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MATH ANALYSIS, AC

AC Analysis Testing Out Syllabus

Using Precalculus with Limits by Larson,Hostetler & Edwards

and

AC Analysis

Assignments

1
,

. .
Homework

Topic

P4

Solving Equations Algebraically and Graphically (Using the

graphing calculator)
Solving Linear Insquaiities

Review of Logic

ws

Prapsrties of Equalities and Inequalities Field Properties for Real Numbers

Reviewing Proofs W.S. )? P 4

pg, 8 1-19 all W.S. # P - 6

Test

AC Analysis

Worksheet 9.2

1.

A set of data has a mean of 20 and standard deviation 2 , Find the z-score of F each data value a. 24 b. 18.6 27
u nt

2.

A szt of data has mean 57 and standard deviation 6. Find the data value of each given z-ssore. a. 2 = 2 b. z 1.3 c. 2 = -0.5

In the following problems let Y be a random variable with standard normal distribution.
use the table below to find each probability,

In the following exercises assume that the data are normally distributed. Use the table below as needed. Use proportions, if necessary to approximate A(z) to the nearest
ten- thousandth.

6.

A set of biology test scores has s mean 78 and standard deviation 8. Approximate the percent of scores that can be expected to be (a,) above 70, (b.) above 90, and (c.) between 7 0 and 90, A scientist measures weight gain in a certain group of laboratory animals. The msan gain is 12.4 g and the standard deviation is 3.2 g. Find the percent o f animals whose weight aain can be expected to be (a,) less than 14 a: (b.) more than 14 g, (c.) less than 6 g or more than 18 g,
Find the percent of data in a standard normal distribution within a , ) one standard deviation of the mean, (b.) two standard deviations of the mean, (c.) three standard deviations of the mean,

7.

8,

9.

A manufacturer of 60 watt bulbs finds that the buibs have a mean life of 1000 hours and a standard deviation of 50 hours,

b. q + p is "If c2 = b2, then a = A," This conditional sentence is false. For example, { - 2)'- = f2)1 but 2 6 - 2. c. p <-* q is ' " a = b if and only if c2 = bz," The bicondkional sentence is false because q
-r.

p is false.

If p , then q. p i s sufficient for q.

q is necsssary for p ,

p only if 4.

For example, "If two triangks are congruent, then they are similar" can also be stated in the following t h e ways:
Congruence of two triangles is sufficient for their similarity. Similarity of two triangles is necessary for their congruence. Two trianelss are congruent only if they are similar.
The sentence p only if q means that if a is not true. then p is not true. We call q' p' the c&ntraposiiiveof p q. Thus in the example above the coniraposh'ive of "If two triangles are congruent, then they are similar" is "If two triangles are not similar, then they are not congrusni."

EXAMPLE 2
Sdution

State the contra~osiliveof "If a qua~rilaisral is a parallelogram, then op~ositesides are congruent." A quadrilateral has TWO pairs of opposite sides. The negation of the conchsion of the given conditions! sentence is "AT Isasi one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are not congrusnt."' The contrapositive of the given statement is "If at least one pair of o p ~ o s i ~ e of a quadrilateral are not sides

congrusnL then the qadrilateral is not a parallelogram."

Many theorems in mathematics are proved by the strategy of em!rapmition. That is, by proving that a' p' is true we prove tnat p - q is true. Other theorems are proved b y contradiction. We may prove that p q is true by assuming thai p is true and q is false. If we iogisaliy obtain a false conciusion from these assumptions, we may asssr: tnat p q is r u e . A proof using this strategy is called an in4reci proof or proofby contradiction,
"

EXAAIPLE 3

Given the conditional sentence "If x = y. then x A ? = y i," what assumptions wouid be made in order to give an indirect proofs

SoI~ttion To prove the given conditional sentence indirectly. assume that x = \ and x + 1 = y - 1.

The two

most common ways t o specify an inrerve-l a r e by using E E K V A L HOTS.TION and SET BUILDER NOTATION.

rL.

