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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1

Contents

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Enhancements in P h E h t i Pushover A l i Analysis Pushover Global Control Pushover Load Cases Define Pushover Hinge Properties Assign Pushover Hinge Properties Pushover Hinge Properties Table Pushover Analysis Result Important Notice to Existing Users

2

0-1

ANALYSIS #1

NONLINEAR ELEMENT 0-4

~ 0-7

Moment-Rotation (M-) type hinge can be used in Load control pushover analysis. (Beam, Wall Element) : Eurocode8:2004, FEMA, Bilinear, Tri-linear Bilinear Tri linear type Out-of-plane nonlinearity for wall elements of the plate type is reflected. Distributed hinge is added. (Moment-curvature relation: Plasticity of the entire element considered. Enter integration points (1~20). (* Only plasticity at both ends was considered for the present Multi-linear type element.) Defining hinge properties for nonlinear g g g p p general link completely revised. p y Moment-Rotation (M-) type hinge and Moment-Curvature (M-) type hinge can be used in combination.

Eurocode8: 2004 hinge properties is newly added added. Masonry material type is newly added. It is applicable only for beam element. PMM TYPE Change in axial forces considered) RC Tri-linear : Crack surface1st yield surface can be defined. - Steel Tri-linear : 1st, 2nd yield surface can be separately defined. y p y - Maximum yield moment about My, Mz can be individually defined. Skeleton curve considering slip is newly added for truss element and general link. The user can directly define the initial stiffness of nonlinear hinges. The user can directly define yield deformations.

0-8 0-9

~ 0-10

0-2

ANALYSIS #2

NONLINEAR ANALYSIS

Addition of Load Incremental Method - Auto-stepping control: The first step is loaded up to 90% of the elastic limit of the structure. Further steps are automatically divided into the ratio of

Improvement on load control method: 100% of applied load is accurately reflected in analysis.

{(n + 1) i} / i .

i =1

n 1

- Equal step (1/nstep): Equally divided steps. - User defined Increment-control function Auto-terminating condition is added. - Current Stiffness Ratio: If the analysis results do not converge, analysis will be terminated. Auto terminating - Auto-terminating condition by story drift ratio is added (Displacement Control).

Analysis Speed

0-11

Analysis speed is improved by adopting INCORE Solver. Analysis time is reduced to 4050 compared to the old version. [Comparing analysis time]

Number of Nodes 135 Number of elementsbeam (234), wall (12) Nonlinear hinges are assigned to all the elements. Incremental method: Displacement Control (50 steps) Skyline S olver MultiFrontal S olver

old version Ver.7.4.1 Ver.7.4.1 / old version

43.70 [%]

43.80 [%]

0-3

Pre-processing p g

PUSHOVER GLOBAL CONTROL : Total control of pushover analysis is available with one dialog.

Initial load Default value of stiffness reduction ratio (bi-linear/tri-linear hinge curve) Nonlinear Analysis Option (Maximum Iteration, Convergence Criteria) Scale Factor for Ultimate Rotation and Secondary Seismic Elements as per Eurocode8-3

Addition of Eurocode8:2004 pushover hinge properties, Masonry material type Define hinge properties by elements (six components can be defined in a single dialog.) Hinge properties about y-axis and z-axis are separately defined. Show yield strength in real value as well as the ratio of the yield surface. Assign hinge properties by Drag & Drop

Post-processing

Pushover graph

Target displacement as per EN 1998-1:2004, Force-Deformation graph, displacement graph by steps, etc.

Safety verification, Hinge status, Plastic deformation, etc.

6 5

0-4

Moment-Rotation (M-) type hinge can be used in Load control pushover analysis analysis. (Eurocode8:2004, FEMA, Bilinear type and Trilinear type)

Both Load-control and Displacement-control increment method are available regardless of g the element type.

Bilinear and Trilinear is available for the MomentMoment Rotational angle interaction element

0-5

Out-of-plane Out of plane nonlinearity for wall elements of the Plate Type is reflected. For wall elements of the Membrane Type only in Type, inplane nonlinearity can be reflected.

0-6

Distributed hinge is added. (Moment-curvature relation: Plasticity of the entire element considered.

Select Moment-Curvature(Distributed) applicable for beam elements (Not applicable for wall elements)

0-7

Gen G V741(NEW)

Nonlinear general link is defined in the PUSHOVER hinge properties dialog. Note that general link hinge properties assigned in the old version are not automatically converted in V741.

Defining hinge properties for nonlinear general link completely revised. Old version i

Nonlinear general link was defined in the inelastic hinge properties dialog.

0-8

Masonry material type is added added.

Pier type / Spandrel type applicable for beam element type.

Select Moment Rotation (M-). Applicable for Beam/Column, Wall and Truss type.

10

0-9

RC Tri-linear : Crack surface 1st yield surface) can be defined. Maximum yield moment about My, Mz can be individually defined.

