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By: Mr. I. N.


Contemporary weaving technologies and modernisation of decentralised power loom sector

By: I. N. Rao
Introduction: Textile Industry is in the forefront of Indian economy, and contributes 4% to the GDP. Since the lifting of the trade barriers and severe of competition from China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and other South Asian countries. Textile export has increased. India has an advantage of skilled manpower, reasonably priced yarn of superior quality and has the ability to meet the quality demands of the garment sector of domestic and export market. With this background it is possible to achieve the projected performance. In the light of changing Economic scenario, globalisation and free world trade, modernization and technological upgradation of power loom sector is important to enhance its competitiveness. Government of India, Ministry of Textiles has entrusted IL&FS to facilitate the establishment of Integrated Textile parks in the country. With world class Infrastructure for textile weaving units and processing plants to cater the needs of small scale sector. Also the Government has extended the TUFS, Capital Interest subside Schemes to modernize the Textile sector Nearly 30 parks have been sanctioned and the production will commence in 2007-2008. With the cluster development approach and teamwork in the textile manufacturing units of the park, the cost of production will go down. In order to produce quality Fabrics that will meet international quality demand, it is necessary to modernize the weaving units with shuttleless looms and requisite weaving preparatory equipments. With Government and private participation and timely modernization of textile Units, India will become the Market leaders in Textiles and boost the countrys economy. This paper makes an attempt to highlight the appropriate Technology & equipment selection, specially suited to the small-scale sector. Technology selection: Technology selection and modernisation of the weaving units depends upon the product mix of fabrics required in the domestic market, garment sector and export market. Also it is imperative to produce fault free fabrics and manufacture the fabric at lower cost. Operational cost has to be reviewed on a continuous basis. To face the competition Timely delivery of fabric as desired by the market is the order of the day, together with the capability to accept small order. Product mix: Yarn dyed garment fabric from cotton and polyester cotton (Cloth width 150 cms Finished) Bottom wear fabrics, denims, corduroy, stretch denims (150 cms finished width) Polyester Viscose suiting/Poly wool suiting Wider width sheetings or bed linen (cotton and polyester blend) for domestic market and for export market, having thread count varying from 300 to 600 (Cloth width at finished stage160, 229 cms, 240 cms,290cms ) Furnishing fabrics, curtains fabrics, Industrial fabrics Technical fabrics i.e. Automotive textiles ,filter cloth etc Quality requirement of fabrics meant for garment sector /export market 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Yarn count, both warp and weft yarn as per 25% Uster Norm Cloth construction Ends/inch & picks/inch as per the specification Cloth width as per requirement and within 2-3% tolerance limit Tearing strength warp & weft way as per specification Pilling resistance to wash and rubbing as per specification Colour fastness to light, washing and rubbing as per specification Crease resistance, bursting strength, bowing tendency Cloth inspection standard on point system of grading (4 point system)

Key issues to be considered for the modernisation of weaving sector Capital cost of the machinery and equipments for the required product mix, keeping in view the return of Capital investment,( grey fabric cost/meter, cost/pick etc) Flexibility of the equipment to meet the changing market demand, keeping in view the full utilization of the attachment of shuttleless looms such as dobby, jacquard, number of weft color selection Operate the shuttleless looms at 85%-90% installed efficiency Monitor the operating cost i.e. power, water, lighting, humidification, air in case of Airjet looms, lighting, spare parts etc. Improve the infrastructure i.e. building, roads, transport and communication network, computer aided design facilities Trained work force and training facilities, yarn testing and fabric testing facilities and market research, product development Appropriate shuttleless looms options are: New Rapier looms (Flexible or rigid) Indigenous or Imported Airjet looms Second hand rapier or Airjet looms, with a minimum residual life of 20 years and capable to work at the manufacturers recommended loom speed with minimum breakdowns It is advisable to install new looms instead of second hand looms. To illustrate the advantage, Annexure I gives the comparison of new Rapier looms and second hand Rapier looms

Annexure I
Loom shed configuration: Particulars No. of looms Area requirement Loom speed r.p.m. Production/day/24 looms New Rapier loom 24 10,860 sq. feet 550 5,364 metres cond hand Rapier loom 24 10,860 sq. feet 350 3413 metres

Capital Cost of the Project (Approximate) Rupees in Lacs Capital Cost of the Project (Approximate) Rupees in Lacs Particulars Cost of one Rapier loom Total cost of 24 looms Value 20 480 Value 12 288