' ,

'I'

~n:ervals whose ia.tersect.ion is the empty set sre called DISJOINT IKTERVALS.
Z KTERVAL
GRAPH

IhTERVAL KOTATXOK

SET BUILDER NOTATION

k l v a y s use "or"= "Vn o r 'D for coaibination~of t i i s j o i n t intervals. Why can't you use nandn?

Construct the @ and tables tar 6 and S3-{a}, respectively, a. I (&,@ ) agroup? s b. Is (+-@) a group?

Construct the Q and @ tables for and a. Is (+ ,@ ) a group? b. I s

For which n i ( &s

a-{0},respectively. (--@a) agroup?

io}

a ) a group?

Prove that in a group the Identity i unique. Hint: Assume there are two distinct s identities and arrive at a contradiction.

Complete the table below for a triangle that has three distinct cornsrs (red, green, and blue). There are six possible "transformations". I. I does nothing (Identity) ii. C: rotate once clockwise iii. K: rotate once counterclockwise iv T; refiectaboutthelinethroughthetopcornerandcenter v. L: reflect aboiri the iine through the left comer and center vi. R: reflect about the line through the right comer and center
Before

<;

After I

After C

After K

After T

After L

After R

Examples:

Co L = R LC'C = T ROF. = 1

AC Analysis

WS # P-5 Linear Programming

1. Two warehouses are to s u p ~ i y three stores. Warehouse A has 12 items. B has 12 iiems. T?e three stores e a c h want 8 kerns. The cost 01" shipment is given by the foliowing iabk.

Warehouse B 1 4 1 3
\

14
--

Cost i do1lars1 n

should George work ID kssp the payroll ai a minimum';'

AC ANALYSIS ASSIGNMENT SHEET CHAPTER 1&2 FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPES POLYNOMIALAND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
Da'topic
1.1&1.2:

Assignment

1 2

I
I
4

'

In. 92: 1-9 odd. 13-21 odd. 25-49 EOO. 51-59 BOO. 71. 77. 81 FunctiondGraphs of p. 105: 1-13 ODD, 19,21.25-57 EOO, 59.61.71, 73.75 Functions 1.W1.4: 116: 1-45 EOO. 11 Transfomations/Cornbi ip. 126: 1-29 EOO, 35-61 BOO,59,69,71 nations

Ip.

1-5 : Inverse Functions p. 139: 3-57 multipiss of 3,61, 63, 67-70. 71, 75, 77, 86

Quiz
2.1 k2.2: Quadratic p. 165: 1-8.23-25.29.35,47,49,51. 57 Functions/Poiynomials lp. 177: 1-9. 17, 19.21,2747 EOO, 55-57, 65.67. 73. 75 of Hisher Decree 2.3k2.4:Real P. 191: 1, 7. 11, 19,23,27.35,39. 41,45,47,53, 5 5 . 57,65-6 7 , 69, 75 ZerostComplex 202: 1-101 ED0 Numbsrs

ip.
1

Ip.
10

Review

Lesson
1

4 3 The Unit Circle 4.3 Right Triangle Trigonometry

4.4 Trigo~ommic Functions of Any An@
4.5 Graphs of Sine and Cosine

P. 338+ #3. 6.9. 18-63 mult. of 3.65 - 71 odd 77. 81, 83. 85

P. 361- \$3-84 mult of 3.90 P. 371- #I-9-12. IS.21,30.36-54 rnult. of 3.8245

Graphing W orlwheet P. 3 7 3 E 7 . 2 9 . 4 9 - 56.67

Functions
4.6 Graphs of Other Trigonometric

Functions
4.6 Damped Funciions

4.7 Practice Day

4.8 Applications and Models: Day 1

Review

Review

Test

Chapter 6 Additional Topics in Trigonometry

Lesson

Book Section

Topic
Law of Sines

'!

Assignment
Page 466- #3-39 mult 3 except 33

Law of Cosines

Page 474+ #3-27 mult 3 . 3 3 . 3 5 , 4 2

I
Vectors in the Plane

Page 486+ #3-63 mult of 3

Page 466+ #5. 16, 1 7 . 2 3 . 3 7 Page 474+ \$5.7, 11, 19 Page 486+ #67-73 odd- 77-80
Page 498+ #1-33 odd

Practice

6.4 Day 2

Page 499+ \$35-49odd, 50,51.53

DeMoivre' s Theorem
I

6.5 Day 2
I

Review

AC Analysis

Proof

Lwt S Gfr/ b the w t fowhich the p r o p o s i t i o n holds. m

AC Analysis

Worksheet 9.1

Prove each of the following using the Principal of Mathematical Induction. Assume n is any natural number.