11

0-10

Steel Tri-linear : 1st and 2nd yield surfaces can be separately defined.

12

0-11

Analysis speed is improved by adopting INCORE Solver. Analysis time is reduced to 4050 compared to the old version.

Analysis speed

ANALYSIS MODEL

Number of Nodes 135 Number of elementsbeam 234, wall 12 Nonlinear hinges are assigned to all the elements. Incremental method: Displacement Control (50 steps)

old version Skyline Solver Mult-Frontal Solver 47.570 [sec] 46.780 [sec]

13

Pushover Analysis Procedure y

Define Initial load, convergence criteria, stiffness reduction ratio, etc.

Define incremental step, load pattern, incremental method (load control/ displacement control), auto-termination condition, etc. Define whether to consider initial load and P-Delta effect Incremental Control Function set a user-defined incremental function (for Load Control)

Specify element type and material type Hinge properties by force components (Fx, Fy Fz, Mz, My, Mz): yield strength, skeleton curve type, P-M interaction, etc. Assign hinge properties to elements

Yield strength is automatically calculated for each element. Pushover analysis results: Pushover curve, Hinge Status Results, etc.

Pushover Results

14

0-13

PUSHOVER ANALYSIS / PUSHOVER HINGE PROPERTIES

Pushover Global Control : Enter the necessary analysis conditions to be applied to Pushover analysis. Initial load, Convergence criteria, Stiffness reduction ratio, Reference location for distributed hinges Pushover Global Control can be defined in a single dialog. Pushover L d cases : E t l d cases and analysis conditions f pushover analysis. P h Load Enter load d l i diti for h l i Increment steps, Increment Method (Load control / Displacement control), Analysis stopping condition etc. Define Pushover Hinge PropertiesTYPE) : Define the plastic hinge data to be used in Pushover analysis. Nonlinear element type, Pushover hinge components, Hinge location, Skeleton curve type, Hinge yp , g p , g , yp , g properties etc. When auto-calculation is selected, the corresponding yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code. . Assign Pushover Hinge Properties : Assign the hinge properties to the elements. P h I t Functions : E t th i ti t t l function t apply t th St ti to l to the Stepping C t l i Control Pushover Increment F Enter the increment control f Option

Pushover Hinge able : Check the hinge property type assigned to the elements Pushover Hinge Properties Table : Check the hinge properties assigned to the elements. (Yield strength, Yield deformation, Initial Stiffness etc.)

PUSHOVER RESULT

15

Integrated menu for the users convenience Old version

Pushover analysis control

* In the old version, Increment Step was not able to define by load cases.

Gen V741(NEW)

#1 : Initial Load #2 : Convergence Criteria

Initial Load

#4 : Stiffness reduction ratio new Define default value of stiffness reduction ratio.

#3 Auto-Calculation new Specify the reference location (i-end, jend, center) for calculating yield strength of beam element Specify scale factors for ultimate rotation and identify secondary seismic elements.

16

Define Initial Load

In order to assign the initial load, Use Initial Load option needs to be checked on in the Pushover Load Case dialog. When P-M interaction is considered, the user needs to apply the initial load.

Specify the maximum number of sub-iterations and a tolerance limit for convergence criterion. It is applied to all the pushover load cases.

Define the default stiffness reduction ratio of the skeleton curve. curve

Specify the reference location (i-end, j-end, center) for calculating yield strength of beam element Specify scale factors for ultimate rotation and identify secondary seismic elements.

17

Enter Increment Step

Enter number of steps to reach the estimated collapse load or the prescribed displacement. The incremental steps must be entered as a positive integer value (nstep1), and minimum 20 steps are recommended. (Default = 20)

Initial Load

Check on to assign the load defined prior to Pushover a nalysis as the initial load for Pushover analysis. PM When P-M interaction is considered, the user needs to apply the initial load.

Load control, Displacement control

18

INCREMENT CONTROL

Auto-Stepping Control

The applied load (Qud) is divided by the automatically calculated load parameters parameters. The first step is loaded up to 90% of the elastic limit of the structure. Further steps are automatically divided by the ratio of {(n + 1) i} / i .

i =1 n 1

Equal Step

The applied load (Qud) is equally divided by the number of nstep.

The applied load (Qud) is divided by the user-defined function.

Current Stiffness Ratio : If the Current Stiffness Ratio (Cs) is entered and the ratio of the stiffness at the current an incremental step to the initial stiffness reaches the specified value, the analysis is terminated. If the Limit Inter-Story Deformation Angle is entered and the maximum Inter-Story Deformation Angle reaches the specified value, the analysis is terminated

19

Improvement in Auto-Stepping Control Old Version

Exact load of entered data was not clear.

Gen V741(NEW)

100% of applied load was not accurately reflected.

