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LINEAGE OF ETHIOPIAN KINGS AND QUEENS

For purposes of comparison, it should be remembered that the present Abyssinian autumn-to-autumn calendar is seven or eight years behind ours, according to the period of the year. That is, the Ethiopian date differs by eight years from 1st January to 10th September. It differs by seven years from 11th September to 31st December. Thus the year which the Abyssinians regard as A.D. 1 is for us September A.D. 8 to September A.D. 9. This difference is not of course exactly the same all the way back throughout the List of Kings, as revisions of the calendar took place at various dates throughout the period. But it is near enough for general comparison.

TRIBE OF POSTERITY OF ORI OR ARAM

Ruler

Length of Reign 60

Dates 2222-2162

1. Ori or Aram, son of Shem.

2. Gariak I. Mash, son of 66 2162-2096 Aram, settled Charax Spasini (see Josephus). Greek word Charax is translation of Ethiopian Gariak. This Gariak I would appear to be of the family of Mash. These Arameans spread into Africa, just as Cush, north of God's Land (Palestine) are reported in Syria and Mesopotamia. 3. Gannkam 4. Borsa (queen) 5. Dagmawi Gariak II 6. Qadamawi Djan I 7. Dagmawi Djan II 83 67 60 80 60 2096-2013 2013-1946 1946-1886 1886-1806 1806-1746

8. Senefrou=Snefru. Job 20 1746-1726 was son-in-law of Snefru.

9. Zeenabzamin 10. Sahlan 11. Elaryan 12. Nimroud 13. Eylouka (queen) 14. Saloug 15. Kharid 16. Hogeb 17. Makaws 18. Assa 19. Affar 20. Milanos

58 60 80 60 45 30 72 100 70 30 50 62

1726-1668 1668-1608 1608-1528 1528-1468 1468-1423 1423-1393 1393-1321 1321-1221 1221-1151 1151-1121 1121-1071 1071-1009 1009- 936

21. Soliman Tehagui. Soliman, 73 an elderly man probably in his 90's, died the year in which he received the news of the overthrow of Zerah and the Ethiopians and their allies (937-936).

Twenty-one sovereigns of the Tribe of Ori ruled. THE LINE OF HAM, CUSH AND SABTAH Ruler Length of Reign Dates 2255-2177

1. Kam = Ham. Date of 78 Ham is predated to the autumn preceding overthrow of Babel. The Chinese predated to the winter solstice. 2. Kout = Cush. Son of Ham. 3. Habassi 4. Sebtah 40 30 50

2177-2127 2127-2087 2087-2057

5. Elektron 6. Neber 7. Qadamawi Amen I 8. Nehasset Nais (queen) 9. Horkam 10. Dagmawi Saba II 11. Sofard 12. Askndou 13. Hohey 14. Adglag 15. Adgala 16. Lakniduga 17. Manturay 18. Rakhu 19. Qadamawi Sabe I 20. Azagan 21. Sousel Atozanis 22. Dagmawi Amen II 23. Ramenpahte 24. Wanuna

30 30 21 30 29 30 30 25 35 20 30 25 35 30 30 30 20 15 20 3 days

2057-2027 2027-1997 1997-1976 1976-1946 1946-1917 1917-1887 1887-1857 1857-1832 1832-1797 1797-1777 1777-1747 1747-1722 1722-1687 1687-1657 1657-1627 1627-1597 1597-1577 1577-1562 1562-1542 1542

25. Piori II, father of the 15 1542-1527 Ethiopian whom Moses married when he overthrew Cush in Nubia. The daughter of Piori betrayed the city and her father in 1527. Twenty-five sovereigns of the tribe of Kam ruled in the land of Cush. AGDAZYAN DYNASTY OF THE POSTERITY OF THE KINGDOM OF JOCTAN Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Qadamawi Akbunas Saba I. Saba 55 is the Arabian Abd Shems, son of Jerah (Yarab), the son of Joktan. 2. Nakehte Kalnis. Kalnis 40 is Kahlan of Arabian tradition, the son of Abd Shems. 3. Kasiyope (queen) 4. Qadamawi Sabe I 5. Qadamawi Etiyopus I 6. Lakndun Nowarari 7. Tutimheb 8. Qadamawi Herhator I 9. Dagmawi Etiyopus II 10. Qadamawi Senuka I 11. Qadamawi Bonu I 12. Mumazes (queen) 4 30 20 20 30 17 8 19 15 56

