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Module PMR

Indices 64
CHAPTER 6 : INDICES



NUMBERS IN INDEX FORM

Example:
Express in the form
of repeated
multiplication.

a a a a a =
4

1)
5
h 2) ( )
3
h
3)
2
|

\
|
e
d

4)
4
5

5) ( )
3
1
6)
4
3
2
|

\
|
7)
2
4
3
|

\
|




Example:
Write in index
notation.
h x h x h x h x h x h
=


8) g x g x g x g 9).
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) d d
d d d





10)
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
n
e
n
e
n
e




11) 7 x 7 x7 x 7 x 7 12)
(-11)(-11)(-11)
13)
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
14)
|

\
|
|

\
|

9
7
9
7






Example:
Evaluate
2 2 2 2 2 2
5
=

= 32



15)
3
10

16) ( )
4
3
17)
2
4
3
|

\
|

18)
3
4
1
|

\
|
19)
3
2
1
3
|

\
|

20) ( )
3
4 . 0 21) ( )
2
05 . 0








Module PMR
Indices 65
LAWS OF INDICES

LAW 1
n m n m
a a a
+
=

Example:
Simplify

3 5
b b

3 5+
= b

8
b =

1)
6 2
g g 2)
6 9 3
h h h 3) ( ) ( )
3 2
e e




Example:
Simplify

4 3
2 2

4 3
2
+
=

7
2 =
4)
6 2
5 5




5)
6 8 3
6 6 6 6) ( ) ( )
4 5
3 3
Example:
Simplify
3 2
4 3 b b
( )
3 2
4 3
+
= b
5
12b =

7)
6 2
5 4 y y 8)
4 3
3 10 s s
9)
4 5
8
3
2 k k



Example:
Simplify
7 2 6 5
9 4 s h s h
( )
7 6 7 5
9 4
+ +
= s h
13 12
36 s h =
10)
2 3 2
3 7 m b m



11)
2 3 4
9
3
2
v v v
12) p a p a
4 4 3
3 6






LAW 2
n m n m
a a a

=

Example:
Simplify

4 7
j j

4 7
= j

3
j =

1)
4 9
n n
2)
2
5
a
a

3)
3 4
4 t t
Example:
Simplify 4
5
4
2
= 4
5 - 2

= 4
3
4) 5
4
5
3



5)
2
4
7
7

6)
5 7
10 10


Example:
Simplify
3 5
4 12 a a
3 5
4
12

= a
2
3a =
7)
4 5
5 40 g g
8)
2
8
4
20
y
y

9)
5 10
27 18 n n

Module PMR
Indices 66
Example:
Simplify
( )
9
3 6
3 6
3 6
2
2
6
12
6 12
z
z
z
z z
=
=
=