Load

4 5

Forc ce

1

Displacement

Displ.

20

Improvement of auto stepping control Old Version Gen V741(NEW)

1STEP : 90% of the elastic limit * Elastic Limit: The load when initial yield occurs

100% of applied load was not reflected even though pushover analysis was completed. S.F:0.7 : 70 of applied load was reflected.

21

Auto stepping control 1ST step

1) Estimate the elastic limit load by applying the lateral load defined by the user. Here, elastic Limit means the estimated 1st yielding force. 2) 90% of elastic limit is defined as the load parameter of the 3) Define the incremental load at the 1st step. 1st step: 1

Last step

Incremental load at the last step

Pn = n P ; n

= 1.0

P = 1 P 1

Where,

P : Incremental load at the 1st step 1

P

: total load

Ex.

1) Load parameter at the current step ( i )

i = i 1 +

Where,

) {(n + 1) i}

i

i =1

n 1

(1 1 )

i : load parameter at the current step i 1 : load parameter at the preceding step

n i

1

: the number of total steps : current step : load parameter at the 1st step

Pi = i P

Where,

i

Pi

P

: load parameter at the current step : Incremental Load at the current step : Total lateral load

22

Gen V741(NEW) Equal Step is newly added. Auto-Stepping Control

Equal-step increment (1/n step) The applied load (Qud) is equally divided by the number of nstep.

23

Enter the i E h increment control f l function to apply to the S i l h Stepping i Control Option in the Pushover Load Cases. For example, if the user enters the Increment Control Function as below and Increment Step (nstep) is specified as 10,

24

Procedure for Pushover Increment Function

Generate the Increment Control Function. Define the generated function in the Pushover Load Case dialog. After performing analysis, pushover curve will be produced identical to the pattern of Load-Displacement curve. Check text file which contains analysis results of the load parameter and Increment Function.

25

Current Stiffness Ratio Gen V741(NEW)

Current Stiffness Ratio

Elastic(Linear) Cs = 1.0 ( ) Stable range 0.0 Cs 1.0 Unstable range Cs0.0

CS

CS

Analysis i A l i is terminated if i d the maximum number of increments is reached, or negative values are encountered in the stiffness matrix.

CS

26

Current Stiffness Ratio

Analysis Model In case of displacement control

The user can obtain the solution.

The user cannot obtain the solution since stiffness is 0.

Gen V741(NEW)

Analysis is automatically terminated when c rrent stiffness ratio reaches 0 hen current 0.

1 Column Stiffness reduction ratio0.0 (Perfect Plasticity)

27

Displacement control option

Global

- Specify the target displacement with respect to the node where the maximum translational displacement occurs.

Master Node

- Specify the master node, translational direction and maximum displacement.

Auto-stopping condition

If the Limit Inter-Story Deformation Angle is entered and the maximum Inter-Story Deformation Angle reaches the specified value, the analysis is terminated. new

28

1

Define Pushover Hinge Properties g p Define the plastic hinge data to be used in Pushover analysis. The hinge properties which are not assigned to the elements are displayed in blue.

Assign Pushover Hinge Properties g g p Assign the hinge properties in Define Hinge Properties to all the elements. When the hinge properties are assigned to the elements, it is displayed in Black.

B: Element type ( B: Beam, T: Truss, W: Wall, SPR: GL-LINK ) GL LINK 3: Element number Beam : Defined hinge name

The assigned hinge data can be modified and updated data are automatically applied to all the assigned element.

When the user modifies the assigned hinge data, new hinge properties are automatically generated.

29

M- and M- type hinge properties (Eurocode 8: 2004, Masonry, FEMA, Bilinear, & Tri-linear type) Old Version Gen V741(NEW)

1 2 3

Element type Material type Load-deformation relationship of the flexural member - M- type - M- distributed type (beam elements in dynamic nonlinear analysis) - M- lumped type (existing Multi-linear type)

4 1 4

Type of wall element - Membrane: Only in-plane plasticity is considered - Plate: Both in-plane and out-of-plane plasticity are considered

5 6

Reflection of coupled axial force-biaxial m oment behavior - Component: the degree of freedom to be assigned to the plastic hinge type - Hinge Location 1) M-/M- lumped type beam or wall elements: Center, I-end & J-end 2) M- Distributed type beam elements: Number of integral points 3) Truss, General linkCenter -Skeleton Curve: Eurocode8:2004, FEMA, Bilinear & Tri-linear type

5 6

7 7

Relevant hinge properties - Yield strength, stiffness reduction ratio - Initial stiffness - Yield strain

30

When Definition is Moment-Rotation (M-) :