1978-1923

1923-1883

1883-1864 1864-1849 1849-1793 1793-1763 1763-I743 1743-1723 1723-1693 1693-1676 1676-1668 1668-1664 1664 1664-1634 1634-1604 1604-1589 40 1589-1549

13. Aruas, daughter of 7 months Mumazes. 14. Qadamawi Amen Asro I 15. Dagmawi Ori (or Aram) II 16. Qadamawi Piori I 17. Qadamawi Amen Emhat I 18. Tsawi 19. Aktissanis 20. Mandes 21. Protawos 22. Amoy 23. Konsi Hendawi 24. Dagmawi Bonu II 15 10 17 33 21 5 2 30 30 15

1549-1534 1534-1524 1524-1507 1507-1474 1474-1453 1453-1448 1448-1446

25. Salsawi Sebi III (Kefe) 26. Djagons 27. Dagmawi Dagmawi Senuka II 28. Qadamawi Angabo I (Zaka Laarwe) 29. Miamur 30. Helena (queen) 31. Qadamawi Zagdur I 32. Dagmawi Her Hator II 33. Her Hator (Za Sagado) III 34. Akate (Za Sagado) IV 35. Titon Satiyo 36. Qadamawi Hermantu I 37. Dagmawi Amen Emhat II 38. Qadamawi Konsab I 39. Dagmawi Sannib II 40. Sanuka III 41. Dagmawi Angabo II 42. Amen Astate 43. Herhor 44. Qadamawi Wiyankihi I 45. Qadamawi Pinotsem I 46. Dagmawi Pinotsem II 47. Massaherta 48. Ramenkoperm 49. Salsawi Pinotsem III 50. Sabi IV 51. Tawasaya Dews 52. Makeda 10 13 31 16 14 30 16 5 20

15

1446-1431 1431-1411 10 50 1351 1351-1340 1411-1401 1401-1351

2 days 11 40 30 1 20 10

1340-1300 1300-1270 1270-1269 1269-1249 1249-1239

5 months 5 5 5

1239 1239-1234 1234-1229 1229-1224

1224-1219 40 1219-1179 1179-1149 1149-1133 9 17 41 1133-1124 1124-1107 1107-1066 1066-1050 1050-1036 7 1036-1029 1029-1019 1019-1006 1006- 975

The year 975 is the year of death of Hatshepsowe, who is Makeda. Her daughter married Solomon, Their son, Menelik, was adopted by Makeda as her heir since she had no son of her own. Menelik thus was of the line of Sheba, of Joktan and Peleg -- which explains the racial intermixture of the Ethiopian royalty. Fifty-two sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia before the advent of Mehelik I.

DYNASTY OF MENELIK I Ruler 1. Qadamawi Menelik I 2. Hanyon 1 Length of Reign 25 Dates 975-950 950-949 949-923

3. Qadamawi Sera I (Tomai). This 26 is Zerah the Ethiopian -here expressly recorded by name in the history of Abyssinia. 4. Amen Hotep Zagdur 5. Aksumay Ramissu 6. Dagmawi Awseyo Sera II 7. Dagmawi Tawasya II 8. Dagmawi Abralyus Wiyankihi II 9. Aksumay Warada Tsahay 10. Kashta Hanyon 11. Dagmawi Sabaka II 12. Nicauta Kandake (queen) 13. Tsawi Terhak Warada Nsgash 23 13 12 10 49 31 20 38 21 32

923-892 892-872 872-834 834-813 813-781 781-758 758-745 745-733 733-723 723-674 674-668

14. Erda Amen Awseya, or 6 Urdemane of Assyrian records of Assurbanipal 15. Gasiyo Eskikatir 16. Nuatmeawn (Tanautamun) 17. Salsawi Tomadyon Piyankihi III -4 12

668 668-664 664-652

18. Amen Asero 19. Piyankihi IV, or Awtet 20. Zaware Nebret Aspurta 21. Dagmawi Saifay Harsiataw II 22. Ramhay Nastossanan 23. Handu Wuha Abra 24. Safelya Sabakon 25. Agalbus Sepekos 26. Psmenit Waradanegash 27. Awseya Tarakos