, <

Refer to your notes on Finite Differences to answer t h e following questions.

7.

Find an

a.
b.

1, 8, 18, 31,47, . . .

c. d.
8. 9.

Find Sn for the sequence in 7a.

Find Sn for the sequence in , . . . a. pg. 695 #33

Assignment

I 1

10.2

I1

i
I

Ellipses

I

1
1

I Page

,
1

1
I

10.4

1
I

Rotxhon of h e s

ParametricEquations Page 797"r #1.3-27multof3.31-35.37.39,

40, 49-53. 57

1
I

17

10.6

Poiar Coordinates

1 Page 805+

fa-" mult. of 4

!
8

10.7

Graphs of Polar Equations

Review Page S25+ 83 - 63 e.o.o.

10

11

1
1

IFohrRe~ewr
I

Worksheet

12

1 Tea

i i
I

Lesson

Book Topic section None

introduction to Limits

I Assi-ment
I

The Tangent L

Page 884+ #1-59 odd

Page 8 9 3 - # 4 slup 11 I1
1 Page 90 I + #I -& 9-5 1muk

k Problem

Limits at himity and Limh of Sequences

of 3

L h h of S m a t i o m

Page 909+ \$1 -15 (for 7-15 aon't do table)

Review

Page 912+ #3-27 em! 33-39 eao, 43-67wo 25: 57 (mo = every other odd)

Ql,

a3, . .

. , an*. . .
11

2s

n becomes very large.

n . Consider for example the sequence with nth k r m on = -

1.

0 terms bLfar OUI" in the sequence cluster near the n u m ~ e r That is, it zppexs 1. tnat d l terms from a,, an are as dose to 1 2s we plezse provided that large enough values of n.

we use

I00

what vahes of

will la,, - 1 < -?I 1

100

We can make [an- 11 even smaller by requiring that n be even larger. h k d , no matter how small a positive number h is given 2s a bound for 1% - 11, WE can find a number M such that lan - 11 < I whenever n > M. i

dzscribe this siwation by saying that the

h i ! of-n -I1 1

2 s n irxreases

without

bound is 1, and we w r i ~ e

L~LMWUr

m eacn

i i r r i ~ ~ I[ 11

exws.

h. Apply the same t x n n i q u e 2 s in

par^

(a'),

c. Divide the numerator and the denominator by n2:

Since the limit of the numrator is nonzero and the limit of the cis nomina~or zero, the limit of the x q u e n c e does not esisi. is Answer Long division could also be used to solve the proolrm.

Sincc lim
)I*=

r1

d o ~ nof exist, the limit of the given quotimi does not exist* s

[ &,

17. -18. 19. 2U.

21.

If I!-= atI = 0, then for every 11: [ i n = 0. lim If n-w on exists, then n-= laIl[exists. lim liin If lim laI,\ exists, then nhn L:,, exists, -e If a,, 5 bI,for all 11 and rl-m b,! exists, t h ~ nlim Iim
I?-==

11-=

0,:exists.

lffln =

nz 2n?

I ?then

n-==

22. If u,, = 2 d

?m

+ 7'

then lirn c , ~= 0. F ~ n d smaliest positive ~ n ~ e g11 r the e

1:-

bJ7. . . such thal RlimC (an + b,J = ? , . d 24. Finu two divergent sequmczs u l ,c2, . . , , u , ~ . . . and ' b l , b7! , . . , -

25. Find one convergent sequence a [ . fi2, - . . c n , . . . and on= aivergent sequmce b , b2, , . . , bt,, . . . such that a t b ], . . . , ~ ~ b , ., , . con. verges,

has a h i i t , the hrnh k uniaue. 27. Prove that - 1, I - 1, . . . is divergent by corn~leting parls (a) and (b).
Let 11 =
5
I

