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INTRODUCTION

In future there is a possibility of voltage drop in electrical supply so as to avoid such situation a project on VOLTAGE STABILIZER is being made.Its main function is to use the electrical supply in a more safer way on the electrical instrument in a automatic and manual way By using this voltage stabilizer accurate output supply i.e.230 volt is being received in the out put.lf input voltage is less then 170 volts then also we vill receive 230 voit But if we receive more 230 volts then in this condition this stabilizer will switch all/the electrical and electronics equipments. The moment it receives 230 volts it automatically again restart the electrical equipments. In future it is a very useful, trustful and very small but a very durable project.

RESISTORS

INTRODUCTION: Resistor is a component, used to limit the amount of current or divide the voltage in an electronic circuit, The ability of resistor to oppose the current is called resistance. The unit resistance R is ohm for which the symbol is [the Greek capital letter omega].The schematic symbol of R is shown in figure-

o------^^^^^-------o
TYPES OF RESISTORS: Each resistor has two main characteristics i.e. its resistance [R] in oluns of its power rating in watts [w] The resistor having wide range of resistance [from a friction of an ohm to many mega ohms]are available. The power rating may be as lower 1/10w to as high as several hundred watts. The value of R is selected to obtain a desired current I or voltage dropper in the circuit. At the same time wattage of the resistor is selected so that it can dissipate the heat losses without over heating it self. Too much heat may burn the resistor. From the operating condition point of view, the resistor may be classified as fix resistor and variable resistor.[A] Fixed Resistor: The resistor which have fix value of resistance are called fixed resistors. These resistors may be carbon composition resistor or wire wound resistor.

Carbon composition resistor: Most common in electronic circuits are carbon resistors with a low power rating [2w or less].This type of resistor is made of mixture of carbon as graphite and dry. The two materials are mixed in the proportions needed for the desired value of r.The resistor element is enclosed in a plastic case for insulation and mechanical strength. The leads made of tined copper are joined to the two ends of carbon resistance element. This type of resistors are readily available in values ranging. from 1 ohm to 22 ohm, having a tolerance range of 5 to 20 percent. The power rating is generally 1/4, 1/2 , 1 or 2w. The relative size of resistors with higher wattage increase since they are to carry more current and dissipate higher losses [heat losses].The relative size of carbon composition resistor for different wattage rating. These resistors are quite cheap in cost. A resistor may cost as 50 paisa even less than this. The other variety of carbon composition resistors is film type resistors. The basic structure of this type of resistor is shown in figure. A homogeneous film of pure carbon [or some metallic] deposited over a ceramic or other insulating core. Only approximate value of resistance is obtained by this method. To obtain the desired value either the layer is trimmed off or a helical grove of suitable pitch along its length is cut. Thus very accurate value [with an accuracy of+1%] of resistance can be obtained, therefore these resistors [film type resistors] are sometimes called precision type resistors.

[B] Variable resistors: Some times in electronic circuits, it becomes necessary to adjust [control] the values of current and voltages. For example to change the volume [loudness] of sound in transistor radio and television, to adjust brightness and contrast of the television picture etc. WIRE WOUND RESISTORS: A wire wound resistor is shown in figure. For construction a resistance wire [nichrome, tungsten or manning] is wrapped around a hollow parceling cylindrical core. The ends of the wire are attached to metal pieces fixed of the two ends of the core. This assembly is coated with an enamel containing powdered glass and is heated which develops the coating known as vitreous enamel. this hard and smooth coating provides mechanical protection to the resistance wire. It also helps in dissipating heat away from the unit quickly. The value of resistance depends upon the resistivity os the material used and dimension [length and area of cross section] of resistance wire. These resistors are readily available in values ranging from 1 ohm to 100 k ohm and more. The value of resistance is generally printed n the body of resistor. Can be made with the help of resistors. The variable resistors may be carbon composition resistors or wire wound Resistors. Carbon composition resistors: A carbon composition variable resistor. a thin carbon coating on pressed paper or a molded carbon disc constitutes the carbon composition resistance element The two ends of the disc are joined to the external soldering lug terminal 1 and 3.The middle terminal is connected variable that contacts the resistor element by a metal wiper.

