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Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

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References for 336 papers and books reporting concerns about the bias of industry funding on science. Additional material is available for download in these scribd collections: http://www.scribd.com/collections/3228470/Conflict-of-interest-in-science http://www.scribd.com/collections/3561806/e-Books-worth-reading http://www.scribd.com/collections/3220833/Mobile-phones-electrosmog-and-health-risks

1. Abraham J. (2002). The pharmaceutical industry as a political player. Lancet 360: 1498-502.
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2. Abraham,J. et al. (1999). Rethinking transparency and accountability in medicines regulation in the
United Kingdom. BMJ 318:46-7 http://www.bmj.com/content/318/7175/46.full

3. Abramson J, Starfield B. (2005). The effect of conflict of interest on biomedical research and clinical
practice guidelines: can we trust the evidence in evidence-based medicine? J Am Board Fam Pract. 18(5):4148 http://www.jabfm.org/cgi/content/full/18/5/414

4. Al-Marzouki S, Roberts I, Evans S, Marshall T. (2008). Selective reporting in clinical trials: analysis
of trial protocols accepted by The Lancet. Lancet 372:201. http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673608610612.pdf

5. Alsheikh-Ali AA, Qureshi W, Al-Mallah MH, Ioannidis JP. (2011). Public availability of published
research data in high-impact journals. PLoS One.6(9):e24357. Epub 2011 Sep 7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21915316

6. Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, et al. (2003) Association of funding and conclusions in randomized
drug trials: A reflection of treatment effect or adverse events? JAMA. 290 (7): 921-8. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/290/7/921.full.pdf+html

7. Anderson SJ. (2011). Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco
industry documents Tob Control. 20:ii20-ii28 doi:10.1136/tc.2010.041939 http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/20/Suppl_2/ii20.full.pdf

8. Angell M (2000). Is academic medicine for sale? N Engl J Med 342:15161518


9. Angell M (2006). Your Dangerous Drugstore, June 8, NY Rev Books, p38-40


10. Angell, M. (2005). The Truth About The Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What To Do
About It. London: Random House (ISBN 0375508465). http://www.bmj.com/content/329/7470/862.full

11. Anraku A, Jin YP, Trope GE, Buys YM. (2009). Survey of conflict-of-interest disclosure policies of
ophthalmology journals. Ophthalmology. 116(6):1093-1096. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376583

12. Apollonio, DE and LA. Bero, (2007). The Creation of Industry Front Groups: The Tobacco Industry
and Get Government Off Our Back. American Journal of Public Health. 97(3): 419-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805008/

13. Ashford, N. (1995) Disclosure of Interests: A time for clarity Am J Indus Med 28 (5): 6112. 14. Austad KE, Kesselheim AS. (2011). Conflict of interest disclosure in early education of medical
students. JAMA. .306(9):991-2. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/306/9/991.short

15. Avorn J. (2006). Dangerous deception--hiding the evidence of adverse drug effects. NEJM
355(21):2169-71 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp068246

16. Bailey CS, Fehlings MG, Rampersaud YR, Hall H, Wai EK, Fisher CG. (2011). Industry and
evidence-based medicine: Believable or conflicted? A systematic review of the surgical literature. Can J Surg. 54(5):321-6. http://www.cma.ca/multimedia/staticContent/HTML/N0/l2/cjs/vol54/issue-5/pdf/pg321.pdf _________________________________________________________________________________________ -1-

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17. Baird P. (2003). Getting it right: industry sponsorship and medical research. Can Med Assoc J 168
(10):12679. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC154184/pdf/20030513s00027p1267.pdf http://www.cmaj.ca/content/168/10/1267.full.pdf+html

18. Baker CB, Johnsrud MT, Crismon ML, Rosenheck RA, Woods SW. (2003). Quantitative analysis of
sponsorship bias in economic studies of antidepressants. Br J Psychiatry. 183:498-506. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/183/6/498.full.pdf+html

19. Barbour V (2010). How ghost-writing threatens the credibility of medical knowledge and medical
journals. Haematologica, 95(1): 1-2 doi:10.3324/haematol.2009.017426 http://www.haematologica.org/cgi/content/full/95/1/1

20. Barnes DE, Bero LA. (1998). Why review articles on the health effects of passive smoking reach
different conclusions. JAMA. 279(19):1566-1570. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9605902

21. Baty P (2009) Academic made untrue declaration about full access to research material, GMC
finds. Times Higher Education. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp? storycode=409013 Accessed 24 Sept 2011.