Ancillary equipment
Material handling Knotting unit Stabiliser Compressor Humidification plant Water softening plant Fabric Inspection machine Drawing in stands False ceiling/ducting Internal electricals TOTAL 7.0 15.0 2.0 2.0 18.0 1.5 2.5 1.0 4.0 12.0 545 .0 7.0 15.0 2.0 2.0 18.0 1.5 2.5 1.0 4.0 12.0 353.0

Operating Cost/Meter (Conversion cost/meter) New Rapier loom Rupees/meter 3.61 2.40 0.78 0.43 0.27 0.30 2.50 2.90 13.19 18 NP Second hand Rapier loom Rupees/meter 5.68 2.40 1.21 0.71 0.63 0.30 2.45 3.00 16.38 23 NP

Particulars Power Sizing cost Labour Cost Staff & Administration Spare parts 7 Maintenance Water for humidification Interest@9.0% Depreciation 10% annum Total conversion cost/meter Cost/pick 190 cm loom

Cost/metre will go down with Government interest subsidy, and power subsidy Assumptions: Quality considered: Power Cost Spare part maintenance Sizing cost Water Yarn dyed shirting 150 cms Finished fabric 40 Ne warp 40 Ne weft 108 reed and 72 pick Rs. 4.0 unit Rs. 20 loom shift new looms Rs.30 lomm shift old loom Rs. 20/kg. Rs. 25/KL

Technological comparison of Rapier looms and Airjet looms. Both modern rapier looms and Airjet looms are capable to produce variety fabrics and are equipped with required attachments as per the customers requirement. Most of the looms are user friendly and easy to maintain because of the electronic controls. To cater the needs of domestic market and export market the loom width ideally suited is 190 cms for single width weaving and 340 cms for multi-width width weaving or wider width weaving of sheetings and bed linen and furnishing fabrics Features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Capital cost /loom (Rs.) Pick insertion (a) 190 cms width Operating Cost/loom Flexibility to Weave Suitability Yarn quality and weaving Power cost/loom Rapier looms 12-22 Lakhs Single/multipl 400-650 Moderate Versatile Short/long Moderate 1 5.5-7.0KW Airjet looms 16-24 lakhs Single/Multiple 800-1000 r.p.m Moderate Limited Long runs Superior -12 Kw

Technical specifications of shutleless loom Feature 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11 . 12 13 . 14 15 Loom width Yarn range Filling selection Filling stop motion Shed formation Cam Dobby Jacquard let off 7 take up Selvedge motion Pick finding Machine drive Optional Machine controls Ability to handle Fancy weft Weft control Selvedge formation Multiwidth weaving Rapier Loom 190-380 cms spun yarn Nm 1-2 22-4000 Denier 1-12 colour Piezoelectric 8 cam Electronic 12-20 shafts Electronic Electronic Electronic controlled Automatic Independent Sumo motor start mark preventor Microprocessor control wide range Electronic Leno, Tucked, Melt Suitable Airjet Loom 190-380 cms spun yarn Nm 3-170 20-500 denier 1-8 colour Photoectric 10 cam 10-16 shfts Electronic Electronic Rotary selvedge motion Automatic Sumo motor start mark preventor Microprocessor control Limited range Electronic Tucked, Leno, Melt Suitable

Strategy to be adopted by the small-scale sector to optimize the production and control cost 1. Procure the imported/indigenous shuttleless looms ready to weave with required cams for plain, Twill or sateen weave with healds, heald frame. Warp beam, drop pins can be procured locally from reputed manufacturers to bring down the capital cost 2. Humidification system should be for minimum 24 looms to keep the cost low. 3 .In case of Airjet loom compressor should be for running 24-48 looms to reduce the cost. Air should be free of moisture and oil. 4. Employ contract skilled labour for knotting /drawing/loom cleaning to bring down the labour cost 5. Arrange to have the warp beam sized from reputed sizers. 6. Shuttleless loom utilization should be 95% and above 7. Maintenance personnel can be shared among a group of entrepreneurs 8. Engineering service can be shared among a group of entrepreneurs 9. Common spare parts storage to bring down the loom downtime 10 Insist on loom manufacturers representative to do the loom audit and maintenance check up 11. Cloth inspection/packing should be on contract basis To read more articles on Textile, Industry, Technical Textile, Dyes & Chemicals, Machinery, Fashion, Apparel, Technology, Retail, Leather, Footwear & Jewellery, Software and General please visit http://articles.fibre2fashion.com

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