N such that nlI > T for all n 2 M ,This is

~ a l c u l Chapter 2 usAssignments

Lesson

Topic

(conlinued) Contimily, Ditierentiability and the Alternat5 Method

2.2
Basic 'Differentiation Rules

#6&71 all

2.2
2.3
2.3
2.4

Product and Quotient Rules

(continued) More Practice

Chain Rule

#41, 42

2.4

(continued) Chain Rule

Derivaiivss of Natural Logs and Infinite Ser~es notes for y = sin x! cos x, and ex

WS

pg. 1SO+ *I-39 odd7 #43,45! 47, 59, 67 63, #73-75

!

Review
Calculus Chapter 2 Test

t ANALYSIS
alculus Chapter 2

NAME:

Verify:

Verify:

Prove that -e'

dx

= ex.

EXERCISES:

Use four terms of the infinite saries to find and verify with your calculator:
a) eS

3)

4)
5)

Use the above result to find the value of em,

SECTION 2.5

Implicit Differentiation

Implicit Differentiation
iiuideiines for Impkit Differsntfafion
1 Differentiate both sidss of the equation with respect w 1 . . 2. Collect all terms involving d y / d x on the lefi side of t h e equation and move all other !ems to ths right sids of the equation. 3. Factor &/dx out of the left side of the quaiion. 4. Solve for ay/& hy dividing both sides of the equation by th: left-hand f a a o r that does not contain dy/&.
EXAMPLE 2 implicit Differentiation

Solution

1. Differentiate both sides of the quat ti on with respect to 1,

3 , ,d v 2,.- -,- d v
d x d

5 civ - 3 2!= 0
x h

4. Solve for d y / & by dividing by

O!+= 2y - 5) +

TOsee how you can use an implicii &v-tvainc,, consider tine graph shown in Figure 2.25. From the graph, you can see that y is not a function x . Even so, ins derivative found in Example 2 gives a formula for the slope of the tangent line a1 a poini on this graph. T e slopes a?several points on the graph are shown bslow the graph. h

irnpiicii eouation

- jy - xi = - 4

s the derivative

: TECHNOLOGY With most graphing utilities, it is easy to sketch t i e graph of an equation that explicitly represents y as a function of I.S k e t c n i n ~ a u h s ohsr of : equations, however, can require some ingenuity. For insiance, to sketch tine graph : of the eyation given i n Example 2, try using a "~apning utility, ssi in parametric : mode, to sketch the graphs givsn by A- = ,/f3 - i2 - 51 + 4, y = t, and : A- = - v^ + l 2 - 51 + 4,y = f . for - j 5 I < 5. How does the result compare : with the graph shown in Figure 2.25?

SECTION 25 .

Implicit Differentiation

137

EXAMPLE 5

Solution

as shown in Figure 2.28. Ti p a ~ is called a lemniscate. ns h EXAMPLE 6 Determining a Difiersntiable Function

Find dy jdx implicitly for the equation sin y = x. Then find the largest interval of the form - a < y < a such that y is a difiereniiabie function of x {see figure 2.29).
Solution

dv cos y = 1

di-

dv -=-

dx
1 derivative is dy = ire 1.2s

1 cosy

dx~\-X1'

The largest interval about the origin for which y is a difierentiable function of x is - n/2 < y < ~ / 2To see this, note that cosy is positive for ally in this interval and . . . is 0 at the endpoims. If you restrict y to the intervai ir/2 < y < 77/2: you should be able to write d y / h explicitly as a function of x. T do this, you can use o

and conclude that

SECTION 2.5

implicit Differentiation

IS9

Id.
Exercises

J.

= ser

: - . * find +!dr I
at

2s. Cissoid: 4 - XIV- = "= .

Point: ( 2 . 2 )
43. 'Show thin the ntirmai line at any point on tns circle ->" -r y' = r-^ pusses through the origin. 44. Two arctes of radius 4 H ~ langeni to ihs graph of jh2 4s- at K = the poi111 ( 1,2i, Find the enmiions of these two circles,

In Exercises 45 and 46,find the at which the graph of the equation has a vertical or horizontal tangent line.