Component Fx (Axial) Fy, Fz (Shear) Mx (Torsion) ( ) My, Fz (Flexure) Definition of hinge properties Axial force - Strain (Relative Displ.) Shear force- Shear strain Torsional moment - Rotation Flexural moment - Rotation Initial stiffness EA/L GAs/L GJ/L 6EI/L, 3EI/L, 2EI/L Location of hinge Middle Middle I-end, J-end I-end, J-end

Component p Fx (Axial) Fy, Fz (Shear) Mx (Torsion) My, Fz (Flexure) Definition of hinge properties g p p Axial force - Strain Shear force- Shear strain Torsional moment - Curvature Flexural moment - Curvature Initial stiffness EA GAs GJ EI Location of hinge g Integration point Integration point Integration point Integration point

Component Fx (Axial) Definition of hinge properties Axial force - Strain Initial stiffness EA Location of hinge Integration point

Component Fx (Axial) Fy, Fz (Shear) Fy Mx (Torsion) My, Fz (Flexure) Definition of hinge properties Axial force - Strain (Relative Displ.) forceDispl.) Shear force Strain (Relative Displ ) Torsional moment - Rotation Flexural moment - Rotation Initial stiffness User-defined (EA/L) User-defined User defined (GAs/L) User-defined (GJ/L) User-defined (EI/L) Location of hinge Middle Middle Middle Middle

31

1 3 4 5 8

1 2 3 4

Input method of yield strength Rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end (symmetric/Asymmetric) When Asymmetric is selected.

9 6

Define primary curve (M/My, D/Dy) Yield strength Yield strain Class of cross section Compliance Criteria Initial stiffness

10

5 6 7 8 9

10

32

1

Auto-Calculation The corresponding yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code. * Following definitions are required for Auto-Calculation. 1. Design Code 2. Material and section properties defined from the standards 3. Rebar data for RC members User Input All the input data are user-defined parameters. 1 2

Symmetric : Select if rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end are symmetrical. Asymmetric : Select if rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end are asymmetrical. * Value Type of I-End & J-End option is activated when User Input option is selected. * The asymmetrical yield strengths between I-end and J-end are automatically reflected when input method is set to Auto-Calculation.

Type

Symmetric : Select if the hinge properties are symmetric in the positive and negative directions. Asymmetric : Select if the hinge properties are asymmetric in the positive and negative directions.

33

6-1

Yield strength g

The values are automatically calculated using the section information if Input Method is set to Auto-Calculation. Or the user may enter the values of Yield Moment manually if Input Method is set to User-Input. The coordinate system follows the Element local Coordinate System.

RC structures t t

M={As2*fsc*(d-d2)}+M

Where, As2= area of compression steel M=Kbd2fck fsc=700(xu-d2)/xu fyd d2=effective depth to compression steel xu=(-0.4)d fyd=design yield strength of reinforcement

Flexural Hinge

Eurocode2:2004, Equation(6.8) and (6.9)

Shear Hinge

Where, cw=1.0 cc =1.0 fcd=cc fck/C C=1.0

34

6-2 Yield strength g

Steel structures

Flexural Hinge Shear Hinge Eurocode3:2005, Equation (6.13) Eurocode3:2005, equation (6.18)

After assigning hinge properties to the element, calculated yield strength and yield strain can be checked in the detail report.

35

7

Yield rotation

Auto-Calculation The values are automatically calculated using the section information if this option is checked off. Or the user may enter the values of Yield Rotation manually. The coordinate system follows the Element local Coordinate System.

Steel structures

y= MyL/6EI DY Where, My: Yield moment, L: Length of a member, E: Elasticity of Modulus, I: moment of inertia

Flexural Hinge

36

8

Rotation capacity at the end of steel beams or columns depends on the class of cross section. In order for the program to automatically determine the class of cross section for the pushover analysis, select Auto. For the automatic classification Steel Code Checking should be performed first. Plastic Rotation Capacity p y 8

Compliance Criteria

Enter the target performance indices for the structure in terms of deformation. The values outlined in Eurocode 8-3 are used as the basic values. Only positive values are entered if symmetrical. y

10

10

By default, initial stiffness of moment hinge is taken equal to the Yield Strength divided by Yield Rotation, and the Yield Strength and Yield Rotation are automatically calculated b d on E t ti ll l l t d based Eurocode 8 part 1 & 3 A safety d t 3. Any f t factors including partial factors are not reflected in the calculation of strength and deformation. 6EI/L, 3EI/L, 2EI/L: It is activated when Definition is defined as Moment Rotation (M-). User: The initial stiffness that has been automatically calculated is displayed here. If the value is modified, the modified value will be applied as the initial stiffness. Elastic Stiffness Elastic stiffness is used for the initial stiffness.

37

2 1 Spandrel type 3 4

new

yp Pier type

5 1 2 3 Masonry Properties Input method of yield strength Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or A Asymmetric) ti ) Define primary curve (M/My, D/Dy) Yield strength Yield strain Initial stiffness Calculated resistance can be checked in Design > Pushover Analysis > Pushover Hinge Result Table > Beam Summary table.

