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INTRODUCTION Originally, computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers and their monitors have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality. The common aspect ratio of televisions and then computer monitors, has also changed from 4.3 to 16.9.

The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes (CRT) which was the dominant technology until they were replaced by LCDmonitors in the 21st century.

DEFINITION A monitor or display (sometimes called a visual display unit) is an electronic visual display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel, while older monitors use a cathode ray tube about as deep as the screen size. The first computer monitors used Cathode ray tubes (CRTs), which was the dominant technology until they were replaced by LCD monitors in the 21st Century. TYPES OF MONITORS

1.CATHODERAYTUBES(CRT) The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes (CRT). Until the early 1980s, they were known as video display terminals and were physically attached to the computer and keyboard. The monitors were monochrome, flickered and the image quality was poor. In 1981, IBM invented the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 by 200 pixels. They introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter in 1984, which was capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 by 350.

CRT remained the standard for computer monitors through the 1990s. CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium partly because it was cheaper to produce and offered viewing angles close to 180 degrees.

CRT MONITOR 2.Liquid Crystal Display(LCD)

There are multiple technologies that have been used to implement Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). Throughout the 1990s the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, and smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT. Commonly, the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points (active or passive monochrome, passive color, active matrix color (TFT). As volume and manufacturing capability have improved the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines. TFT is a variant of liquid crystal display (LCD) which is now the dominant technology used for computer monitors. The first standalone LCD displays appeared in the mid 1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular. During the 2000s TFT LCDs gradually displaced CRTs, eventually becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors. The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are that LCDs consume less power,

take up much less space, and are considerably lighter. The now common active matrix TFT-LCD technology also has less flickering than CRTs, which reduces eye strain.

A 19-inch, 16:10 wide screen LCD monitor. TFT LCD MONITOR A Thin film transistor (TFT)-LCD monitor is now being more widely used with LCD monitors, because of its high level of resolution and sharpness. The only difference is a thin film transistor that is applied to the sreen, which results in better control of pixels. This type of monitor is recommended for those who play animated, colourful, and highresolution games, as well as graphic artists who may need out different fonts on the computer sreen.

A Thin film transistor monitor

Organic light-emitting diode

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitors provide higher contrast and better viewing angles than LCDs, and are predicted to replace them. In 2011 a 25 inch OLED monitor costs $6000, but the prices are expected to drop.

Performance measurements of a monitor are:

The performance of a monitor is measured by the following parameters:

Luminance: is measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m2 also called a Nit). Aspect ratios: is the ratio of the horizontal length to the vertical length. Monitors usually have the aspect ratio 4:3, 5:4, 16:10 or 16:9.

Viewable image size: is usually measured diagonally, but the actual widths and heights are more informative since they are not affected by the aspect ratio in the same way. For CRTs, the viewable size is typically 1 in (25 mm) smaller than the tube itself.

Display resolution: is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. Maximum resolution is limited by dot pitch.

Dot pitch: is the distance between subpixels of the same color in millimeters. In general, the smaller the dot pitch, the sharper the picture will appear.

Refresh rate: is the number of times in a second that a display is illuminated. Maximum refresh rate is limited by response time.

Response time: is the time a pixel in a monitor takes to go from active (white) to inactive (black) and back to active (white) again, measured in milliseconds. Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts.

Contrast ratio: is the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the monitor is capable of producing.

Power consumption: is measured in watts. Viewing angle: is the maximum angle at which images on the monitor can be viewed, without excessive degradation to the image. It is measured in degrees horizontally and vertically.

The area, height and width of displays with identical diagonal measurements vary dependent on aspect ratio On two-dimensional display devices such as computer monitors the display size or viewable image size is the actual amount of screen space that is available to display a picture, video or working space, without obstruction from the case or other aspects of the unit's design. The main measurements for display devices are: width, height, total area and the diagonal. The size of a display is usually by monitor manufacturers given by the diagonal i.e. the distance between two opposite screen corners. This method of measurement is inherited from the method used for the first generation of CRT television, when picture tubes with circular faces were in common use. Being circular, only their diameter was needed to describe their size. Since these circular tubes were used to display rectangular images, the diagonal measurement of the rectangle was equivalent to the diameter of the tube's face. This method continued even when cathode ray tubes were manufactured as rounded rectangles; it had the advantage of being a single number specifying the size, and was not confusing when the aspect ratio was universally 4:3. The estimation of the monitor size by the distance between opposite corners does not take into account the display aspect ratio, so that for example a 16:9 21 in (53 cm) widescreen display has less area, than a 21 in (53 cm) 4:3 screen. The 4:3 screen has dimensions of 16.8 12.6 in (43 32 cm) and area 211 sq in (1,360 cm2), while the widescreen is 18.3 10.3 in (46 26 cm), 188 sq in (1,210 cm2).

