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Newtonian derivation of the cosmological constant

Greeting: I am Joe Nahhas founder of real time physics and astronomy


Abstract: Hubble's constant can be derived from Newton's equation F = -G m M/r2; r > 0
and equals to: H0 = [(2/T) - (2/T0)] (2 ) (4/T0) (v/c) 2
= 74.179 km/sec/mega parsec; T0 = Earth's period in seconds; v = Earth's spin velocity; c =
light velocity Hubble's law is V = H0 D and Hubble's constant is H0

Where V is recessional velocity of expanding Universe and D is the distance of a distant galaxy and
H0 = 74.2 km/sec/mega parsec (Adam Reiss 2011 Nobel Prize winner)
The cosmological constant is: 0= 2.036 x 10-35 sec-2 = [(T0/Ts) H0]2 (4 / n a) ; Ts = 24hour

General relativity: 1.934 x 10-35 sec-2 = [(8/3)/ (2) 1/2] [(Ts/T0) H0]2
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Introduction
A disc on a rotating spherical Earth has a circumference of 2 re and 2 re / re = 2 .
Modern Nobel physicists and astronomers measurements were/are made in an inverse
square distance Newton's law and that would make the error 1/ (2). Modern Nobel
physicists and astronomers measure space distance vertically and that would make the
vertical error Sine-1[1/ (2)]. Modern Nobel physicists and astronomers use standard
time period Ts = 24 hours = 86400 seconds and not Earth's spin period Te = 86164
seconds and that bring the measurement error to (Te/ Ts) Sine-1[1/ (2)]. Modern
Nobel physicists and astronomers measure in air and not vacuum with air index of
refraction n a = 1.000293 brings the total measurement error to a value equals to:
Error 1is the celestial sphere: (1/ n a) (Te/ Ts) Sine-1[1/ (2)] = 23.44

This celestial sphere is a visual illusion or measurement error of spherical Earth


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Newton's equation solution


F = -G m M/r2; r > 0
Physics Faculty wrong solution of ellipse, r (, 0) = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine )
Correct solution is a rotating ellipse, r (, t) = [a (1-)/ (1+ cosine )] ( + ) t
Newton's equation in polar coordinates
F = m ;

= [r" - r '] r1 + [2 r' ' + r "] 1

With m (r" - r ') = - Gm M/r2

Eq-1

And 2 r' ' + r "= 0

Eq-2

I - Real numbers or time independent solution


Eq-2: 2 r' ' + r "= 0
Multiply by r> 0
Then 2 r r' ' + r2 "= 0
Or, d (r')/d t = 0
And integrating: r' = h = constant
With m (r" - r ') = - Gm M/r2
Then, (r" - r ') = - GM/r2
Let u = 1/r; r = 1/u; r' = h = /u
And r' = d r/d t = (d r/ d u) (d u /d ) (d / d t)
= (- /u ) (d u /d ) '
= (-'/u ) (d u /d )
= - h (d u/ d )
And r' = d r/d t = - h (d u/ d )
And r" = d r/ d t = d (d r'/ d t)/ d t
= d [- h (d u/ d )]/ d t
Multiply (d / d )
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Then r" = d r/ d t = {d [- h (d u/ d )]/ d t} (d / d )


= ' {d [- h (d u/ d )]/ d }
= - h (d u/ d )
= (- h/r) (d u/ d )
= - h u (d u/ d )
And r" = d r/ d t = - h u (d u/ d )
With d r/dt - r ' = - G M/r2

Eq1

And - h u (d u/ d ) (1/u) (h u) = - G M u2
Then (d u/ d ) + u = G M/h2
And u = G M/h2 + A cosine
The r = 1/u = 1/ (G M/h2 + A cosine ); divide by G M/h2
And r = (h2/G M)/ [1 + (A h2/G M) cosine ]
With; h2/G M = a (1 - 2); (A h2/G M) =
This is Newton's equation classical solution
Or, r = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine ); definition of an ellipse ------------- I
Newton's time independent solution
II - Real time or complex numbers solution :
Newton's equation in polar coordinates
F = m ;