Yield Yield strength deformation

7 6

4 5 6 7

38

1

Masonry properties yp p

In the structural model, masonry spandrels may be taken into account as coupling beams between two wall elements. This assumption implies that they should regularly bonded to the adjoining walls and connected both to the floor tie beam and to the lintel below. If the structural model takes into account the coupling beams, a frame analysis may be used for the determination of the action effects on the vertical and horizontal structural elements. Spandrel type Pier type Building Type: Flexural capacity and shear resistance of masonry pier depends on the type of building as shown in the table below.

Spandrel type

Pier type

Element Local axis of masonry wall pier In-plane horizontal direction and transverse direction of the wall pier should coincide with the local z-axis and local y-axis of the element, respectively as shown in the figure below, which directly affects the resistance of the wall pier. Also, the program calculates hinge properties (My component) on the assumption above.

39

5, 6

Pier type Axial resistance Compression; N R = f m D t , Tension; N R = 0 Where, D : In-plane horizontal dimension of the wall pier (depth) t : Out-of-plane horizontal dimension of the wall pier (thickness) Shear resistance 1.5 t0 New Building; VR = D ' t t0 , Existing Building; VR = D t t0 1+

1.5

'

= 1.5 (1.5 H / D)

MR =

5

N D 1 2 k fm

Spandrel type Axial resistance: Compression; N R = f hd h t, Tension; Where, h : H i h of the masonry spandrel Height f h Wh d l t : Width of the masonry spandrel Shear resistance:

NR = 0

VR = h t f vk 0

Flexural resistance

MR =

Where, H p is taken as the minimum value between 0.4 f hd h t and user-defined value.

Hp h Hp 1 2 0.85 f hd h t

40

Old version i Gen G V741(NEW)

1 3 4 5 1 2 3 4

Input method of yield strength Rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end (symmetric/Asymmetric) When Asymmetric is selected. Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or Asymmetric) Define primary curve (M/My, D/Dy) Yield strength Yield strain Acceptance Criteria Initial stiffness

6 9

5 6 7 8 9

41

Multi-linear Type of M- element RC Tri-linear : Define 2nd slope by y

Old version

Gen V741(NEW)

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3 4

Input method of yield strength Input type of Skeleton Curve Rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end (symmetric/Asymmetric) Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or Asymmetric) Yield strength Stiffness reduction ratio Initial stiffness Initial gap in tension and compression

5 6 7 8

42

1

Auto-Calculation The corresponding yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code. * Following definitions are required for Auto-Calculation. 1. Design Code 2. Material and section properties defined from the standards 3. Rebar data for RC members User Input All the input data are user-defined parameters. 1 2

Strength - Stiffness Reduction Define the Skeleton Curve using the yield strength and the stiffness reduction ratio. Strength Yield Deformation Define the Skeleton Curve using the yield strength and the yield deformation defined by the user.

Strength - Yield Deformation option is activated when the Input Method is set to User Input. Yield Deformation is changed depending on the component. (Fx : yield deformation, Fy & Fz : yield strain, Mx & My & Mz : yield rotation angle)

Select if rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end are asymmetrical

I-End J-End * Value Type of I End & J End option is activated when the hinge type is defined as Moment-Rotation (M-) or Moment-Curvature (M- Lumped) and User Input option is selected.

43

4

Enter nonlinear properties when asymmetric is selected for Value Type of IEnd & J-End in M- interaction element

Auto-Calculation The values are automatically calculated using the section information if Input Method is set to Auto-Calculation. * Following definitions are required for Auto-Calculation. g q 1. Design Code 2. Material and section properties defined from the standards 3. Rebar data for RC members User Input All the input data are user-defined parameters. P1=P2 - P1 1st yield strength - P2 2nd yield strength Yield strength of bilinear (auto-calculation) RC /SRC (Encased) P1 Ultimateu) STEEL/ SRC(Filled) Ultimateu) 6 4

Yield strength of Tri-linear (auto-calculation) RC /SRC (Encased) P1 P2 (Crackc) Ultimateu) STEEL/ SRC(Filled) Yieldy) Ultimateu)

44

7

Stiffness reduction ratio Define the slope after yielding 1 Stiffness reduction ratio after 1st yielding (11.0) 2 Stiffness reduction ratio after 2nd yielding (211.0) Use Value of Global Control Data Stiffness reduction ratio defined in Pushover Global Control dialog is used. User Defined Use ay by AIJ Code : Use y calculated as per AIJ code

a d + 0.330 D D

Define when RC Tri-linear, M- element and AIJ Code is selected. When coupled axial force-biaxial moment behavior is not considered, y is calculated based on the axial force in the initial load. When coupled axial force-biaxial moment behavior is considered, y is calculated based on the moment-rotation relationship for a members section The user can define the shear span to depth ratio for y. (Default is Auto.)