22. Becker A, Drter F, Eckhardt K, Viniol A, Baum E, Kochen MM, Lexchin J, Wegscheider K, DonnerBanzhoff N. (2011). The association between a journal's source of revenue and the drug recommendations made in the articles it publishes. CMAJ. 183(5):544-8. Epub 2011 Feb 28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060182/?tool=pubmed

23. Begley CG & LM Ellis (2012). Drug development: Raise standards for preclinical cancer research.
Nature 483: 531533 http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/483531a

24. Bekelman JE, Li Y, Gross CP. (2003). Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in
biomedical research. JAMA. 289:454-65. http://jama.amaassn.org/content/289/4/454.full.pdf+html

25. Bell CM, Urbach DR, Ray JG, et al. (2006). Bias in published cost effectiveness studies: systematic
review. BMJ 332(699703):699. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1410902/

26. Bernstein A. (2003). Toward effective Canadian publicprivate partnerships in health research. CMAJ
168(3):288-9. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/168/3/288.full.pdf

27. Bero LA, Rennie D. (1996). Influences on the quality of published drug studies. Int J Technol Assess
Health Care 12(2):209-37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8707496

28. Bero, LA (2005). Tobacco industry manipulation of research. Public Health Rep. 120(2): 200208.

29. Beutels P. (2004). Potential conflicts of interest in vaccine economics research: a commentary with a
case study of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Vaccine 22:331222. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15308354

30. Bevan JC. (2002). Ethical behaviour of authors in biomedical journalism. Ann R Coll Phys Surg Ca
35(2):81-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12755122

31. Bhandari M, Busse JW, Jackowski D, et al. (2004). Association between industry funding and
statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials. CMAJ 170: 477-80. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/170/4/477.full

32. Biagioli M (2000) Rights or rewards? Changing contexts and definitions of scientific authorship.
Journal of College and University Law 27:83108. http://innovation.ucdavis.edu/people/publications/Biagioli_Rights_Rewards.pdf/view

33. Blumsohn A (2006) Authorship, ghost-science, access to data and control of the pharmaceutical
scientific literature: Who stands behind the word? AAAS Professional Ethics Report 29 (3): 1-4. http://www.radstats.org.uk/conf2007/Blumsohn.htm

34. Bodenheimer T (2000) Uneasy alliance: Clinical investigators and the pharmaceutical industry. New
Engl J Med 342: 1539-1544. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10816196 _________________________________________________________________________________________ -2-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

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35. Bourgeois FT, Murthy S, Mandl KD. (2010). Outcome reporting among drug trials registered in
ClinicalTrials.Gov. Ann Intern Med 153:158-66.http://www.annals.org/content/153/3/158.abstract

36. Braf J. (2010). Conflicts of Interest in Research -Towards a Greater Transparency. Perm J. 14(2):31
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37. Brezis M. (2008). Big pharma and health care: unsolvable conflict of interests between private
enterprise and public health. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 45(2):83-9; discussion 90-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18982834

38. Brody H. (2010). Professional Medical Organizations and Commercial Conflicts of Interest: Ethical
Issues Annals of Family Medicine 8:354-358 http://www.annfammed.org/cgi/reprint/8/4/354

39. Brown JR (2008). Politics, method and medical research Philosophy of Science 75 (5):756-766..

40. Brownell KD, Warner KE. (2009). The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and
millions died. How similar is Big Food? Milbank Q. 87(1):259-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19298423

41. Burch, T., N.Wander and J. Collin (2010). Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud,
tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health. Tobacco Control 19(6):e1-e9 http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/19/6/e1.full.pdf

42. Campanario JM (1998) Peer review for journals as it stands today - Part I. Sci Commun 19: 181-211.

43. Campanario JM (1998) Peer review for journals as it stands today - Part II. Sci Commun 19: 277-306.

44. Chalmers, I. (1990). Underreporting research is scientific misconduct. JAMA 263(10), 14051408.

45. Chalmers, I. (2006). From optimism to disillusion about commitment to transparency in the medicoindustrial complex. J.R.Soc.Med (99):33741 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1484602/?tool=pubmed

46. Chan AW, Altman DG. (2005). Identifying outcome reporting bias in randomised trials on PubMed:
review of publications and survey of authors. BMJ 330:753. http://www.bmj.com/content/330/7494/753.abstract

47. Chan AW, Hrobjartsson A, Haahr MT, Gotzsche PC, Altman DG. (2004). Empirical evidence for
selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: comparison of protocols to published articles. JAMA 291:2457-65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15161896

48. Chan AW, Krleza-Jeric K, Schmid I, Altman DG. (2004). Outcome reporting bias in randomized trials
funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. CMAJ 171:735-40 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC517858/

49. Chan AW, Upshur R, Singh JA, Ghersi D, Chapuis F, Altman DG. (2006) Research protocols:
waiving confidentiality for the greater good. BMJ 332:1086-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1458595/

50. Chan AW. (2008). Bias, Spin, and Misreporting: Time for Full Access to Trial Protocols and Results.
PLoS Med. 5(11): e230. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2586359/

51. Cherry, N. (2002). Motorola Funded Counter Research on Microwave DNA Damage
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52. Chimonas, C; Z Frosch, DJ Rothman (2011). From Disclosure to Transparency The Use of Company
Payment Data. Arch Intern Med. 171(1):81-86. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.341 http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/171/1/81

53. Cho MK, Bero LA. (1996). The quality of drug studies published in symposium proceedings. Ann
Intern Med. 124:485-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8602706 _________________________________________________________________________________________ -3-