= [r" - r '] r1 + [2 r' ' + r "] 1

With m (r" - r ') = - Gm M/r2

Eq-1

And 2 r' ' + r "= 0

Eq-2

Eq-2: 2 r' ' + r "= 0


Separate the variables: 2 r' ' = - r "
Or 2(r'/r) = - ("/') = - 2 ( + )
Then: (r'/r) = +
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Or d r/r = ( + ) d t
Then r = r 0 ( + ) t
And r = r (, 0) r (0, t); r 0 = r (, 0)
And r = r (, 0) ( + ) t
And r (0, t) = ( + ) t
With r (, 0) = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine )
Then, r (, t) = [a (1-)/ (1+ cosine )] ( + ) t ------------- I
Newton's time dependent solution = quantum mechanics
If time is frozen that is t = 0
Then r (, 0) = a (1-)/ (1+ cosine ) or classical
Relativistic is the difference between I and Real II
With - ("/') = - 2 ( + )
Then ' = '0 -2 ( + ) t
With '0 = h/ [r (, 0)] 2
And '(, t) = [' (, 0)] -2 ( + ) t
And, '(, t) = ' (, 0) ' (0, t)
And ' (0, t) = -2 ( + ) t
At Perihelion:
We Have ' (0, 0) = h (0, 0)/r (0, 0) = 2ab/ 0 a (1- ) ;
= 2a [ (1- )]/
= 2 [ (1- )]/
Then '(0, t) = 2

0a (1- ) ]

0 (1- ) ]

[(1- )/ 0 (1- ) ] -2 ( + ) t

With = 0
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0 = orbital period

Then '(0, t) = 2

[(1-)/ 0 (1-) ] -2 ( + ) t

= 2 [(1-)/ 0 (1- ) ] (cosine 2 t - sine 2 t)


Real '(0, t) = 2

[(1- )/ 0 (1-) ] cosine 2 t

Real '(0, t) = 2

[(1-)/ 0 (1-) ] (1 - 2sine t)

Naming ' = '(0, t); '0 = 2


Then ' = 2

[(1-)/ 0 (1-) ]

[(1- )/ 0 (1- ) ] (1 - 2 sine t)

And ' = '0 (1 - 2 sine t)


And ' - '0 = - 2 '0 sine t = -2{2
And ' - '0 = -4

[(1-)/ 0 (1-) ]} sine t

[(1-)/ 0 (1-) ] sine t

With, v = spin velocity; v0 = orbital velocity; 0 = orbital period


And 0= tan-1 [(v + v0)/c]; light aberrations
' = ' - '0
= - 4 [(1-)]/

0 (1-) ] sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c] radians per 0

In degrees per period is multiplication by 180/


' = (-720) [(1-)/

0 (1-) ] sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c]

The angle difference in degrees per period is: = ( ') 0


= (-720) [(1-)/ (1-) ] sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c] calculated in degrees per century is
multiplication = 100 ;

= Earth orbital period = 100 x 365.26 = 36526 days and dividing by


using 0 in days: (100 / 0) = in degrees per century
= (-72000 /

0) [(1-)/ (1-) ] sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c]

In arc second per century is multiplying by 3600


= - 3600 x 720 (100

/ 0) [(1-)/ (1-) ] x Sine tan-1 [(v + v0)/c]

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Approximations I
With v << c and v* << c
Then Sine tan-1 [(v+ v0)/c] (v + v0)/c
(Calculated in arc second per century)
= (-720x36526x3600/

0 days) [(1-)/ (1-) ] [(v + v0)/c]

Approximations II
The circumference of an ellipse
Is: 2

a (1 - /4 + 3/16()- --.) 2 a (1- /4); r0 = a (1- /4)

From Newton's laws for a circular orbit:


F = [M/m F = - Gm M/r02 = m v0/ r0
Then v0 = GM/ r0; for planet Mercury
And v0 = [GM/ r] = [GM/a (1-/4)]
G = 6.673 x 10 -11; M = 2 x1030 kg; a = 58.2 x 109 meters; = 0.206
Then v0 = [6.673 x 10 -11 x 2 x1030 /58.2 x 109 (1- 0.206 /4)]
And v0 = 48.14 km/sec [Mercury]; c = 300,000
(Calculated in arc second per century)
= (-720x36526x3600/

0 days) [(1-)/ (1-) ] [(v + v0)/c]

