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Morbillivirus (Measles)

Structure Properties Lives in Nature

Transmitted to Man

Nature of Disease



MMR vaccine.

negative ssRNA. humans is the only transmited by respiratory droplets. Spreads Prodomes: coryza, cough, Koplick's spots. Rash that By clinical symptoms. No Nonssegmented. from mucosa to lymph nodes - viremia. Get starts around ears, neck, and forhead. Also see resevoir treatment. Helical capsid. in lymph - lyopoid hyperplasia and secondary conjuctivitis. Some patients present with Envelope contains F, H viremia. peribronchitis and perpneumonia. and N proteins. Pneumovirius (RSV) Respitory droplets or enviornment contact. main cause of bronichitis in under 6 mos. Most antigen detection in secretions. supportive see morbillivirus Common in common cause of acute fatal respiraty disease. Can be Should be suspected in all care, oxygen, infants. upper and lower respiratory infections. Bronchitis, infants with lower resp cold steam. pneumonia, increases broncial hyperactivity. infections Parainfluenza virus Major causes of person to person or respiraory droplets. PIV 1 involved larynx and causes CROUP PIV 3 - causes No diagnosis discussed maintain see morbillivirus respirtayory Spread for cell to cell in nose and pharnyx. bronchitis. Also see rhinitis, pharygitis, fever, cough. airway, cold infections in steam children. Rubularvirus (Mumps) see morbillivirus childhood dieases Transmitted via salivary glands. Starts in Primary - swollen paratoid inflammed partoid gland. Also see oochitis, supportive seen only in upper respirtory mucosa and spreads to gland. Also suspect if orchitis, care oophritis, pancreastis, encephalitis, menigitis. children. draining lymph -> viremia. Target organs menigitis. Use ElISA to confirm if such as saliary glands, testes, ovaries, necessary. pancreas, and brain rubavirus (rubella) postive ssRNA, icsohedral, single protein, envelope humans is the only trasmitted via respitory aerosol. resevoir incubates for 16 days. Prodomes: conjuctivitis, Antibody identifcation, headache, low grade fever, malasie, mild respiratory immunoassays symptoms, and lymphadenopathy. Also pink macular rash spreads on face to trunks. Complications = polyarthraligia/polyarthirits, thromboctyopenia purpura, encephalitis.

no vaccine



MMR not recommende d for preggo.


postive ssRNA, icsohedral, envelope.



Transferred by mosiqutos. Females injects You see arthritis, encelphatilits, myositis. Immunoassay for IgM virus into you. Virus replicates in the capillary endothelium and monyocytes and macrophages. Spreads to distal results into CNS, joints. positive ssRNA, helical humans is the only spread through respiratory droplets or you Replicated locally on ciliated epitheliem of the upper immunoassay and envelope resevoir introduce it through your hands. resp tract causing damage and inflammation. See acute respiratory infections and 2nd leading cause of cold. negative segmented Type A - lives in Spreads via inhalation or respiratory Abrupt onset of fever. Headache, mylagia, sore throat, Based on clincical signs. ssRNA. Helical and animals and droplets. Only A can undergo antigent shift: non-productive cough. No viremia b/c it is confined to envelope that has HA humans. Type B - sudden change for one subtype to another. respiratory tract. NO CORYZA. May lead to secondary and NA lives in people only. Drift: small slow changes in a.a. sequences of bacterial pneumonia. May lead to ottis media, and HA and NA due to mutation. sinusitis.

Cylces of infections through birds, mosquitos. Humans accidental.

Supportive care

Kill mosqitos.

Supportive care

wash your hands.

Neuroiminidas TIV, LAIV. e: zanamivir and osteltamivir. Also amantidine and rimtadine supportive care for respirtory you can give a pill that will cause asx in GI


dsDNA, icoshedral, non envelope

in humans (fecal)

transmitted by getting fecal particles in your 1) endemic resp disease - fever, pharyngitis, tonsilitis. complement fixation test eye, or swimming in an infected pool. Maybe 2) pharygoconjuctival fever (PCF) - fever, sore throat, respritory secretion conjuctivits, swimming pools. 3) acute resp disease - miltary - upper and lower resp probs, fever, malaise, nasal congestion, sore throat, may become pneumonia. 4) Ketatonconjuctiviits no fever and just conjuctivitis 5) epidemic keratoconjuctivits- eye probs - you can inoculate the other eye - very contagious. 5)

Erythroviruis B19 (slap ssDNA, iscosheadral, cheek) non enevloped

humans is the only fecal oral and respiratory resevoir

Calcivaridae - Norovirus

Structure Properties Lives in Nature

positive ssRNA, nonenveloped, icosehedral

Transmitted to Man

infection the eryhtocytes progenitor cells that can lead to anemia - there is ab response that brings the end of viremia. Erythema infectisum: flu like sx w/ itching. When you have rash you already have fought the infecrion.