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54. Choonara I (2011). Editorial: Safety of new medicines in young children. Arch Dis Child 96:872-873
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55. Choonara I, Rieder MJ. (2002). Drug toxicity and adverse dug reactions in children a brief historical
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56. Choudhry NK, Stelfox HT, Detsky AS. (2002). Relationships between authors of clinical practice
guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. JAMA 287(5):612-7 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11829700

57. Clarke M. (2007). Standardising outcomes for clinical trials and systematic reviews. Trials 8:39.

58. Clifford TJ, Barrowman NJ, Moher D. (2002). Funding source, trial outcome and reporting quality:
are they related? Results of a pilot study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2(1):18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC126226/pdf/1472-6963-2-18.pdf

59. Collier J, Iheanacho I.. (2002). The pharmaceutical industry as an informant. Lancet 360:1405-9.

60. Cook DM, Boyd EA, Grossmann C, Bero LA (2009) Journalists and conflicts of interest in science:
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61. Cook DM, Boyd EA, Grossmann C, Bero LA (2007) Reporting Science and Conflicts of Interest in
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62. Cosgrove L, Krimsky S (2012). A Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Panel Members' Financial
Associations with Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists. PLoS Med 9(3): e1001190. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001190 http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi %2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001190

63. Damvik M, and Johansson, O. (2010) Health risk assessment of electromagnetic fields: a conflict
between the precautionary principle and environmental medicine methodology. Rev Environ Health. 25(4):325-33. http://pubget.com/paper/21268445

64. D'Arcy E, Moynihan R. (2009). Can the relationship between doctors and drug companies ever be a
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65. Davidoff F, DeAngelis CD, Drazen JM, Nicholls MG, Hoey J, Hjgaard L, et al. (2001). Sponsorship,
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67. DeAngelis, C. and Fontanarosa, P. (2008). Impugning the integrity of medical science. JAMA
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68. Deyo RA, Psaty BM, Simon G, Wagner EH, Omenn GS. (1997). The messenger under attack
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69. Deyo, RA. (2009). Marketing, Media, Wishful Thinking, and Conflicts of Interest: Inflating the Value
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72. Diethelm D, McKee M. (2009). Denialism: what is it and how should scientists respond? European
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74. Djulbegovic B, Lacevic M, Cantor A, et al. (2002). The uncertainty principle and industry-sponsored
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75. Downie J, Thompson J, Baird P, Dodds S. (2005). The Olivieri case: lessons for Australasia. J Bioeth
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76. Drazen JM, de Leeuw PW, Laine C, Mulrow C, DeAngelis CD, et al (2010). Toward more uniform
conflict disclosures--the updated ICMJE conflict of interest reporting form. N Engl J Med. 363(2):188-9. Epub 2010 Jul 1. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMe1006030

77. Drazen JM. (2002). Institutions, contracts and academic freedom. N Engl J Med 347:1362-3.

78. Dwan K, Altman DG, Arnaiz JA, Bloom J, Chan AW, Cronin E, et al. (2008). Systematic review of
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79. Edmond G (2008) Judging the scientific and medical literature: some legal implications of changes to
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80. EEA Issue report no 22. (2001). Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle 1896
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81. Egberts TCG, Smulders M, de Koning FHP, et al (1996). Can adverse drug reactions be detected
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86. Ezzet KA. (2003). The prevalence of corporate funding in adult lower extremity research and its
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90. Ferris LE, Fletcher RH. (2010). Conflict of Interest in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals: The World
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91. Finucane TE, Boult CE. (2004) Association of funding and findings of pharmaceutical research at a
meeting of a medical professional society. Am J Med 117:842-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15589488

92. Flanagin A, Carey LA, Fontanarosa PB, Phillips SG, Pace BP, et al. (1998) Prevalence of articles with
honorary authors and ghost authors in peer-reviewed medical journals. JAMA 280:222224. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/280/3/222.full

93. Friedberg M, Saffran B, Stinson TJ, Nelson W, Bennett CL.(1999). Evaluation of conflict of interest
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94. Friedman JH. (2009). Biased articles. Med Health R I. 92(3):70.


95. Friedman LS, Richter ED. (2004). Relationship between conflict of interest and research results. J
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96. Fries J, Krishnan E. (2004). Equipoise, design bias, and randomized controlled trials: the elusive
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97. Fugh-Berman A (2005) The corporate coauthor. J Gen Intern Med 20: 546-548.

98. Fugh-Berman A and S Ahari (2007). Following the Script: How Drug Reps Make Friends and
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99. Fugh-Berman AJ (2010) The haunting of medical journals: how ghostwriting sold HRT. PLoS Med
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There are some EMF-related Scribd collections which may be of interest http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3228507 (Electrosmog and wildlife) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222035 (Electrosensitivity) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3221670 (Electrosmog and male fertility) http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3222195 (The precautionary principle) http://www.scribd.com/collections/3440803/Electrosmog-Bibiographies (EMF related bibliographies) If you are not a member of Avaaz.org, please consider supporting some of their petitions. You can also suggest campaign ideas: http://www.avaaz.org/en/contact/

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