With = 0.206; [(1-)/ (1-) ] = 1.552; v = 3 meters per second


= (-720x36526x3600/88) 1.552 (48.143/300,000)
= 43 arc second per century
Summary
= (-720x36526x3600/

0 days) [(1-)/ (1-) ] [(v + v0)/c]

= (-720x36526x3600/88) 1.552 (48.143/300,000)


= 43 arc second per century; 8 arc second per century for Venus; v =41.26
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Or, r = a (1 - 2)/ (1 + cosine ); definition of an ellipse


Rotating ellipse, r (, t) = [a (1-)/ (1+ cosine )] ( + ) t ------------- I

1 = 1 is self evident; 2 = 2 is self evident


A = A is self evident; B = B is self evident
Or B = B; add and subtract A
A = B + (B - A); divide by A
(A/B) = 1 + (A - B)/B; multiply by D
(A/B) D = D + [(A - B)/B] D --------------------------------- Equation - 1
C = C is self evident; D = D is self evident
Or C = C; add and subtract D
C = D + (C - D) ----------------------------------------------- Equation - 2
Comparing equations 1 and 2 yields, (1) AC = BD; (2) D = D; and (3)
C - D = [(A - B)/B] D
Or (C - D)/D = (A - B)/B
Or D/D = B/B; Divide by t
(1/D) ( D/ t) = (1/B) ( B/ t)
Limit [(1/D) ( D/ t)] = Limit [(1/B) ( B/ t)] = ( + )
t --- 0

t --- 0
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Or, d B/B = ( + ) d t
Or, B = B0 e ( + ) t = A e ( + ) t
B = A e ( + ) t
Distance is A; real time distance is B = A e

( + ) t

Or in general real time distance is r = r0 e ( + ) t


With ' = '0 -2 ( + ) t
Or, ' = '0 -2 t + 2 t
And ' = ' x + ' y = '0 -2 t [cosine 2 t + cosine 2 t]
Along the line of sight ' x = '0 -2 t cosine 2 t
And ' x = '0 -2 t [1- 2 sine 2 t]
With ' x = 2/T; '0 = 2/T0
[(2/T) - (2/T0)] = - (4/T0) -2 t sine 2 t
With -2 t = (2 ); wt = arc tan (v/c)
[(2/T) - (2/T0)] = (4/T0) (2 ) sine 2 arc tan (v/c)
Hubble's constant H0 = 74.2 km/second per mega parsec
1 parsec = [360x60x60/2 ] x149 598, 000,000
1 mega parsec = [360x60x60/2 ] x149 598, 000,000 x 1,000,000
74.2 km/sec per mega parsec

H0 = 74,200 / {[360x60x60/2 ] x149 598, 000,000 x 1,000,000} = 2.4 x 10-18 sec-1


H0 = (4/T0) (2 ) sine 2 arc tan (v/c)
T0 = Earth orbital period 365.251 days; v = Earth's spin velocity = 464.581 m/sec; c= light
velocity = 299792458 m/sec

H0 = [(2/T) - (2/T0)] = (4/T0) (2 ) sine 2 arc tan (v/c)


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= (4/365.251 x 86164.0989) (2 ) sine 2 arc tan (464.581/299792458)

(4/365.251) (2 ) (464.581/299792458) 2 = 2.4 x 10-18


= 74.197km/sec/mega parsec = 74.2 km/sec/mega parsec
F = -G m M/r2; r > 0
Conclusion I: Edwin Hubble made the following errors
1- Real time measurements r = r0 e ( + ) t; ' = '0 -2 ( + ) t
2- Spherical error (2 )
3- Measured = H0 = [(2/T) - (2/T0)] (2 ) (4/T0) (v/c) 2

H0 is an orbital unit of time and when squared it doubles the orbital factor of not 2 but
4 and in a square the error is (4) = 2 ()
= (T0/Ts) 2 [2 ()] (2.4 x 10-18)2 = 2.036 x10-35 sec-2
T0 = 86264.0989 seconds of earth spin; and Ts = 24 hours = 86400 seconds
Conclusion II: look for 2.036 x10-35 sec-2 as cosmological constant
And not 1.934 x 10-35 sec-2; the difference is Einstein uses 8/3 and actual is (2) 1/2
Relativity theory is based on time travel and time travel is not any science
All rights reserved
1- Adam Reiss a redetermination of Hubble's constant 2009

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