Supportive care

wash your hands.

Nature of Disease





Hep B (serum sickness)

Hep D

Hep C

Hep A (infections hepatitis)

Hep E

Hep G

Presented as acute onset of Supprotive maintain vomiting and non-bloody care WHO hygeine diarrhea, ab cramps and nausea. rehydration No fecal lympocytes. formula. Community setting dsRNA, segments, non- commonly found on Fecal oral route but can be respiratory 4 serotypes it denudes the vili resulting in decreased Can't be done on clinical supportive there are 2 enveloped icosahedral toys - lives a long secretions. absorption. No viermia. Vomiting, diarrhea, sympotoms most preferred is care. WHO vaccines: time and very dehydration, and possibly fever. Infants may suffer EIAs hydration RotaTeq and contagious severe dehydration formula Toraix partially ss and humans is the only Virus detected in bodily secretions. Can be Liver is the only site of replication. Has a long Screen for Ab or Ag. Also For chronic Safe sex, partially ds DNA. resevoir transmitted by blood: needle sticks, IV drug incubation period. Clincial signs only occur ofter liver elevated liver enzymes and give INF - vaccines: Envelope contains users; Sexual contact, perinatal - those damage - immune mediated. Strong CTL response -> bilrubin. *HBsAg - surface alpha to recombinant - HBSAg. Icosahedral w/ ingance usually asympotamitc but develop cured. Chronic infections occurs when you have antigen of active infection. upregulate HBSAg in DNAp and reverse chronic infection and may have liver probs insuffienct CTL response due to reduced MHC1 and HBeAg - active disease and MHC 1 yeast - not transcriptase later in life. reduced INF. The older the more likely to show sx. transmisbility - poor prognosis. TRANSPLANTS serum orgin. Prodome of Fever, urticaria, arthralgia, arthris, UR ab HbcAg - capsid Anti Hbe Ag - DON"T Or plasma pain, dark urine, light colored feces. 1) Acute infection acute infection if IgG and Ab - WORK!!!! For derived that you have elevated levels of ALT/AST, bilrubin, recovery Ig only - vaccinated acute: rest, no HBsAg from gamma globin. Jaudice. 2) Chronic infection 1- Anti HbeAg - less replication steroids! blood. Post persistant where you have no signs of hepatic damage good prognonisis HBC DNAp - exposure of 2 - active - where you have continous hepatic poor prognosis therapy of damage like cirrhois, liver failure or cancer. Hep B Ig. not a complete virus 90% are acute w/ full recovery. Chronic - High risk w/ HBV. Anti-HDDV Same as HBV HBV vaccine required HBV for transmission negative ssRNA superinfection. Liver damage IgM in acute infections. HDV Ag in acute or chronic Cant be grown in humans is the only Primary cause od transfusion associated Causes more chronic hepatitis than HBV. No cross Most do ELISA to monitor for Liver No vaccine. culture. Linear positive resevoir hepatitis. Most commonly affected are IV reacting immunity. Replicated in hepatocytes and circulating Abs. Tests are not transplants Screen ssRNA. Envelope w/ drug users. Less due to sexual contact. Also mononuclear cells. Liver damage due to immune sensitive. PCR detects HCV RNA won't work donors. neturalization epitope transmissble from mother to fetus response. Very slow and progressive disease. in serum and moniteors b/c B and T Education infection and TX. Distigishable cells are b/c fatty liver, bile duct lesions, infected. amd lumpoid follicles. lineasr ssRNA fresh/sea water, live Transmitted fecal oral route. Overcrowded initial infection in GI tract spreads to live replicates in Confirmed by ELISA IgM Abs to No treatment. Proper icoahedral NON oysters. Man major and unsanitary areas. Major sources: poorly hepatocytes. Leaves through bile ducts and is shed in HAV in serum Supportive hygiene, 2 enveloped resevoir preped food, pools, waste, and IV drug users feces. Peak infection before jaundice. Immune care. vaccines: response cause liver damage. Only acute infections havrix and seee: UR ab pain w/ resp sx, jaudine, dark urine and vaqta pale feces positive ssRNA. unknown reservoir. fecal oral route, water-borne. Occurs after Oral ingestion. Primary replication in the intestines PCR. Mortality in pregnant supportive No vaccine. Icosahedral, no rainy seasons. Close contacts but not sexual and spreads to liver to replicate via portal vien. Dark women care. WHO envelope urine, pale feces. Only acute infections and self hydration limiting. formula similar to blood borne factors: transmission, acute and chronic forms. Immune response to HGV is No hallmarks. Dx of exclusion IV drug users, sex contact. Possbily persistant very low and develops into a persistant infection. w/ HCV

humans is the only fecal oral direct person to person and resevoir possible aerosilized vomits. Very common source outbreaks

cause nearly 50% of non-bacterial gastroentretitis. Common to older children and adults.