16 34 41 12 4 11 31 22 21 12

652-636 636-602 602-561 561-549 549-535 535-524 524-493 493-471 471-450 450-438 438-425 425-415

28. Kanaz Psmis, son of 13 Awseya Tarakos 29. Apras 30. Kashta Walda Ahuhu 31. Elalion Taake 32. Salsawi Atserk Amen III 33. Atserk Amen IV 34. Hadina (queen) 35. Atserk Amen V 36. Atserk Amen VI 37. Nikawla Kandake (queen) 38. Bassyo 7 10 10 10 10 16 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 10 10

415-395 395-385 385-375 375-365 365-355 355-345 345-335 335-325 325-318 318-308 308-298 298-288 288-278 278-262

39. Salsawi Akawsis Kandake III (queen) 40. Dagmawi Arkamen II 41. Awtet Arawura 42. Dagmawi Kolas II (Kaletro) 43. Zawre Nebrat

44. Stiyo 45. Safay

14 13 10 10 15 20 10 20 8 10 10 20 10 11 10 8 10 10 10 5 10 5 12 17

262-248 248-235 235-225 225-215 215-200 200-180 180-170 170-150 150-142 142-132 132-122 122-102 102- 92 92- 81 81- 71 71- 63 63- 53 53- 43 43- 33 33- 28 28- 18 18- 13 13- 1 B.C. 1- 17 A.D.

46. Nikosis Kandake IV (queen) 47. Ramhay Arkamen IV 48. Feliya Hernekhit 49. Hende Awkerara 50. Agabu Baseheran 51. Sulay Kawswmenun 52. Messelme Kerarmer 53. Nagey Bsente 54. Etbenukewer 55. Safeliya Abramen 56. Sanay 57. Awsena (queen) 58. Dagmawi Dawit II 59. Aglbul 60. Bawawl 61. Barawas 62. Dinedad 63. Amoy Mahasse 64. Nicotnis Kandake V 65. Nalke 66. Luzay 67. Bazen

Before Christ 119 sovereigns reigned. THOSE WHO REIGNED AFTER THE BIRTH OF CHRIST Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Sartu Tsenfa Assegd 2. Akaptah Tsenfa Ared 3. Horemtaku

21 8 2

17- 38 38- 46 46- 48 48- 58

4. Garsemot Kandake VI. Jen 10 Daraba, favourite of Queen Garsemot Kandake, crowned by Gabre Hawariat Kandake, had made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem according to the law of Orit (the ancient law), and on his return Philip the Apostle taught him the gospel, and after he had made him believe the truth he sent him back. 5. Hatoza Bahr Asaged 6. Mesenh Germasir 7. Metwa Germa Asfar 8. Dagmawi Adgale II 9. Agba 10. Serada 11. Malis Alameda 12. Hakabe Nasohi Tsiyon 13. Hakli Sergway 14. Dedme Zaray 15. Awtet 16. Alaly Bagamay 17. Awadu Jan Asagad 18. Zagun Tsion Hegez 19. Rema Tsion Geza 20. Azegan Malbagad 21. Gafale Seb Asagad 22. Tsegay Beze Wark 23. Gaza Agdur 9 12 10 2 7 30 5 3 7 1 4 1 16 4 6 28 7 9 10

58- 86 86- 93 93-102 102-112 112-113 113-129 129-133 133-139 139-151 151-161 161-163 163-170 170-200 200-205 205-208 208-215 215-216 216-220 220-229

24. Agduba Asgwegwe 25. Dawiza 26. Wakana (queen) 27. Hadawz 28. Ailassan Sagal 29. Asfehi Asfeha 30. Atsgaba Seifa Arad 31. Ayba 32. Tsaham Laknduga 33. Tsegab 34. Tazer 35. Ahywa Sofya (queen) 10 10 17 1

