agricultural producers.

Preurile sunt colectate trimestrial de la aproximativ 120 de operatori economici care desfoar activitate de producie i/sau de comercializare de input-uri agricole (din producia intern sau din import) i vnd direct ctre productorii agricoli. Preurile includ costurile de transport, stocare etc, dar nu cuprind TVA i subveniile pe produs. nregistrarea preurilor se realizeaz la nivel de sortimente reprezentative pentru fiecare produs, selectate pe baza caracteristicilor specifice i a celor mai comune condiii de comercializare. Indicii sunt agregai la diferite nivele de clasificare a produselor utiliznd un sistem de ponderi. n structura indicelui global sunt cuprinse i produse/grupe de produse pentru care nu se culeg date (ex: Energie i lubrifiani), acestea provenind de la alte cercetri statistice din cadrul INS i reprezint fie indici agregai, fie indici la nivel de produse care se agreg pn la nivelul impus de structura indicelui global. Ponderile utilizate pentru agregarea indicilor de pre de input n agricultur rezult din structura valorilor anuale a produselor care reprezint consum intermediar, nregistrat n conturile economice din agricultur n anul 2005.

Prices are collected on a quarterly basis from approximately 120 economic operators who produce and/or market agricultural inputs (from the domestic production or from imports) and sell the products directly to agricultural producers. Prices include the costs for transport, storage etc., but do not include the VAT and the subsidies on products. Prices are recorded at the level of assortments that are representative for each product, selected on the basis of specific characteristics and of the most common marketing conditions. Indices are aggregated at various product classification levels using a system of weights. The structure of the overall index also includes products/groups of products for which data are not collected (e.g.: Energy and lubricants), as they come from other statistical surveys conducted by the NIS and represent either aggregate indices or indices at product level which are aggregated up to the level imposed by the structure of the overall index. The weights used for the aggregation of the input price indices in agriculture result from the structure of the annual values of the products that represent intermediate consumption, recorded in the Economic Accounts for Agriculture in 2005.

10.G1
125 115 105 95 85 75

Evoluia indicilor preurilor de consum i ai cursului de schimb mediu anual Evolution of consumer price and yearly average exchange rate indices
an curent / an precedent current year / previous year

111,9

109,0 106,7

106,56 97,3 96,4

110,3 104,84 94,7 107,85 103,3

107,9 105,59 99,7

95,6 87,6

94,4

86,8

0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009


Indicii preurilor de consum - total / Consumer price indices - total Indicii cursului de schimb mediu anual (lei/euro) Yearly average exchange rate indices (lei/euro) Indicii cursului de schimb mediu anual (lei/dolar SUA) Yearly average exchange rate indices (lei/USD)

Not: Toi indicii de pre prezentai mai sus sunt de tip Laspeyres. Note: All price indices presented above are Laspeyres-type indices.