positve ssRNA, capsid humans is the only Transmitted fecal oral route. Patients tend to Replicate in oropharygeal and intestinal mucosa. May PPS is diagnoses of exculsion 3 proteins w/ canyon. resevoir shed for weeks to months. Sometime have systemic sprred to target oral. Poliovirus 1- No enveople respiratory secretions. Easily pass through Asymatatic - replicated locally w/o clincial sx 2- stomach. systemic: headache, sore throat, fever, mengitits. Can result in aspetic mengitis. 3- paralytic infections - virus enters spinal cors or brain stem 4 - post polio syndrome - decades after recovery (PPS)

Currently no Prevented by treatments for vaccine: OPV: PPS. Others: live supportive atttenuated measures and that covers comfort. infections and paralysis. Also IPC only systemic Supportive measures. No specific treatments for enterovirsus

Coxsachievirus and Echovirus

same as poliovirus

mouth is portal of entry and replicate in oropharnyx spread to target organs: heart, lungs and skin. Prodominatly asymptomatic


acid labile and can't survive in GI tract. Only cooler regions of upper res. Non enveloped. Human spherical, cone shaped Immodeficiency Virus care. 2 identical RNA segments 6 individual proteins: gag, pol, and env: also accessory proteins: including TAT! Tranacting protein: anti- terminator of transcrotion

Via respiratory droplets and contaminated objests. Undergo antigenic drift. Inhaled or inoculated attaches to epithelia cells via attachement protein and ICAM non-communicalbe virus and require large volumes of repeated expsosure to intiate infection. Can be transmitted sexually (more likely from males), in utero or perinatally, blood, IV drug users. Infection intiated when HIV attached to cell that expreses CD4 molecules. Also requires a co-receptor: CXCR4, CCR5, DC. Dedritic cells are first cells infected by expression of low levels of CD4. Dendrites carry HIV to para cortical region of lymph nodes and this virus is deliverd to CD4+ t cells. T cells activated by interaction w/ DC (T cell infection). Viremia and mono/flu like sx. Never cleared from the body. Transmitted from mother to infant, sexual intercourse, or contact w/ blood

Herpangia: cox A - frequently in children. Small, vesicular, ulcerated lesions soft palate and uvula. Fever, anorexis, sore throat. Hand-foot-mouth: cox A & B mild, sore throat and sore mouth. Vesciular eruptions buccal mucosa and hard palate. Aspetic mengitis: fever, headache, nausea, stiff neck, and back. May be accompied w/ rash. Pleurodynia: Bornhom or devil's grip: arubpt onset of fever and intense ab pain preced by malasie, headcahe, and anorexia. Pericarditis and myocarditis: fever, precordial pain, arrhymisa signa of heart failure. Virus infects and immbolizes ciliar. Sx: rhinorrhea, Can't be distingushed sneezing coughing, sore throat, headache and malaise. Can result in secondary bacterial infections.

supportive care.

AIDS: opportunsitc infections, cancers, and CNS There are several lab markers. anti hiv drugs dysnfuction. INTIAL SX: MONO/FLU LIKE. Generalized But Western blotting is the have been lymphadenopathy that may last years. Full blown AIDS definitive test! Markers: CD4 t developed to occurs when CD4+ T cells are <200 /ul. Can be broken cels, B2, neopternis serum inhibit into three phases. 1) Seroconversion - within 2 weeks: levels, TNF alpha, decreased replication. mono/flu like sx can last up to four weeks. At the end response to T cells to antiCD3, HAART: reverse of latency - they develop the lympadenpathy - LAS. decreased DTH response, p234, transcriptase You can see other disorders appear at this time: frequency via PCR, HIV mRNA. inhibtors, non- Guillian-Baeew, throbocytopenia, Reiter's. 2 - You can use ELISA - but have nucleoside Asymptomatic - viral replication in LN Parallels number false poisitve, Latax agllutination analogs, of CD4+ T cells. 3) Sympotamtic and development of detects Abs - many false protease AIDS develop sx and diseases ARC: opportunsitc positives. CD4/CD8 ratios inhibitors. Only infections, malignancies, wasting syndrome. Also may defines state of infection. initated when T display fever, and demenita falls load or
viral load is high.

