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METALLURGY I

(RM-1420)

LECTURE X
Crystal Structures of Iron Fe Fe3C Phase Diagram Steels Cast Iron
Dosen: Fahmi Mubarok, ST., MSc. Metallurgy Laboratory Mechanical Engineering ITS- Surabaya 2008

http://www.its.ac.id/personal/material.php?id=fahmi

Review (Concept of solubility)

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Illustration of phases and solubility: (a) The three forms of water gas, liquid, and solid are each a phase. (b) Water and alcohol have unlimited solubility. (c) Salt and water have limited solubility. (d) Oil and water have virtually no solubility.

2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Crystal Structures of iron

Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Fe - Fe3C Phase Diagram

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Fe-Fe3C Phase Diagram

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Region
Pure Iron Steel Cast Isron < 0.008% wt C 0.008 < % wt C < 2.14 2.14 < %wt C < 6.70

Phases:
-Ferrite () Austenite () -Ferrite () Cemenite (Fe3C)

Critical temperature:

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Four Solid Phases

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-Ferrite ()
Solid solution of a carbon in -Iron BCC structure Carbon only slightly soluble in matrix
Maximum solubility of 0.022 % wt C at 727oC to about 0.008 wt% C in room temperature

Austenite ()
Solid solution of a carbon in -Iron FCC structure can accomodate more carbon than ferrite
Maximum solubility of 2.14 % wt C at 1147oC, then decreased to 0.8 wt% C at 727oC. The difference in C solid solubility between and is the basis of hardening in many steel.
Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya X 6

Four Solid Phases

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-Ferrite ()
Solid solution of a carbon in -Iron BCC structure NO technological importance cause only stable at high temperature.
Maximum solubility of ferrite being 0.09 % wt C at 1493oC

Cementite (Fe3C)
Intermetallic Fe-C compound Fe3C : 6.7 wt% C + 93.3 wt% Fe Forms when solubility limit of carbon in -ferrite is exceeded below 727oC Orthorombic crystal structure : very hard and brittle.

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Three Invariant Reactions

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Eutectoid steel (Pearlitic steel)

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Microstructure: pearlite - Lamellar eutectoid product alternates plates of + Fe3C - Two phases grow simultaneously

Lever rule

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Formation of Pearlite

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Hypoeutectoid steel

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Hypoeutectoid steel ->Lever Rule

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The fraction of eutectoid ferrite thus are:


1 2 3

We = Wt W = 0.95 0.52 = 0.43%

3. T = 730oC

Example: Calculating composition of steel with 0.38 wt%C


4. T=25oC
0.76 0.38 (0.76 0.022)

W (proeutectoid ferrite) = = 0.52%

Wt(total ferrite) = = 0.95%

6.70 0.38 6.70 0.022

W(that will form pearlite) = 1 0.52 = 0.48%


Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

WFe C (Cementite) = 1 0.95 = 0.05%


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Hypoeutectoid steel composition (0.38 wt% C)

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Hypereutectoid steel

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Hypereutectoid steel -> lever rule

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Exercise 10a. Determine the following composition of 1.4 wt%C at a temperature near eutectoid line : a. The fraction of pealite and proeutectoid cementite b. The fraction of total ferrite and cementite phases c. The fraction of eutectoid cementite

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Hypereutectoid steel composition (1.4 wt% C)

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Plain Carbon Steels


1. 2. 3.

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Satisfactory where strength and other requirement are not too severe Used successfully at room temperatures and in atmospheres that are not highly corrosive Can be produced in a great range of strengths at a relatively low cost

Limitation 1. Cannot be strengthened beyond about 100.000 psi without significant loss in toughness (impact resistance) and ductility 2. Large section cannot be made with a martensitic structure throughout 3. Rapid quench rates are necessary for full hardening in medium-carbon plain carbon steels to produce a martensitic structure. This rapid quenching leads to shape distortion and cracking of heat-treated steel 4. Show a marked softening with increasing tempering temperature 5. Poor impact resistance at low temperatures 6. Poor corrosion resistance for many engineering environments 7. Oxidezed readily at elevated temperatures
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Elements in Plain Carbon Steels

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1. Sulfur (<0.05 %) Sulfur combines with iron to form iron sulfide (FeS), which usually occurs as a grain boundary precipitation FeS is hard and has a low melting point, it can cause cracking during hot working of steel (hot-short) 2. Manganese (0.03 % -1.0 %) The fuction of manganese in counteracting the negative effects of sulfur Manganese combines with the sulfur persent in the steels to produce manganese sulfide (MnS), thus no FeS will form. 3. Phosphorus (< 0.04 %) This small quantity tends to dissolve in ferrite, increasing the strength and hardness slightly In large quantities, phosphorus reduces ductility, thereby increasing the tendency of the steel to crack when cold worked (cold-short) 4. Silicon (from 0.05%-0.30%) Silicon dissolves in ferrite, increasing the strength of the steel without greatly decreasing the ductility Silicon is used as a deoxidizer, and forms SiO2 or silicate inclusions
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Alloying Steels
Plain Carbon Steels Plain-carbon steels properties are not always adequate for all engineering applications of steel

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Alloy Steels Alloy steels have been developed which, although they cost more, are more economical for many uses In some applications, alloy steels are the only materials that are able to meet engineering requirements The principal element that are added to make alloy steels are nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, silicon, and vanadium Other elements sometimes added are cobalt, cooper, and lead
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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

Effect of carbon content

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Hardness and Strength

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Toughness and Ductility

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Cast Iron

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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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White Cast Iron

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Chemical composition: Carbon 1.8-3.6 % Silicon 0.5-1.9 % Manganese 0.25-0.80 % Sulfur 0.06-0.20 % Phosphorus 0.06-0.18 % Solidification rate fast enough Carbon combined with iron cementite (hard, brittle) Microstructure pearlite in a white interdendritic network of cementite Shows a white crystalline fractured surface

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White Cast Iron

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High compressive strength and excellent wear resistance but extremely brittle and difficult to machine Used where:
resistance to wear is most important The service does not require ductility

White cast iron Malleable cast iron (malleabilization) Mechanical properties:


Hardness brinell Tensile strength Compressive strength Modulus of elasticity 375 600 20.000 70.000 200.000 250.000 24 28 milion BHN psi psi psi

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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White Cast Iron

Fahmi Mubarok

Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

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Summary
Make sure you understand language and concepts:
! Pearlite ! Peritectic reaction ! Phase ! Phase diagram ! Phase equilibrium ! Primary phase ! Proeutectoid cementite ! Proeutectoid ferrite ! Solidus line ! Solubility limit ! Solvus line ! System ! Terminal solid solution ! Tie line ! Liquidus line ! Metastable

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! Austenite ! Cementite ! Component ! Congruent transformation ! Equilibrium ! Eutectic phase ! Eutectic reaction ! Eutectic structure ! Eutectoid reaction ! Ferrite ! Hypereutectoid alloy ! Hypoeutectoid alloy ! Intermediate solid solution ! Intermetallic compound ! Invariant point ! Isomorphous ! Lever rule
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Metallurgy Lab. Mech. Eng. Dept. ITS Surabaya

METALLURGY I
(RM-1420)

MINGGU XI-XIII

NON EQUILIBRIUM TRANSFORMATION


Dosen: Fahmi Mubarok, ST., MSc. Metallurgy Laboratory Mechanical Engineering ITS- Surabaya 2008

-Isothermal transformation diagram - Coling tranformation diagram - Formation of martensite

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