As the shaft of the control is turned, the variable arm moves the wiper to make contract at different paints on the resistor element which changes the value of resistance interested in the circuit. The carbon composition variable are available with 1000 ohms to 5 m ohm approx having power rating o usually to 2 w. A carbon control [resistor] is often combined eighth power off switch. Wire wound variable resistors: A wire wound variable resistors and its symbol is shown in. In this case, a resistance wire is wounded over a dough shaped core of backlight or ceramic. The two ends of the resistance wire are joined to the external soldering lug tensional 1 and 3.The middle tensional is connected to the variable arm that contracts the resistors elementals the Shaft of control is turned, the variable arm moves the wiper to make contract at different points on the resistor element shish changes the value of resistances. Adjustable wire wounded resistors are also available in which the resistance may be varied with an adjustable slider moved along exposed portion of the winding. The variable resistors can be either linear or non linear.

CAPACITORS

INTRODUCTION: The two conducting plates separated by an insulating materials [called dielectric] forms a capacitor. The basic purpose of a capacitor is to store the charge. The capacity of a capacitor to store change per unit potential difference is called its capacitance. The unit of capacitance is farads[F]However, the unit farad being too large the capacitors are specified practically in micro farads {uf} or Pico farads [pf]. A capacitor is a component which offers low impedance to a.c. but very high impedance [resistance] to d.c. In most of the electronic circuits a capacitor has d.c. voltage applied, confined with a niche smaller a.c. signal voltage. This usual function of the capacitor is to block the d.c. voltage but pass the c signal voltage, by means of charging and discharging. These applications include coupling by passing and filtering for a.c. signal. The schematic symbol of fixed and variable capacitor [c].

DIAGRAM OF CAPCITER

All the capacitors have two main characteristics i.e. their capacitance [c] in farads [or f or pf] and their operating voltage. The commercial capacitors are generally classified according to the dielectric. Some of the most commonly used capacitors are purer, mica, ceramic, electrolytic and air. Like resistors capacitors can also either be fixed or variable type. The variable capacitor are mostly air gang capacitors. There is no required polarity is since either side can be made positive plate, except for electrolytic capacitors. In electrolytic capacitors, polarity is marked which indicates the side which must be considered as positive. It maintains the internal electrolytic action that prodigies the dielectric [a thin oxide film] required to form the. capacitance. [A] Paper capacitors: Perhaps paper capacitors are the most common of all capacitors. For the construction of all the capacitors two metal [aluminum or tin] foils separated by paper impregnated with a dielectric material such aswax.Plastic or oil are rolled into a compact cylinder is generally placed in a card board container coated aith wax encased in plastic. A tabular type paper capacitor: A tabular type paper capacitor. A typical[430p1]Encapsulated type paper capacitor. Paper capacitors are available in wide range of capacitance values and voltage ratings. Typical capacitance values ranging from 0.0001 uf to 1.0 uf having tolerance of +10% usually with voltages ratings ranging from 200 to 10000 volts and more. There leakage resistance is of the order of 100m ohms.The.physical size for [f is typically]2.5 cm long with 1 cm diameter.

These capacitor should not be used in radio frequency tuned circuit because they are not electrically stable enough. A black kind at one end of paper capacitor the lead connected to the outside foil. This lead should be used for the ground or low potential side of the circuit to take advantage of shielding by the outside foil however, there is no required polarity, since the capacitance is the same no matter which side is grounded. [B] Mica capacitor: These capacitors consist of all alternate thin sheets of metal [aluminum or tin]foils separated by thin mica sheets.Alternate metal sheets are connected together and brought out as one terminal for one set of plates, while the opposite terminal connects to the other set of plates. The entire unit is generally encased in the plastic housing or mounded inbakelight case. In silver-mica capacitors, the opposite faces of the mica sheets are silver coated [which acts as the conducting material]. Mica capacitor are often used for small capacitance values ringing 50 to 500 pf having tolerance of +2 to +20% usually, with voltage ratings ranging from 200 to 1000v. The leakage resistance of mica capacitors is of the order of 1000 megaohms that is why their, leakage current is very small.

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These capacitors are very small in size having 10mm length and 3mm tl1ickness.Typical mica capacitor. These capacitors Are used extensively in rf tuned circuits, since they are considerably more stable electrically than foil type capacitors and are used in high stability frequency determining circuits. Silver mica capacitors Are available in tolerances ranging from +5% to +1% or better. [C] Ceramic capacitors: The ceramic is a dielectric material made from earth fired extreme heat: Titanium oxide or several other types of silicates are used to obtain very high value of dielectric of ceramic material. The ceramic capacitors may be of disc types or tabular type these capacitor are also available in other shapes. In the disc type, a ceramic disc coated on two sides with a metal [silver or copper] Tinned copper wire leads are attached to each coating which act a electrodes or plates and then the entire unit is en capsulates in a protective coating [plastic] and marked with its capacitance value, either using numerals or a color code. The coding is similar to that used for resistances.