229-237 237-238

2 days 4 months 3 14 6

238 238 238-241 241-255 255-261 261-278

278-287 287-297 297-307

307-314

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE CHRIST SOVEREIGNS 1. Ahywa. Her regnal name was Sofya, and she was the mother of Abreha Atsbeha. 2. Abreha Atsbeha, reigned 26 partly with his mother. 3. Atsbeha, alone. 4. Asfeh Dalz 5. Sahle 6. Arfed Gebra Maskal 7. Qadamawi Adhana I (queen) 8. Riti 9. Dagmawi Asfeh II 10. Dagmawi Atsbeha II 11. Amey 12. Dagmawi Abreha II 15 1 1 5 12 7 14 4 5 382-383 383-384 384-389 389-404 7 months 404 314-340 340-352 352-359 359-373 373-377 377-382

13. Ilassahl 14. Qadamawi Elagabaz I 15. Suhal 16. Salsawi Abreha III 17. Dagmawi Adhana II (queen) 18. Yoab 19. Qadamawi Tsaham I 20. Dagmawi Amey II 21. Sahle Ahzob 22. Tsebah Mahana Kristos 23. Dagmawi Tsaham II 24. Dagmawi Elagabaz II 25. Agabi 26. Lewi 27. Ameda III 28. Armah Dawit 29. Amsi 30. Salayba 31. Alameda 32. Pazena Ezana

2 months 2 4 10 6 10 2 1 2 3 2 6 1 2 3 14 5 9 8 7

404 404-406 406-410 410-420 420-426 426-436 436-438 438-439 439-441 441-444 444-446 446-452 452-453 453-455 455-458 458-472 472-477 477-486 486-494 494-501

Of the posterity of Sofya and Abreha Atsbeha until the reign of Pazena Ezana thirty-one sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia. DYNASTY OF ASHE (EMPEROR) KALEB UNTIL GEDAJAN Ruler 1. Kaleb 2. Za Israel 3. Gabra Maskal Length of Reign 30 1 month 14 Dates

501-531 531 531-545

4. Kostantinos 5. Wasan Sagad 6. Fere Sanay 7. Advenz 8. Akala Wedem 9. Germa Asafar 10. Zergaz 11. Dagena Mikael 12. Bahr Ekla 13. Gum 14. Asguagum 15. Latem 16. Talatam 17. Gadagosh 18. Aizar Eskakatir 19. Dedem 20, Wededem 21. Wudme Asfare 22. Armah 23. Degennajan 24. Gedajan 25. Gudit 26. Anbase Wedem 27. Del Naad

28 15 23 20 8 15 10 26 19 24 5 16 21 13 1/2 day 5 10 30 5 19 1 40 20 10

545-573 573-588 588-611 611-631 631-639 639-654 654-664 664-690 690-709 709-733 733-738 738-754 754-775 775-788 788 788-793 793-803 803-833 833-838 838-857 857-858 858-898 898-918 918-928

Twenty-seven sovereigns of the posterity of Kaleb SOVEREIGNS ISSUED FROM ZAGWE Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Mara Takla Haymanot, his 13 regnal name was Zagwe. 2. Tatawdem 3. Jan Seyum 4. Germa Seyum 5. Yermrhana Kristos 6. Kedus Arbe (Samt) 7. Lalibala 8. Nacuto Laab 9. Yatbarak 10. Mayari 11. Harbay 40 40 17 15 8 40 40 40 40 40

928- 941 941- 981 981-1021 1021-1061 1061-1101 1101-1141

1141-1181 1181-1221 1221-1238 1238-1253 1253-1261

Of the posterity of Mara Takla Haymanot (whose regnal name was Zagwe) until the reign of Harbay eleven sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia. A JEW(SOLOMONIC) DYNASTY, WHICH WAS NOT RAISED TO THE THRONE, DURING THE PERIOD OF THE PRECEDING DYNASTY 1. Mahbara Wedem 2. Agbea Tsyon 3. Tsinfa Arad 4. Nagash Zare 5. Asfeh 6. Yakob 7. Bahr Asagad 8. Edem Asagad SOVEREIGNS FROM EMPEROR YEKUNO AMLAK, DESCENDED FROM THE ANCIENT REIGNING DYNASTIES Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Yekuno Amlak 2. Yasbeo Tseyon 3. Tsenfa Arad 4. Hesba Asagad 5. Kedme Asagad 6. Jan Asagad 7. Sabea Asagad 8. Wedma Ared 9. Amda Tseyon 10. Saifa Ared 11. Wedma Asfare 12. Dawit 13. Tewodoros 14. Yeshak 15. Andreyas 16. Hesba Nan