7 8

6EI/L, 3EI/L, 2EI/L It is activated when Definition is defined as Moment - Rotation (M-). User Defined by the user Elastic Stiffness Elastic stiffness is used for the initial stiffness.

45

1 Define the default stiffness reduction factor of the skeleton curve. 3 In order to change the stiffness reduction factor after assigning hinge properties to the elements, the user needs to g g g p p , change the default value in Pushover Global Control dialog.

If Use Value of Global Control Data option is selected, in the Directional Properties of Pushover Hinge dialog, the default values will be considered.

Corrected stiffness reduction factor ( 3 ) is automatically updated in the Directional Properties of Pushover Hinge dialog.

46

1

By selecting P-M-M in status deformation option, coupled axial force-biaxial moment behavior can be reflected. - P M M in status d f P-M-M i t t deformation i applicable only f b ti is li bl l for beam and wall elements. d ll l t - For Wall element of Membrane Type, only My component is applicable. Skeleton Curve - Specified skeleton curve in My component must be identical to that in p Mz component. Yield Surface Properties Input method (Auto-calculated / User-defined) Primary curve

2 1 3 4 2 3 4 5

Define the yield strength For auto-calculation, yield strength is automatically calculated based on the design code. When P-M-M in status deformation option i selected, th yield strength i updated f ti is l t d the i ld t th is d t d for each step considering coupled axial force and biaxial moment behavior. Yield surface: Yield surface about strong and weak axes can be checked by table or graph.

In case of P-M-M in status deformation, yield strength is , y g automatically calculated using the section information even though User Defined option is checked on.

47

Old version

Crack surface of RC Type (1st yielding surface) was not able to be defined.

Gen V741(NEW)

MY,max

48

Define RC yield surface

4 1

Input method of yield strength Rebar arrangement between i-end and j-end ( g j symmetric/Asymmetric) Hinge properties in Y-axis and Z-axis (symmetric/Asymmetric) Define the skeleton curve and initial stiffness, etc for the rotation about y-axis and z-axis. y In case Asymmetric is selected in Value Type of I-end & J-end Hinge properties in the positive and negative directions (Symmetric or Asymmetric) Yield strength about y-axis and z-axis PM interaction curve Yield surface about strong and weak axes Tension (-), Compression (+) Crack surface is defined by PC0, MC0

5 6 7

2 3 4 5

11

6 7 8 9

10

12

10 11 12

Show Value : Click to display the applied forces and moments in analysis. MU0 (Ultimate axial force without axial force) Yield surface can be checked by graph.

49

1

Define Yield/Ultimate surface Pmax(c) : Yield axial force in compression MY0 : Ultimate moment without axial force the user cannot enter MY0 directly directly.

2 2

Yield/Ultimate Surface : Tension(), Compression Since membrane type of wall does not have out-of-plane stiffness, moment about only Y-axis is defined.

50

1

1st Yield (Crack) strength PC0(t) : Yield axial force in tension MC0 Crack moment without axial force 2nd Yield (Ultimate) strength Pmax(c) Yield axial force in compression MY0 Ultimate moment without axial force (The user cannot enter MY0 directly.) MY,max Maximum ultimate moment

2 2

1st Yield (Crack) surface The program automatically compute the crack surface using PC0(t) and MC0. 2nd yield (Ultimate) surface Tension(-), Compression (+) * Since membrane type of wall does not have out-of-plane stiffness, moment about only Y i i d fi d iff b l Y-axis is defined.

51

1

2nd Yield (Ultimate) strength Pmax(c) Yield axial force in compression MY y, z, max Maximum ultimate moment

1st and 2nd yield (Ultimate) surface Tension(-), Compression (+)

52

1

1st Yield (Crack) strength PC(t) : Yield axial force in tension MC y, z Maximum crack moment 2nd Yield (Ultimate) strength Pmax(c) Yield axial force in compression MY y, z, max Maximum ultimate moment

2 2

1st and 2nd yield (Ultimate) surface Tension(-), Compression (+)

53

Assigned the hinge properties in Assign Pushover Hinge Properties menu

1 Define Pushover Hinge Properties The hinge properties which is not assigned to elements is displayed in blue. 3 Select the Assign Pushover Hinge Properties menu. Select the hinge type to assign to the selected elements and then click OK b tt button. A ig d hinge symbols are di l Assigned hi g b l displayed i contours. d in t

Nonlinear hinges assigned to the elements are generated in the Work Tree.

54

Assign the hinge properties to the corresponding element by Drag & Drop of a mouse

1 Define Pushover Hinge Properties The hinge properties which is not assigned to elements is displayed in blue. 2 3 Select the elements to which hinge properties are assigned. g p p g . Select a desire hinge property in the work tree and drag & drop in the model view. 4 Pushover hinge symbols are displayed to the assigned elements. Nonlinear hinges assigned to the elements are generated in the Work Tree.