Human T Cell Leukemia Virus

3 essential products also tax and rex

virus infects CD4+ T cells and goes through replication ELISA. Confirmed by western and then becomes latent. Sometime it begins again blot. PCR can be ussed to id and you see adult T cell leukemia (maliganacy of proviurus in lymphocytes mature T cells) and chronic progressive myelopathy

Manange opportunist infections. Maybe INF alpha

Herpes Simplex

linear dsDNA, isomeric humans is the only conformations 5 resevoir proteins icosahdreal structure Tegment and Envelope with glycoproteins that function in adsoprtion, pentration, and binding FC region of TgG. Latency.

transmission of the virus is by direct contact w/ infections secretions. Shed from asympotmatic carriers. Virus replicated at site of intital infection. Replicated virus infects local nerve endings where latency is established.

Primany & Recurrent HSV 1: orofacial infetions "cold sores" Recurrent stomatitis: largest reservoir HSV infections. Prodrome sx. Very localized. Primary ocular herpes - heratoconjuctivits result of autoinoculation. Reccurent ocular: eye red sore & painful. Traumatic herpes. Herpes gladiatorum: wrestling. Coraonary aa diesease. Primary & recurent HSV 2: Genital infections: females: vulva w/ tenderness or burninng watery discharge become ulcers SEVERE pain, dysuria, lynpadenopthy. Male: glans fever, dysuria, adepathy, malaise, headache. Recurent b/c latency. Herpetic whitlow is itching of finger that have vesicles and unabated pain. Eczema Herpticum: resemble zoster. Encephalitis: infection of orbitalfrontal and temporal regions: headache, fever, altered consiuoness.

Primary: oral admin of acycloir IV should be admin for severe cases. Prompt treatment is essential w/ encephalits.

Variella-Zoster Virus

same as hepres simplex

inhalation of aerosilzed particles. Direct contact

Prodomes: low fever, laasie. And maculopapular lesion. Occurs through respiratory tract followed by viremia to skin. As age more severe disease. Can devlop zoster later in life because of latency. typically aquired during infacny or reproductive years. Requires serolicial evidence. Infects epithleil cells and lympocytes. Mono: fever, Suspect if newborn w/ tonsilittis, lymphadenoapthy, spelnomegally, microcephaly, jaudince, headache, fever, rash, skin. Congential: CID - leading hepatspelnomegaly, ind w/ cause of MR, jaundice, petachie, hepatosplenomegaly, mono like but heterophil deafness, CNS development. Perinatal and childhood negative. Immunosuppressed usually asymptomatic. Pneuo, Choroirenteritis, GI, w/ FUO. Post-Transfusion Syndrome. Assoc w/ HIC

No effective Live tx. Symptoms. attenuated vaccine. (OKA/Merck) Ganciclovir, Fascarnet Cytogam for prevent in high risk.


Evenloped, linear dsDNA, icoshedral

humans is the only Age of infection due to socioeconmic status. resevoir Susceptible: fetus, neonates/young children, pregnant women, sexually active, immunocomprimised, blood transfusions, healthcare workers

EBV (epstein barr)

Evenloped, linear dsDNA, icoshedral

age of infection of socieconmic status


small, noneveloped, icosahedral, circular dsDNA. Capsid 4 known proteins. Has early and later stages of replication.

Primary target is epithelial cells or oropharnyx esp Sx: fatique, pharyngitis, paratoid glannd. B cells don't support infection so they lympadenpathy. Atypical become lytic. Infectionous Mono. Complications: lympocytes. Heterophil positive. spenic rupture, anemia, throbocypenia, mengitis, encepalitis, seizure, depression. Lymphoprofiferate Syndrome: pts lack T cell immunity. Burkett's lymphoma caused uncrollted prolferation to B Cells. Nasophaayngeal Carcinona. Hodkin's disease. Chronic mono. Most prominent sexually transmitted Extremly tisuse specifc, not only cause warts by Identified by DNA hypridization disease. Can be transmitted by skin contact squamous lesions that can become maligant. techniques. or indirectly. Also transmitted by inoculation Cutanoues: verruc vulargies *most common - hand. Verruce plantaris: feet. Verruca plana - head. Mucous: oral cavity - most common bengign tumors of the oral cavity. Laryngeal papillomas: lifethreatening. Anogential: Condyloma acimuata, cervical dysplasia. Uncommon: epridemodyspalic verrucifonnis. Belived by handling infected meat - bush Conctrentrates in liver, kidnets, lunds, adrenal glands, meat. Spreads person to peroson nosocomial spleen, etc. and cause alterations to epithelia contact. arachindate metalosm. Causes extensive necrosis to parenchymal cells. Dendrites, Monocytes, and macrophages produce a lot of vitus. Platelets become disfunctional. Infectivity and virulence are enhanced by antibody dependent enhancement. C1q and C1qL abrupt onset, sore throat, vomiting, extreme ab pain, profuse bleeding from mucosal surfaces becomes hypovelemic and death usually from shock. Identified by direct immunoflouresce.