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COLOUR Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No colour

SIGNIFICANT DIGIT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -

MULTIPLIER 100=1 101=10 102=100 103=1000 104=10000 105=100000 106=1000000 107=10000000 108=100000000 109=1000000000 10-1=0.1 10-2=0.01 -

TOLERANCE +_5% +_10% +_20%

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RELAY INTRODUCTION : Relays is a device means of which an electric circuit can be controlled(opened and closed ) by the change in the same circuit or other circuit. An electro mechanical relay, has one or more coils, movable elements, contact system, etc .... The operation of such relay depends weather the opening torque/ force is greater than the restraining torque/ force i.e. The relay operates, if net force F in eq.1 blew is positive or net T in eq.2 below in positive .

F = Fa- Fr E = Net force

.......................1

Fa = Operating force Fr = Restraning force T = Ta - Tr .......................2

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T =Net Torque Ta = Operating Torque Tr = Restraining torque

Relay operates when operating force > Restraining force In electro mechanical relays, the operating torque is produced by electro magnetic attraction / thermal effects of electric current. These restring torque is given by springs .the various terms such a measuring relay, All or-nothing relay, trip circuit, time lag relay , instantaneous relay , etc..... The contact circuit of electromechanical relays are quit complex .

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MEASUREMENT IN RELAYS

The discrimination involves measurement of actuating quantities (voltage and current )which are present at the relaying point. the measurement in majority of protective relays can be grounded as follows : - Magnitude measurement such as over current, over voltage, under current. - Product measurement such as power (vl cos 0) - Ratio measurement such as impedance (v/1) - Comparison between similar electrical quantities such as vector difference between currents 1,1 .

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MAGNITUDE MEASUREMENT

The relays under this category respond to magnitude of actuating quantity such as current derived from group of CT's Some other relays are energized by magnitude of voltage derived for group of VT's Some relays are nergized by voltage and respond to parameter such as frequency, waveform, rate of rise . such relay also can be included in this category. The actuating quantity fed into the relay is derived from secondarys of CT's and VT's or both . Hence the performance of the protective system depends upon the resultant output of the secondary current / voltage fed into the relay . The relay can be single actuating quantity type or multi actuating quantity type .

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TYPES OF RELAY UNITS

(b) Balanced beam(electromagnetic)relay. (c) Induction dies (electromagnetic ) relay . (d) Induction cup (electromagnetic) relay . MOVING COIL A (a) Attracted armature type (electromagnetic)relay (c) nd moving iron (electromagnetic) relay . (f) Gas operated (buchholz) relay ( gas pressure) (g) Rectifierrelays (rectifier plus moving coil unit ) . (h) Static relay (static electronic circuit for measurement). The electro-magnetic relay operates when operating torque / force ex- ceeds the restraining torque / force .

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VOLTMETER O to 300 volts. This volt is manufactured on the principal of "inductance". The am work of volt is to measure the output voltage of the stabilizer.

The volt meter consists of indicating needle, measurement scalr and they are attached to inductor and load resistance .

All these parts constitute the voltmeter.

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TRANSISTORS INTRODUCTION :it is a contraction of two words- transfer and resistor. It is so because a transistor is basically a resister that amplifies electrical impulses as they are transferred through its input to output terminals. Basically it consists of two back N junctions give rise to three regions called emitter, base and collector. The emitter , base and collector are provided with terminals which are labeled as E,BLC. The two junctions areEmitter Base [E / B] junction and Collector Base [C/B] junction. In a transistor for a normal operation collector and base have the. same polarity with respect to emitter. Types of transistor [A] A layer of N type materials sandwiched between two layers of P types materials. It is described as PNP transistor [B] A layer of P type material sandwiched between two layers of P types materials . It is described as NPN transistor. The symbol employed for PNP and NPN transistor .

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TRANSFORMER Introduction :

Transformer is the main component of any voltage stabilizer. The main function of transformer is either to "step up" or "step down" the input voltage. Normally there are two separate wire coils in a transformer. In the process input supply is given to one coil while output is taken from another. The coil which is given input A.C. supply is called the primary coil and coil from which output supply is taken is called the secondary coil.

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CIRCUIT DIGRAM OF TRANSFORMER

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WORKING OF TRANSFORMER

The output voltage received from the secondary coil is less as compared to the input supply given to the primary coil of a step down transformer but secondary coil can produce more current then the primary coil. For thisurpose the thickness of the wire of the secondary coil is kept more as compared to primary.