15 9 1 1 1 1 1 15 30 28 10 30 4 15 6 months 4

1261-1276 1276-1285 1285-1286 1286-1287 1287-1288 1288-1289 1289-1290 1290-1305 1305-1335 1335-1363 1363-1373 1373-1403 1403-1407 1407-1422 1422 1422-1426 1426-1427 1427-1434 1434-1468 1468-1478 1478-1494

17. Bedl Nan (6 months with 1 Andreyas & 6 months) 18. Amde Tseyon 19. Zara Yakob 20. Boeda Maryam 21. Iskender 22. Amda Tseyon 23. Naod 13 7 34 10 16 1

1494-1495 1495-1508

Of the posterity of Yekuno Amlak up to the reign of Naod 23 sovereigns ruled over Ethiopia. ELEVATION TO THE THRONE OF ASHE (EMPEROR) LEBNA DENGEL, AND THE INVASION OF ETHIOPIA BY GRAN

Ruler 1. Lebna Dengel 2. Galawdewos 3. Minas

Length of Reign 32 19 4

Dates 1508-1540 1540-1559

1559-1563

Fifteen years after Ashe (Emperor) Lebna Dengel came to the throne Gran devastated Ethiopia for fifteen years. THE HOUSE OF GONDAR Ruler 1. Sartsa Dengel 2. Yakob 3. Za Dengel 4. Susneyos 5. Fasil 6. Degu-Yohannes 7. Adyam Sagad Iyasu 8. Takla Haymanot 9. Tewoflus 10. Yostos 11. Dawit 12. Bakaffa 13. Birhan Sagad Iyasu 14. Iyoas 15. Yohannes 16. Takla Haymanot 17. Solomon 18. Takla Giyorgis 2 5 15 3 4 5 9 24 Length of Reign 34 9 1 28 35 15 25 2 Dates 1563-1597 1597-1606 1606-1607 1607-1635 1635-1670 1670-1685 1685-1710 1710-1712 1712-1715 1715-1719 1719-1724 1724-1733 1733-1757 1757-1772 1772

5 mos. & 5 dys. 8

1772-1780 1780-1782 1782-1787

Of the posterity of Sartsa Dengel up to the reign of King Takla Giyorgis eighteen sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia.

SOVEREIGNS OF ABYSSINIA SUBSEQUENT TO THE FOREGOING LIST From about 1730 up to the advent of Theodore in 1855 these kings exercised no real power. They were murdered, deposed, restored and driven out again, or treated as nonentities by anyone of the great Rases or semi-independent kings who were strong enough to maintain themselves against their rivals, such as, for example, Ras Mikael Suhul of Tigre (1730-1780), Ras Guksa of Amhara a Galla (1790-1819), and the son (Ras Marye) and grandson (Ras Ali) of the latter. In 1813, indeed, no less than six nominal "Kings of Kings of Ethiopia" were all alive, having been successively turned out of office by others. The names of all these kings (who were actually raised to the throne) are, however, given below in order to maintain continuity, together with the dates (according to our calendar) of their chequered reigns. Ruler 1. Yasus 2. Takla Haymanot 3. Iskias 4. Baeda Maryam 5. Junus 6. Adimo 7. Egwala Sion 8. Joas 9 Gigar 10. Salsawi Baeda Maryam III 11. Gigar (again) 12. Iyasu IV 13. Gabra Kristos 14. Sahala Dengel 15. Salsawi Yohannes III 16. Sahala Dengel (again) 14 8 1 4 2 -2 19 3 5 6 2 -Length of Reign 1 1 Dates

1787-1788 1788-1789 1789-1795 1795-1797 1797 1797-1799 1799-1818 1818-1821 1821-1826 -1826

1826-1830 1830-1832 1832 1832-1840 1840-1841 1841-1855

At this time the empire was re-established by Theodore.

17. Tewodoros 18. Yohannes IV 19. Dagmawi Menelik II 20. Lij Yasu 21. Zauditu, empress, and

13 21 24 3 14

1855-1868 1868-1889 1889-1913 1913-1916 1916-1930

Tafari Makonnen, regent and heir. 22. Qadamawi Haile Selassie I, 1930 -