Note

If the specified hinge data and the selected elements do not match, match the hinge properties are not assigned. assigned General link type hinge properties cannot be assigned by Drag & Drop of a mouse.

55

Changes in Display option regarding Pushover Analysis Misc Old version Gen V741(NEW) Design

56

Nonlinear hinge properties table

Display the assigned hinge properties per component in the table . Display method of assigned element is changed. From the Main Menu, Design > Pushover Analysis > Select the Pushover Hinge Properties Table t e us ove ge ope t es able From the Tree Menu, Select the Assign Pushover Hinge Properties, Right-Click and select Pushover Hinge Properties Table g g p

Show Hinges on Selected Elements Display the Pushover Hinge Properties Table for the selected elements only. Show All Hinges Display the Pushover Hinge Properties Table for all the elements to which hinge properties are assigned.

57

Pushover hinge properties table

All the assigned hinge properties are displayed in the table. Hinge properties cannot be deleted in the table.

Marked in blue Marked in green Marked in gray Values which cannot be changed. Values which can be changed. Values which is not used.

Pushover Hinge properties dialog can be opened by double clicking the element number double-clicking number.

Pushover Hinge properties dialog can be opened by clicking the components components.

58

Change the hinge properties by defined hinge properties type (Recommend)

Assigned hinge properties to the numerous elements can be modified at once. 1 1 Modify hinge properties in the Define Pushover Hinge Properties dialog. All the assigned hinge properties are automatically updated according to the modified hinge properties.

59

Change hinge properties by assigned members

After assigning hinge properties, hinge properties by members can be changed. 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6

Right-click on the assigned hinge properties to be revised. Select Properties to open the Pushover Hing e Properties dialog. Click Enable to Modify option. Change the properties and click OK button. New hinge properties is automatically generat ed. Name of assigned hinge properties is updated.

60

Change hinge properties using Pushover hinge properties Table

1, 2

3 1 2 4 3 4

Right-click on the assigned hinge properties to be revised. Click Pushover Hinge Properties Table. Modify the values in the table. If the values are updated in the table, p , message is displayed. New hinge property is generated and the assig ned hinge name is updated.

61

Old version Gen V741(New)

Plot graphs for pushover analysis results - Force versus Deformation for Beam, Truss, Wall and General Link - Incremental nodal displacement - Pushover hinge results for the load increment Check the pushover analysis results in a spreadsheet format table. - Member forces, Strain, Ductility, Yield strength and Yield strain - I iti l Stiffness Initial Stiff * For PMM type, yield moment for each step due to P-M interaction can be checked in the table. Check the hinge status (Ductility, Deformation, Force, Status of yielding) resulting from the Pushover analysis in Contours. 62

Result of Pushover Analysis

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Check Reactions, Deformations, Forces and Stresses for each Pushover Step. Check the hinge status (Ductility Deformation Force, Status of yielding) (Ductility, Deformation, Force in Contours. Capacity curve and capacity spectrum of a structure Plot graphs for pushover analysis results. Plot graphs for pushover analysis results related to the story data. Check the pushover analysis results in a spread sheet format table. Produce text files for pushover analysis results.

63

Display the hinge formation result for each step

64

Pushover Hinge Status

Ductility Factor (D/D1) : Ratio of the displacement to the 1st yielding displacement at the corresponding step

65

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Ductility Factor (D/D2) : Ratio of the displacement to the 2nd yielding displacement at the corresponding step

66

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Total deformation

67

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Plastic Deformation: Plastic deformation (total deformation yielding deformation)

68

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Force

69

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Status of Yielding: Hinge status for Bilinear/Trilinear type hinge.

70

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Status of Yielding (FEMA)

71

Pushover Hinge Status Result

Status of Yielding (Eurocode8)

72

Display the capacity curve of a structure

73

Target Displacement (Eurocode8: 2004)

The target displacement of a structure is determined through the transformation to an equivalent single degree of freedom system. For the detailed formula, refer to ANNEX B DETERMINATION OF THE TARGET DISPLACEMENT FOR NONLINEAR STATIC (PUSHOVER) ANALYSIS, EN 1998-1:2004. The target displacement, which is obtained from the above corresponds to the seismic demand of the above, Limit State of Significant Damage (SD). Target displacement of the Limit State of Near Collapse (NC) is taken equal to that of SD multiplied by 1.5. Target displacement of the Limit State of Damage Limitation (DL) is taken equal to that of SD divided by 2.5. Demand Roof displacement corresponding to the target displacement for the seismic action is considered. Capacity Gl b l capacity of the masonry structure i terms of roof i f h f f Global in displacement (Master node). Only applicable to Masonry material models. Step The nearest increment step to the target displacement Remark Assessment of the result in terms of the global response for the masonry structure. Only applicable to Masonry material models.