10)
8 5
2 10

u u
11)
2
4
2
18

w
w

12)
4 8
9
2
3

m m


LAW 3 ( )
n m
n
m
a a

=

Example:
Simplify

( )
15
5 3
5
3
h
h
h
=
=



1) ( )
2
4
k 2) ( )
5
2

g 3) ( )
2
7
v



Example:
Simplify

( )
12
4 2
4
2
3
3
3
=
=


4) ( )
3
5
4 5) ( )
5
2
6

6) ( )
3
5
7








Example:
Simplify
( )
20 15
5 4 5 3
5
4 3
2
2
2
m
m
m
=
=




7) ( )
2
3 4
e d 8) ( )
4
2 3
5 2

9) ( )
2
6 4
3

g









LAW 4
n
n
a
a
1
=



Example:
Simplify

r
l



r
l
1
=

1)
k
c

2)
p
m

3 3)
t
dv


Module PMR
Indices 67
Example:
Simplify
3
2


=
3
2
1

8
1
=

4)
3
4

5)
1
7

6)
2
3


Example:
Simplify

5
8
4
1
4
=
5 8
4 4


=
( ) 5 8
4
+


=
5 8
4


=
3
4
= 64


7)
2
3
8
1
8 8) ( )
2
2
3
10
10
1
9)
( )
3
2
8
1
m
m




LAW 5 1
0
= a

Example:
1 2
0
=



1)
0
3
2
|

\
|
=
2) ( )
0
3 = 3) ( )
0
5 . 4 =





LAW 6 FRACTIONAL INDICES

Example:
Rewrite by using
the root and power
symbol

9
3
2
3
9 =

1)
3
1
64





2)
5
1
32 3)
3
2
8
Example:
Write in the form of
index
5
3
2
2
3
5 =

1)
3
8
2)
3
5
10

3) 16
Module PMR
Indices 68
Example:
Evaluate
( )
2
2
4
2
1
2
2
1
=
=

1)
3
1
27 2)
5
2
32 3)
4
3
81
Example:
Simplify
2
3
6
3
2
3
4
3
2
3
4
9
9
9
9 9
=
=
=

+


1)
3
5
3
2
10 10
2) ( )
4
2
1
6
g g 3) ( )
3
2
1
4
p p


COMBINATION OF LAWS

Example:
Simplify

2
2
2
2
0
9 3 6
9 3 6
=
=
=

+
b
b
b b b


1)
3 1 7
g g g
2)
4
5 9
m
m m

3)
4 3 5
2 3 2 g g g





Simplify
( )
3 3
3 6 1 2
3 1 6 2 2
3 1
2
3
4
4
2
2
y x
y x
y x y x
y x xy
=
=
=




4) ( )
1
3
2
2

xy y x 5) ( )
2 4
2
4
3

y x xy 6) ( ) y x xy
3
2
2






Evaluate

2
1
2
1
8
1
3
1
3
3
1
=
(
(

\
|
=
|

\
|


7)
2
1
25
1
|

\
|
8)
2
1
9
4
|

\
|
9)
3
1
27
8
|

\
|




Module PMR
Indices 69
Evaluate

( )
( )
32
1
2
2 2
2 2
4 2
5
4 9
2
2 9
2
3
3
=
=
=
=



10)
3 2 2
2 8 4
11) ( )
3
2 7
9 3


12) ( )
5
1
2
1
4
32 4 2
13)
5
3
4
1
3
1
32 16 8






14)
2
3
2
3 27


15) ( )
2
2
3
9 9 9








16) ( )
5
0
6
r r





17)
( )
2
2
5 2
4
4
ab
b a





18) ( )
2
3
2 4
6 6 6





19) ( )
5
2
3
x x

20) Given . 216 6


2
=
x
Find x .






21) Given that . 125 5
3
=
x
Find x .
22) If
64
1
3
=

y . Find y .








Module PMR
Indices 70
Common Errors


Errors

Correct Steps

1.
2 2
2 2


=
( ) 2 2
2
+

=
0
2
= 2



1.
2 2
2 2


=
( ) 2 2
2
+

=
0
2
= 1

2.
2 4
5 5


=
2 4
5


=
2
5


2.
2 4
5 5


=
( ) 2 4
5


=
2 4
5
+

=
6
5


3.
4
5 2

k
k k

=
4 5 2 +
k
=
3
k

3.
4
5 2

k
k k

=
) 4 ( 5 2 +
k
=
4 7+
k
=
11
k



Questions based on PMR Format

1. Evaluate
3
1
2
3
16

|
|

\
|





2. Evaluate ( )
2
3
2 8 4
c b a




3. Find the value of
3
2
5
3
8 32







Module PMR
Indices 71
4. Given that
2
1
3
4
2
81 27 = k .Find the value of . k






5. If 343
4 7
=

a a , find the value of . a




6. Simplify
6
5
2
1
2 3 p p





7. Simplify
2 7
5
3 3
3







8. Simplify
3 7 2
4

a a b
a






9. Simplify
( )
5
2
1
4 3 2
pr q
r q p








10. Simplify
3 4
2 5


k m
m k k





Module PMR
Indices 72
PMR past year questions

2004

1. Given that 16 2
2
=
x
, calculate the value of x .
( 2 marks )




2. Simplify ( ) ( )
9 5
3
2
4
2
2 k m k mk .
( 3 marks )







2005

1. Evaluate
3
2
2
1
2
1
8
12 3
.

( 3 marks )




2. Given ( )( ), 3 3 3
2 1 2 x x
=

calculate the value of x .