Aspect ratio

Until about 2003, most computer monitors had a 4:3 aspect ratio and some had 5:4. Between 2003 and 2006, monitors with 16:9 and mostly 16:10 (8:5) aspect ratios became commonly available, first in laptops and later also in standalone monitors. Reasons for this transition was productive uses for such monitors, i.e. besides widescreen computer game play and movie viewing, are the word processor display of two standard letter pages side by side, as well as CAD displays of large-size drawings and CAD application menus at the same time. 2008 16:10 became the most common sold aspect ratio for LCD monitor and the same year 16:10 was the mainstream standard for laptops and notebooks. In 2008 the computer industry started to move over from 16:10 to 16:9. According to a report by displaysearch the reasons for this were/are:

Innovative product concepts drives a new product cycle and stimulating the growth of the notebook PC and LCD monitor market.

16:9 provides better economic cut (panelization) in existing TFT LCD fabs. 16:9 products provide higher resolution and wider aspect ratio. The widespread adoption of High Definition in the consumer entertainment sector will help end users readily adopt the new products with the wider aspect ratio.

The 16:9 panels provide an opportunity for PC brands to further diversify their products.

In 2011 Bennie Budler, product manager of IT products at Samsung South Africa, confirmed that monitors capable of 1920 1200 resolutions are no longer being manufactured. It is all about reducing manufacturing costs. The new 16:9 aspect ratio panels are more cost effective to manufacture locally than the previous 16:10 panels In 2011 non-widescreen displays with 4:3 aspect ratios were only being manufactured in small quantities. According to Samsung this was because the Demand for the old 'Square monitors' has decreased rapidly over the last couple of years, and I predict that by the end of 2011, production on all 4:3 or similar panels will be halted due to a lack of demand.


The resolution for computer monitors have increased over time. From 320x200 during the early 80s, to 800x600 during the late 90s. In March 2011 1920x1080 became the most common used resolution among Steam users. The earlier most common resolution was 1680x1050.

Additional features Of A Monitor

Power saving
Most modern monitors will switch to a power-saving mode if no video-input signal is received. This allows modern operating systems to turn off a monitor after a specified period of inactivity. This also extends the monitor's service life. Some monitors will also switch themselves off after a time period on standby. Most modern laptops provide a method of screen dimming after periods of inactivity or when the battery is in use. This extends battery life and reduces wear.

Integrated accessories
Many monitors have other accessories (or connections for them) integrated. This places standard ports within easy reach and eliminates the need for another separate hub, camera, microphone, or set of speakers. These monitors have advanced microprocessors which contain codec information, Windows Interface drivers and other small software which help in proper functioning of these functions.

Glossy screen
Some displays, especially newer LCD monitors, replace the traditional anti-glare matte finish with a glossy one. This increases color saturation and sharpness but reflections from lights and windows are very visible.

Directional screen

Narrow viewing angle screens are used in some security conscious applications.

Polarized 3D monitor
The LG computer monitor 1920x1080 with screen 21.5-inches to 25-inches have feature the company's Film Pattern Retarder coating that ditches the heavy active shutter glasses used by many other manufacturers for the lighter passive variety will give flicker-free 3D. Although the screen is Full HD 1080p, but to see 3D images with 3D polarizing glasses we may only get a half portion of it (HD 720p) due to the pixels should be divided for the left and right eyes.

Autostereoscopic (3D) screen

A directional screen which generates 3D images without headgear.

Touch screen
These monitors use touching of the screen as an input method. Items can be selected or moved with a finger, and finger gestures may be used to convey commands. The screen will need frequent cleaning due to image degradation from fingerprints. Tabletscreens A combination of a monitor with a graphics tablet. Such devices are typically unresponsive to touch without the use of one or more special tools' pressure. Newer models however are now able to detect touch from any pressure and often have the ability to detect tilt and rotation as well. Touch and tablet screens are used on LCD displays as a substitute for the light pen, which can only work on CRTs.

Manufacturers of monitors
-philip -motorola -hp -apple

-zinox -sony

-dell -toshiba

CLASSIFICATIONOFMONITORS 1. implicit Synchronization An alternative to using condition variables for monitor synchronization is to specify the associated assertions directly. Automatic-signal monitors, proposed by Hoare [1974, p. 556], eliminate condition variables and statements by modifyingthestatement to use a conditional expression: If the conditional expression is false, the task blocks and the monitor is unlocked. A waiting task is unblocked implicitly when the expression it is waiting on becomes true. The programming language Edison [Hansen 1981a; Hansen 1981b; Hansen 1981c], designed by Per Brinch Hansen, used automatic-signal monitors. Automatic signalling was accomplished by arranging for waiting tasks to wake up repeatedly (in round-robin order) to check their conditions. This can lead to a large amount of contextswitching overhead if tasks remain blocked for long periods, but this was felt to be of little consequence on a microprocessor system [Hansen 1981a, page 371]. The implementation of automatic signalling is further discussed in Section 3.2. Figure 2 illustrates a monitor for a bounded buffer using implicit synchronization.