Step up transformer is just opposite to adverse to the step down transformer. This transformer gives more voltage to secondary coil as compared to primary coil but its capacity to supply current is less. The value of electricity transform from primary to secondary depends upon the core area of the transformer. This power is recorded in "volt amperes".

The efficiency of a transformer is approximately 90%.The remaining 10% of electrical energy is used up for heating the transformer. Which might harm the transformer

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TRANSFORMER USED IN STABILIZER

In most of stabilizers autotransformer is used.lt consists of only one binding where in separate tapings remain open for different voltages. Among these there is one end for zero volts which is common to all and the remaining 8 ends have the following voltages:

180 volts 190 volts 200 volts 210 volts 220 volts 230 volts 240 volts 250 volts These type of auto transformer are used in automatic stabilizers.

IDENTIFICATION OF AUTO TRANSFORMER :-

Ussualv auto transformer has 9 wire winding in it.lf we keep the millimeter in the continuity measuring range and fix one end to the common and other end between 180 volt to 250 volts. We get the continuity each time. So treadle of the meter will point towards right side. When the transformer is required to be installed or requires a change then it becomes necessary to identify all the ends failing which any wrong wiring may damage the transformer.

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TRANSFORMER
Introduction :

Transformer is the main component of any volt stabilizer. The main function of transformer is either to "step up" or "step down" the input voltage. Normally there are two separate wire coils in a transformer. In the process input supply is given to one coil while output is taken from another. The coil which is given input A.C. supply is called the priinan coil and coil from which output supply is taken is called the secondarv coil. The transformer is a statics piece of apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed in to electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. It can raise or lower the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding decrease or increase in current.

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THE WORKING PROCESS OF AUTO TRANSFORMER:

Each type of transformer work on the principle of mutual inductance. When 220 volt is supplied between common end and 220 volt it creates magnetic effect in the core rest all the windings gives the noted voltage. At present the windings between common end and 220 volt are working as primary winding. If the supply is reduced by 10 volt that is from 220 volt to 210 volt then the supply between each winding will also be reduced by 10 volt. In this condition if the supply is given between conunon end and 210 volt end, again the noted voltage will be received on all the windings, similarly if 10 volt of supply is raised that is 220 volt to 230 volt then the noted voltage across each winding will be increased by 10 volts. If this 230 volt supply is given between 230 volt end then again we will get the normal voltage. The main demerit of this auto transformeris that it has no isolation between input and output supply. That is why such type of transformers 2 should only be used where "ELECTRICAL ISOLATION" is not at all necessary.

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First of all, all the common end is indentified in an auto transformer. It should be kept in mind that in auto transformer that thin wire winding is used between common end and 180 volt. Where as relatively thick wire is used between 180 volt to 250 volt. In this way it becomes very easy to locate the common end and the 180 volt end. Because in common end there is only one thin wire remains protruding where as in 180 volt end there remains two wires protruding one thin and one thick. Apart from this there are two wires each remain there between the range of 190volt to 240 voh and cach 01 wire between this range are relatively thicker then the common wire. After this there is only one thick wire for 250 volt or the last end. These can also be identified by measuring the voltages on different tapings of the auto transformer. For this it is necessary to locate the common end and first end that is 180 volt end. Now a supply of 180 volt is given between these two ends by any other transformer or stabilizer and the supply given is checked by the meter. The other end which gets 10 volt more supply the 180volt end is cod number 2.In this way the increasing series helps to identify each end.

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Transformer works on the principle of "electromagnetic induction" by which an e.m.f is induced in any coil which is linking with a changing flux. If one coil is connected to a source of alternating voltage an alternating flux is set up in the laminated core, most of which is linked with the other coil in which it produces mutually induced cmf (according to faraday's law of electromagnetic induction). If the second coil circuit is closed a current flows in it and so electrical energy is transferred (entirely magnetically) from the first coil to the second coil .The first coil in which electrical energy is fed from the u.c supply mains, is called primary winding and the other from which energy is drawn out is called secondary winding. Constructionally the transformer are of two general types, distinguished from each other merely by the manner in which the primary and secondary coils are placed around the laminated core. The two types are known as:

(1) Core type. (2) Shell type.

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PREFACE
All tough the topic of the project prepared by us in not new. It put forth many new ideas and reflect and theoretical as well as practical learned by us during the course of education in the institution. Project in the diploma course generates confidence in working. An important aspect of any project that it not only gives an ideas for designing and manufacturing as it gives some new technical ideas and impressed technical to them. Being the students of final year electrical engineering we have selected
MANUAL AUTO CUT STABILIZER