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Perforating Techniques

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CONTENTS
Introduction 2. Gun System
1. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Gun Types Gun Conveyance Perforating Environment

Factors Affecting The Productivity 7. Safety 8. Conclusion.

Introduction

Perforating Gun
Shaped Charge

Bullet

Shaped Charge Gun Components


Charge Carrier Explosive Charge Detonating Cord Detonator

Gun System

Shaped Charge Components


The Liner The Case The Explosive

Gun system
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Jet Penetrating Mechanism


1. Detonation Waves. 3. Jet Formation

2. Liner Collapse

4. Slug Formation

Gun system
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The Shaped Charge

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Shaped Charge Design Parameters


Liner Size Liner Geometry Explosive Properties Case Material Charge Size Design Optimization.
Gun syste11 m

The Bullet Gun


Gun Components:
Gun Body Igniter Propellant Charge Combustion Chamber Barrel and Bullet
Gun syst2 1 em

Gun Types

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Gun Types
Shaped Charge Gun Reusable (Reusable Hollow Carrier Gun ) Bullet Gun Expendable

Gun Types 14

Reusable Gun (Reusable Hollow Carrier Gun)

Charge

Port Plug Carrier

Gun Types 15

Expendable Shaped Charge Gun


Expendable Hollow Carrier

Charge Strip

Dome (Recess) Carrier

Gun Types 16

Recovered expendable hollow carrier gun


Gun Types 17

Expendable Shaped Charge Gun


Expendable hollow carrier Fully expendable Semi expendable

Charge Strip

Dome (Recess) Carrier

Gun Types

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Bullet Gun
z z z

Is not common in use Bullet penetration decreases substantially in high strength formation & high strength casing The most important applications are: - Hydraulic Fracturing - Injection Wells

Gun Types

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Gun Conveyance

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Gun Conveyance
1.

Wire Line Conveyed Perforating Tubing Conveyed Perforating Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating

2.

3.

Gun Conveyance

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1. Wire Line Conveyed Perforating Gun String Components :


1. Cable Head 2. Measurement Devices 3. Auxiliary Weights 4. The Gun
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Applications :
1. Completion of Relatively Short Zones. 2. Very High Reservoir Temperature. 3. When the Well May be Shot Overbalanced.. 4. Perforating for Squeeze.
Wire Line Conveyed Perforating 23

2. Tubing Conveyed Perforating


Gun String Component :
1. Radioactive Sensor. 2. Packer. 3. Firing Head. 4. The Gun.

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Procedure :
Make up the String Run String to Depth Positioning Installing Surface Equipments Shot the Gun Retrieve the String

Tubing Conveyed Perforating

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Applications:
1.

Large Intervals or Multi Zones Wells Gravel Packed Wells Wells Containing Sour Gases (H2S)

2.

3.

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Tubing Conveyed perforating

3. Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating


Coiled tubing is high-strength yet ductile steal tubing ,usually( 1.25-1.5 inch OD).

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Gun String Component


1. Tubing Real 2. Goose neck 3. Injector 4. Stripper

Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating

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Application:
Used in highly deviated or horizontal wells.

Advantages:
1. 2.

Saving Time Minimizing Cost

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Perforating Environment

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Perforating Environment
Underbalance Overbalance

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Underbalanced-Pressure Perforating
Formation pressure is higher than well bore pressure Perforating is made after well equipments have been run in Level of underbalance should be optimized

Perforating Environment

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Problems

Mechanical Failure of Formation Movement of Formation Fines Blowing of The Gun String up The Hole Casing Collapse Tubular Damage
Perforating Environment
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Other

Advantages
Provides optimum perforation cleanup and

minimum skin
Eliminates the

risk of formation damage as a result of completion fluid not plugged by the completion fluid
Perforating Envir34nment o

Perforations are

Overbalanced-Pressure Perforating
Well pressure is higher than formation pressure Perforations are made Before well equipments have been run in Wellbore fluid should be selected carefully Small amount of solids can decrease productivity Level of overbalance pressure should be minimum
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Perforating Environment

Disadvantages
Formation damage results

from fluid

invasion Perforations are plugged by the completion fluid Its difficult to get all the perforations behave actively A lot of rig time is required to clean the perforations Wellbore fluid must be filtered
Perforating Environment
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Advantages
Provides good well performance with clean well fluid and minimum level of overbalance. Used in the cases of : - Long Interval - Over-pressured Gas Reservoir

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Perforating Environment

Factors Affecting The Productivity of Perforated System

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Factors Affecting The Productivity of Perforated System:


1. 2. 3.

Number of Effective Perforation Perforation Penetration Characteristics of The Damaged Perforation Zone Number of Shot Directions Perforation Diameter
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4. 5.

Factors Affecting The Productivity

1. Number

of Effective Perforations

Are the perforations open to flow Can be measured by: - Flow Meter - Spinner Survey

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2. Perforation Penetration

Increasing penetration length increases productivity

Penetration depends on : -The Explosive Load Penetration -Shape and Type of Cone -The Clearance Between Gun and Casing

Factors Affecting The Product1 4 ivity

Clearance Effect

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3-Characteristics of The Damaged Perforation Zone

Depends on : Formation Type (lime,s.s,) & Fluid Type Porosity and Permeability Type of Shaped Charge Direction and Level of Differential Pressure
Factors Affecting The Productivity 43

4. Number of Shot Directions

Angular phasing other than 0 degree increases productivity Going from one direction to two shot direction increases the productivity index by 20%

Factors Affecting The Product4vity i4

Phasing (180

0)

Phasing (900)
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Factors Affecting The Productivity

5. Perforation Diameter

Increasing entry hole diameter increases productivity index Perforation diameter depends on : -Charge Cone (angle,etc ) -Clearance Between Gun and Casing

Factors Affecting The Productivity

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