45 25-r2+ l h f l

142

CHAPTER 2

Differentiation

Problem Solving with Related Rates

In Example I, you were given an equation thai related the variablss .v and y and were asked to find the rate of change of y when x = 1.

Find:

In each o the remaining examples in this section. you mus: create a. matnsmaiica! f mode! from a verbal descri~tiun. EXAMPLE 2
3

Rippies in a Pond

Solution

The variables r and A are related by A = r". The race of change%%! maim r is ilr/di = 1.
A = rr=

Equation:

Given rate:
Find:

ar -= 1 tit
dA dt

when

r=4

increases.

Fipre L32

When r = 4, the

2x1

is chiingirg

a1 a

'A',li-

Guidelines For Solving Reiated-Rate Probiems

1. Identify all given quantities and ouanriiies 10 be determined. Make a s k e ~ n and label the p a n r i h . 2. 'Write an equation involving ths varii~ieswhose rates of change either arc given or are to be determined.
N G E In thase guidelines. hi sure you ptrfurm Slep 3 before Step 4 . Suhstiiuting the known valuus of the vhriiibiss bdore diffsr;:rniniing will product an inappropriati: dtrivaiive

3. Using the Chain Ruk. implicitly differenijiire both sides of the e~uatit
-1. After completing Step 3, substitute into ths resulting equation all K o nw vaiuss for the variables and thsir rates of change. Then solve for the r s o u k i

race of change,

CHAPTER 2

Differentiation
-.

EXAMPLE 4 The Speed of an Airplane Tracked by Radar

An airplans is flying on a Bight path that will take station. as shown in Figure 1.34. If s is decreasing
when s = 10 miles, what is tie speed of the plane?

it directly over a radar tracking at a raze of 400 miles per hour

Solution Let x be the horizontal distance from the statior.. as shown in Figure 2.34. Notice that when s = 10,x = ^/lO2 8. =
Given role:

Find:

You can find the velocity of the plane

An airplane is flying at an altitude of 6 mile, J miles irom the station.
~2
6 3

as follows.

=\$

Figure 2.34
Solve for
ttx.

11:.

d r
di

10 8

Substitute fur .s.

Bemuse the veiocity is -500 miles per hour. the speed is 500 miles per himr.

A. and

Mi/:

EXAMPLE 5

A Changing Angle of Elevation

Find the rats of change in the angls of elevation of the camera shown in Figure 2.35 at 10 seconds after lift-off.
Solution

Let 6 be the angle of elevation. as shown in Figure 2.35. When 1 = 10, the height 5 of the rocket is s = 5W = 50( I\$) = 5000 feet.
Given rare: k / d r = 1001 = velocity of rocket

Find:

d9/dt when

= ID and

= 5000

Using Figurs 235, you can relait s and 8 by the equation tan t! = 5/2000.
See Figure 225

A television camera at ground level is filming the lift-ofi of a space shuttle that is rising vertically according to the position eauation s = 5ot2, where s is measured m feet and f is measured in seconds. The camera is 2000 feet from the launch pad. F i v e 1.35

When t = 10. @ is chmging 31 a rate of 5 ruaian psr sscond.

SECTION 2.6

Related Rates

147

23. Depth A swimmingpool is 12 meters lung, 6 meters wide, i mctsr deep at the shallow end, and S .meters deep at h s deep - end (see Figure). Water is being pumped into the pool at cubic maier per minute, and there i s 1 meter of water at the deep end. ( 3 ) What percent of the pool is filled? I )AI what m is t i e water ievel rising? % e

27. Construction A winch at the top of a 12-meter building pulls a pipe of the same length ID a veniail'position,as shown in the figure. The winch pulk in rope at a raie of U-2 meiers per second, Find the rats of vertical change and the rais of horizontal change at the end of the pipe when y = 6.

Figure for 23
24. Depth A [rough is 12 feet iung and 3 feet iiCroSK the tup (see k u r e j . Its ends arc isosceles trianglss with ultiiutiss of 3 feel. it water is heing pumped into the trough nt 2 cubic feet wet minute. how fast is the water ievel rising when the water is 1 foot deep? 25. Moving Ladder A ladder 25 feel long i s leaning against tht wall of a niiuse (set Figure). Tne base of the ladder is pulled away from the wall at a m of 2 feet per second, e
(a) H fast is the top rntiving down the wall when the base of the ladeer is 7 fee:, 15 ieet, and 24 fee: from the wall?