( 2 marks )









2006

1. Simplify
2
4

k
k k
.
( 2 marks )






Module PMR
Indices 73
2. Find the value of
2
3
2
1
2
2 18 3 .
( 3 marks )










2007

1. a). Find the value of
2
1
2
3
5 5 .
b). Simplify ( )
2
3
4
h hg .
( 3 marks )










2008

1. Simplify
4
5 2
m
m m

.


( 2 marks )



2. Find the value of
a).
1 3
2 2


b). ( )
3
1
6 3
3 2


( 3 marks )











Module PMR
Indices 74

CHAPTER 6 : INDICES
ANSWERS

1. h h h h h 2. ( ) ( ) ( ) h h h
3.
|

\
|
|

\
|
e
d
e
d

4. 5 5 5 5
5. ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1
6.
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
7.
|

\
|
|

\
|

4
3
4
3

8.
4
g
9. ( )
5
d
10.
3
|

\
|
n
e

11.
5
7 12. ( )
3
11
13.
4
7
2
|

\
|
14.
2
9
7
|

\
|

15. 1000 16. 81
17.
16
9
18.
64
1
19.
8
343
or
8
7
42
20. 0.064
21. 0.0025

LAW 1
1.
8
g 2.
18
h 3. ( )
5
e 4.
8
5
5.
17
6 6. ( )
9
3 7.
8
20y 8.
7
30s
9.
9
4
3
k
10.
3 4
21 b m 11.
9
6v 12.
5 7
18 p a

LAW 2
1.
5
n 2.
3
a
3. t 4 4. 5
5. 7
2

6.
12
10
7. g 8
8.
6
5y
9.
5
3
2
n
10. 5u
13
11.
6
9w
12.
12
2
27
m

LAW 3
1.
8
k 2.
10
g 3.
14
v
4.
15
4 5.
10
6

6.
15
7


7.
6 8
e d 8.
8 12
5 2

9.
12 8
3

g

LAW 4
1.
k
c
1
2.
p
m
3
3.
t
v
d

4.
3
4
1
5.
7
1
6.
2
3
1

7. 8 8. 10
9.
2
m

LAW 5
1. 1 2. 1 3. 1

Module PMR
Indices 75
LAW 6
1.
3
64 2.
5
32
3.
2
3
8
1.
3
1
8 2.
5
3
10 3.
2
1
16
1. 3 2. 4 3. 27
4.
10
1

5.
7
g
6. p


COMBINATION OF LAWS
1.
3
g 2.
10
m 3.
4
3g 4.
4 5
8 y x
5.
6 2
9 y x

6.
3 1
y x


7.
5
1
5
1
=

8.
3
2

9.
3
2

10. 128 11. 243 12. 8
13. 32 14. 81 15. 81
16.
5
r
17.
8 3
4 b a
18. 1 19. x 20. 5 = x
21. 6 22. 4

Questions Based on PMR Format
1.
4
1

2.
3 12 6
c b a
3. 32 4. 3
5. 7
6.
3
4
6 p
7.
10
3
1

8.
2
b
9.
qr
p
10.
2
1
km



PMR QUESTIONS

YEAR SOLUTION AND MARK SCHEME
SUB
MARK
FULL
MARK
2004
4 2
2 2 =
x
x or 4 2 = x
6 = x
1
1

2
2004
9 5 6 8 4 4
2 k m k k m
9 6 8 5 4
16
+
k m
5 1
16 k m



1
1
1


3
Module PMR
Indices 76
2005
( )
( )
2
3
4
6
2
6
2
6
8
36
2
1
3
2
3
2
1
2
3
2
2
1
|
|
|

\
|


1



1





1








3
2005 2 1 2 + = x x
1 2 2 + = x x
3 = x

1

1


2
2006
7
) 2 ( 1 4
k
k
+

1
1

2
2006
( )
( )
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
3
2
1
2
2 2 3 3
2 2 9 3



108
4 27
2 3
2 3






1

1

1




3
2007
a)
1
5 5 or
b)
12 3
3 12 3
g h
h or g h


1
1

1


3
2008

m
or m
m or m or m or m
1
2
4 5 2 6 3

+

1

1
2
2008
a) 16 2
4
=
b)
=

3
1
6
3
1
3
3 2

4
9
9
2
1
3 2
2 1
=




1

1

1



3