2.Monitor Scheduling A monitor is not a task and hence has no thread of control. Therefore, monitor routines are executed by the thread of the calling task. The state of the monitor, including whether it is locked, determines whether a calling task may or

may not continue execution. Monitor scheduling occurs when the monitor becomes unlocked. A monitor becomes unlocked when a task executes astatement or returns from a monitor entry routine. When a monitor is unlocked, the next task to use the monitor is then chosen from one of a number of queues internal to the monitor. Figure 3 shows the general form of a monitor with a set of tasks using, or waiting to use, the monitor. When a calling task finds the monitor locked, it is added to the entry queue; otherwise it enters the monitor and locks it. When a task executes a statement, it is blocked and added to a specific condition queue and the monitor is unlocked. When a task executes astatement, it is blocked and added to the signaller queue; the task that has been signalled is moved from the specified condition queue to the waiting queue and the monitor is unlocked. 4 condition A condition B waiting queue signaller queue entry queue exit monitor variables active task waiting task Figure 3: Processes Waiting to use a Monitor

In the case of an automatic-signal monitor, there are no condition queues and only one queue is needed to manage the tasks with false conditional expressions; we chose to put tasks with false conditional expressions on the waiting queue because each waiting task is effectively eligible to run when the monitor is unlocked so that it can recheck its conditional expression. When a monitor becomes unlocked, it is not obvious which task should execute next; it could be a task from any of the entry, waiting, or signaller queues. Depending on the kind of monitor, a particular choice is made. All other tasks must wait until the monitor is again unlocked. Since this selection is done implicitly, the next task to resume execution in the monitor is not under direct user control. A monitor-synchronization operation may cause the monitor to unlock, but the selection of the next task to execute depends on the kind of monitor. The main difference among monitors is the algorithm used by the implicit monitor scheduler to select the next task to execute when the monitor is unlock . 3. Explicit-Signal Monitors An explicit-signal monitor is a monitor with an explicit statement (in contrast to an automaticsignal monitor, which has no statement). Several kinds of explicit-signal monitors have been presented in the literature, all of which can be categorized using the following classification scheme [Fortier 1989]. The classification scheme is based on an exhaustive case analysis of the scheduling possibilities for the three internal monitor queuesthe entry, waiting andsignaller queues when a monitor is unlocked. The different kinds of monitors are classified based on the relative

priorities associated with these three queues. Each queue has a specific priority, referred to as entry priority waiting priority and signaller priority priorities yield respectively. The relative orderings of these three

FUNCTIONS OF A MONITOR Monitors have display functions that include powering it on and off, controlling brightness, contrast and position, among others. monitor's . HOW A COMPUTER MONITOR WORKS monitors works by blocking light. Specifically, an LCD is made of two pieces of polarizedglass (also called substrate) that contain a liquid crystal material between them. A backlight creates light that passes through the first substrate. At the same time, electrical currents cause the liquid crystal molecules to align to allow varying levels of light to pass through to the second substrate and create the colors andMost monitor useactive matrix technology. A thin film transistor (TFT)
arranges tiny transistors and capacitors in a matrix on the glass of the display. To address a particular pixel,the proper row is switched on, and thena charge is sent down the correct column. Since all of the other rows that thecolumn intersects are turned off, only the capacitor at
the designated pixel receives a charge. The capacitor is able to hold the charge until the next

refresh cycle. The other type of LCD technology is passive matrix. This type of LCD display uses a grid of conductive metal to charge each pixel. Although they are less expensive to produce, passive matrix monitors are rarely used today due to the technology's slow response time and imprecise voltage control compared to active matrix technology.

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http://www.tftcentral.co.uk/articles/content/panel_technologies_content.htm.Retrieved 05-20.








http://www.infodingo.com/electronics/computer-monitors/types-of-computer monitors/lcd/why-choose-an-lcd.aspx.Retrieved 2011-05-20. 3.Agoraquest, LLC - The only place for the Sony Enthusiast. "Sonys Outs Two New OLED Monitors". Agoraquest.http://www.agoraquest.com/article.php?sid=615. Retrieved 2011-05-20 4.NEMATech Computer Display Standards http://www.millertech.com/Technical_Specs.htm 5."Introduction--Monitor Technology Guide". necdisplay.com. Archived from the original on 2007-03-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20070315085244/http://www.necdisplay.com/support/css/monitortec hguide/index05.htm. (currently offline) 6."Product Planners and Marketers Must Act Before 16:9 Panels Replace Mainstream 16:10 Notebook PC and Monitor LCD Panels, New DisplaySearch Topical Report Advises". DisplaySearch.2008-07-01. http://www.displaysearch.com/cps/rde/xchg/SID-0A424DE-

28DF6E59/displaysearch/hs.xsl/070108_16by9_PR.asp.Retrieved 2011-05-20. 7.http://mybroadband.co.za/news/hardware/17621-Widescreen-monitors-Where-did1920x1200.html 8.Peter A. Buhr and Micheal Fortier dept of computer science,university of waterloo, Ontario N2L391,Canada.