Figure for 27

Figure for 2~

28. Boating A boa1 is pulled into a dock by means of a winch 12 feet above the deck of m e boat (me figure).The winch pulis in rope ai a raie of 4 fee! per second. Determine the s p e e ~ the of boat whsn there are 13 ies! of rapt 01. What huppcns 10 [He 11 s ~ e e d the boa: ilii it gets closer to the dock? of

29. Air TmSfic Control

An air traffic comrallsr spots two planes at the same altitude converging on a. puint as they fly a1 right angles to each other (see figure). O x plane i s 150 miles from tbs point moving a! 450 miles per hour.The other plane is 2U0 miles from ins point moving ilt 6UU rniiss per huur.
(a) Ar what rate is ths distance between the planes decreasing?

(b) Consider the trim& funned by the side of the house. the ladder, and the ground. Find Ibs rate ai which the area of the iriungie is ckantjng when the base of the ladder i 7 feet s

(b) How much time does the air traffic controller have to get
one of the

from the wall.

fc) Find the rate at which the angle between the ladder and the wall of the house is changins when the base of the ladder i s 7 feet from the wall.

Distance (in miles)

Figure for 25
Figure fur 25
Figure for 26

FOR FURTHER INFORIIATION Fur more information on the mathematics of muving ladders ses t n m i c l e 'The Fiilling Ludde~ Paradox" by Paul Schoksr. and Andrew Sirnoson in the January 1996 issue of The College Mathematics Journal.

30. AirTrafficCommi AnaipianeLifiyigaianaitituasof 6 miles and passes directly over a radar antenna (sss figursj. Wbsn th plane is 10 miles away -(r= 10)-lnc r ~ u a rnsiecis that t i e dismnce 1 is changing at a rate of 246 miles per houi. Wi; the sueed of the @me? is 33.Shadow Length A man 6 fesi tall walk at a rat- of 5 feet rn p e r second away from a iigix tha? is 15 fee: above the youna i-st: figure). When he is 1U feet from the base of [he ligh.
( a ) at

26. Construction A cunstmctiun worker pulls a 5-meter plank UD the side ul it buildinyuuder construction by msani of a. rops lied to one enu of a pbnk (see Rpre). Assume the opposite end of the plank Eolbws a path psrpenaicula~to the wall 01 the building and the worker pulls tne rope at a rale of 0.2.5msier per second. How fast is the end of the plank siiaing along the ground when i t is 1 meters from the wall of the builuing? 5

tb) ni what rate i the length of his shadow ch-iinging? s

41.
J

m of Elevation e
1 '

A butloun rises 3 : ii rate of 5 rnersrE per second from a puini on ihs: ground 30 rneieni irum an observer. Find the rats of chunge o f the angle of elevaiiun of the baiioon from the observer w k n the ballixin ih 3D meters above ths

ground.

A06

57. (a)
-10 10

23. ( a ) 12.5%
7

(b)

-10

-<
(b)

4K

I 1

,*3 - - meter p c second

13

f b ) 2U minutes 29. ( a ) -750 miles per hour 28 31. * - 8.85 feel per second

JlO
3.-

59. Proof

33. (a)

(hj
J

37. Proof

-Section 2.6 (page 146)

1. ial \$ (b) 20 3. (a) 5. is.) - 4 ceniimeteis per second (b) 0 centimeters per second ( c ) 4 ccniimeiers pe- second i (d) 12 centimeters per second
7 . (a) B cenumeiers psr second

-1

(b)

\$
39. T"-"' 1 . 3- + ~

( ; -) = < ill
r

".pimperscCon~

(hi 4 csniimeters per second

( e ) 2 centimeters per second
(d) h.83 1 ceniirnetsrs per second
9. (a) Decreases

(b) increiises

U. /.r4 - 5x2

2 w

+ 1vj

fC)

49,

17. In}

5

fb)

1447~