through salvia and is not highly contagious.

No treatment. Do not prescirbe pencille because rash WILL occur.

Goal is to HPV remove warts: vaccination salicyl acid, of Gardsil faralin, that protects podphllin, 16, 18, 6, and cryotherapy, 11. lasers. Supportive care. Maintain blood volume and electrolyte balance. MUST BE ISOLATED!

Filoviridea - ebola and negative ssRNA. marbug Helical. Several glycoproteins. Distint pleomophic felimantous shape

unkown but most likely spred by rodent, bat, or monkey

Flavivirus - Abovirus: postive ssRNA Dengue and Yellow icosahedral and Fever envelope

Spread by mosquito vectors, birds are usually reservous. Occur in summer and rainy seasons. Japanese encehpalitis and St. Louis encelpthaits.

Cause lytic or persistant infections. Femlae mosquitos Need serologic findings. aquire virus by taking blood meal from verimic Detect IgM vertebrae host buts salivia into victims blood stream. Secondary viremia can can infect brain, liver, skin, vasculature. Cell and humoral immunity clear the infection. IgM then IgG. Virus replication preodcues INF - so you get inflammation Onsept of fever w/ retroorbital pain, transient macular rash. Myaligia and bone pain. Joint pain severe. Nausea and vomiting w/ lymphadenopthaty. Granuloyticpenia and thrombytopenia. Fever will disappear and reappear. Aprupt onset of fever, rash, headache, and nauea w/ vomiting. Rapid deterioriation: cold and clammy extermities, pt restless and irritable, scattered petechiae, spontanous ecckymoses, weak pulse. Gross hematura nd GI bleeding, liver palpable and firm but not tender. Fever, headache, malasie. Also develop chiills, vomiting, backache, damage to kidneys, hemmorhagies in cardiac and GI tissues. Can progress to jaundice, dehyfration and kideny failure. Black vomit diease.

Supportive care

Dengue Fever

Replicates locally at site of incoluation. Free virius spread into the blood and goes to Peyer's patches, spleen, liver, thymus. Problem is secondary infection

Eradiction of moquito breeding areas. Vaccine of yellow fever live attenuated

Dengue Herrorragiic Fever

assement of hemoconc and electrolyte balance - high potential for shock. Don't over hydrate an cause cardiac failure.

Yellow Fever Virus

Vaccine - live attenutated

Bunyavirida - Hantavirus

segmented negative ssRNA. Helical envelope with 2 gycoprotein polwers G1 G2


eliminate rodent infestion, disinfect and clean up dropping bullet shaped negative Can infect all Transmitted most often by a bite or a scratch Eventually reaches NMJ and begins to repicate Clinical findings. Skin bipsies Post exposure Rabies is ssRNA helical capsid warm blooded of a rapid animal. Any introduction of salivia spreads to CNS infection nerves and then spreads back while pt is alive but negative is phophalixis is primarly wild envelope has example cut, mucous membranes, organ to peripheral sites. Limbis system very heavily still not conclusive. Usually vital. With life b/c animals. Most pelopmers of infected. See negri bodies. Prodomal: malaise, chills, made postmoterm. human rabies vaccine for important resvoir: transplant, bat cave expsoure. Virus glycoprotein G replication occus in the muscle at the site of fever, headache, anorexia, myalgia,fatique, and ummune domestic bats. infection., emotional. Also paresthsia around bite site. You can globin in gluts. animals. have furious rabies that is classic w/ hydophobia, Also HDCV and seizues, and hallicinations. Aggressive behavior. Dumb PCECV IM. rabies less common flassicd paralysis of lumbs.

reservoir is the deer Inhaled aerosliaved viurs in rodent mouse. Found in all excreta areas of US except southeast and alantic

Non specific illness. Rapid onset of non cardiac pulmonary edma and hypotension and shock. Begins w/ ordinary flu like symptoms.

Seroligic, PCR, immunnohistomcial tests.

Supportive care