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Objectives of Three-Level Architecture Three level architecture external level the way users observe the data Internal

ta Internal level the way DBMS & operating system observe the data and where the data is actually stored using data structures and file organizations conceptual level provides both the mapping and the desired independence between the external and internal levels. All users should be able to access same data, but have a different customized view of data. A users view is immune to changes made in other views. Users should not need to know physical database storage details. DBA should be able to change database storage structures without affecting the users views. Internal structure of database should be unaffected by changes to physical aspects of storage. DBA should be able to change conceptual structure of database without affecting all users.

ANSI-SPARC Three-Level Architectur

External Level Users view of the database. Describes that part of database that is relevant to a particular user.

Conceptual Level Community view of the database. Describes what data is stored in database and relationships among the data. attributes & relationships, constraints, semantic info, security, integrity) E.g. all entities,

Internal Level Physical representation of the database on the computer. Describes how the data is stored in the database. E.g. storage space, indexing, record desc. Of storage, record placement, data compression & data encryption technique.

Differences between Three Levels of ANSI-SPARC Architecture

Data Independence Logical Data Independence Refers to immunity of external schemas to changes in conceptual schema. Conceptual schema changes (e.g. addition/removal of entities). Should not require changes to external schema or rewrites of application programs.

Physical Data Independence Refers to immunity of conceptual schema to changes in the internal schema. Internal schema changes (e.g. using different file organizations, storage structures/devices). Should not require change to conceptual or external schemas.

Data Independence and the ANSI-SPARC Three-Level Architecture

Database Languages Data Definition Language (DDL) Allows the DBA or user to describe and name entities, attributes, and relationships required for the application Used to define a schema or to modify an existing one. It cannot be used to manipulate data

Also referred as data dictionary & data directory

- The result of compilation of DDL statements is a set of tables stored in a special files collectively called the system catalogue Data Manipulation Language (DML) Provides basic data manipulation operations on data held in the database. (insertion, modification, retrieval & deletion)

Procedural DML allows user to tell system exactly how to manipulate data.calling appropriate procedures Usually embedded in a high level programming language

- Network & hierarchical DMLs are procedural Non-Procedural DML allows user to state what data is needed rather than how it is to be retrieved.

- All required data is specified in a single retrieval or update statementalso called a declarative languages.

Fourth Generation Languages (4GLs) - shorthand programming language (fewer lines of code) - non-procedural - rely largely on much higher-level components known as fourth-generation tools. - 4GLs can improve productivity by a factor ten, at the cost of limiting the types of problem that can be tackled - 4GL encompass: * presentation language, such as query & report generators * speciality language, such as spreadsheets and database language * application generators that define, insert, update & retrieve * very high-level languages that are used to generate application code