74

Global assessment (Masonry pushover)

Capacity Global capacity of the masonry structure in terms of roof displacement (Master node). Only applicable to Masonry material models. Global capacity of the Limit State of Significant Damage (SD) is taken equal to the roof displacement at which total lateral resistance (base shear) has dropped below 80% of the peak resistance of the structure, due to progressive damage and failure of l f lateral resisting elements. l i i l Global capacity of the Limit State of Damage Limitation (DL) is taken as the minimum value between a) displacement corresponding to the maximum base shear in the pushover curve and b) displacement corresponding to the story drift of 3/1000.

Remark Assessment of the result in terms of the global response for the masonry structure. Only applicable to Masonry material models. Limit State of SD: The assessment is OK if the global capacity of the Limit g p y State of SD is greater than the target displacement of the Limit State of SD and q* is less than 3. q* is the ratio between the acceleration in the structure with unlimited elastic behavior Se(T*) and in the structure with limited strength F*y / M*. q* = Se(T*)M*/F*y. Where, Se(T*) represents th elastic acceleration response spectrum at th Wh ): t the l ti l ti t t the period T* of the idealized equivalent SDOF system. F*y: The yield force of the idealized system M*:The mass of an equivalent SODF system Limit State of DL: The assessment is OK if the global capacity of the Limit State of DL is greater than the target displacement of the Limit State of DL (i e = (i.e.= Target Displacement of the Limit State of SD divided by 2.5.

75

Pushover Graph

Draw graph of analysis results for specific node or element for specific interest

2 6

8 4

76

Pushover Story Graph

Draw Story Shear Graph y p for Selected Story

77

Pushover Story Graph

Draw Member Shear Graph p for Selected Element

78

Pushover Story Graph

Draw Story Shear/Drift/Drift Ratio Graph for Selected Pushover Steps

79

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show Story Hinge Status for Selected Load Case and Selected Pushover Step

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show Yield Step of Element for Selected Load Case and Selected DOF

81

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show analysis summary of beam element for selected load case

82

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show member force for selected load case and selected DOF

Ex) Member force of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF

83

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show total deformation of member for selected load case and selected DOF

Ex) Total deformation of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF

84

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show plastic deformation of member for selected load case and selected DOF

Ex) Plastic deformation of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF

85

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show ductility factor (D/D1) of member for selected load case and selected DOF D/D1 = Total Deformation / 1st Yield Deformation

Ex) Ductility factor (D/D1) of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF

86

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Show ductility factor (D/D2) of member for selected load case and selected DOF D/D2 = Total Deformation / 2nd Yield Deformation

Ex) Ductility factor (D/D2) of beam element at 30th pushover step in all DOF

87

Pushover Hinge Result Table

Check safety verification results for the no-collapse requirement (ultimate limit state) under th seismic d i situation t t ) d the i i design it ti

- Ductile member: safety verification in terms of member deformations (chord rotations) with appropriate material partial factors and confidence factor applied on member deformation capacities. - Brittle member: safety verification is checked in terms of member forces (shear forces) with appropriate material partial factors and confidence factor applied on member force capacities.

88

Capacity for assessment in the Safety Verification Table

(1) Reinforced Concrete Structures (Beam & Column) (Eurocode8-3:2004, Annex A.3.1)

*For ductile elements, mean values of properties divided by CF are used. For brittle members, mean values of properties divided by CF and by partial factor.

89

Capacity for assessment in the Safety Verification Table

(2) Steel Structures (Beam & Column) (Eurocode8-3:2004, Annex B.5.2)

For ductile elements, mean values of properties divided by CF are used. For brittle members, mean values of properties divided by CF and by partial factor. * y= MyL/6EI Where, My: Yield moment, L: Length of a member, E: Elasticity of Modulus, I: moment of inertia

90

Pushover Text

Text output: Displacements p p

91

Pushover Text

Text output: member forces / stresses of beam, truss or wall elements p ,

92

Pushover Text

Text output: Deformation and Forces of general link p g

93

Gen V741 (New)

Reactions Search Reaction Forces/Moments Reaction Forces/Moments

Reaction Force/Moments

94

Gen V741 (New)

Search Displacement Deformations Search Displacement Deformed Shape Displacement Contour

95

Gen V741 (New)

Deformed Shape Deformations Search Displacement Deformed Shape Displacement Contour

96

Gen V741 (New)

Displacement Contour Deformations Search Displacement Deformed Shape Displacement Contour

97

Gen V741 (New)

Beam Forces/Moments Forces Truss Forces Beam Forces/Moments g Beam Diagrams Wall Forces/Moments Wall Diagrams Plate Forces/Moments Plate Cutting Line Diagram Member Di M b Diagrams

98

Gen V741 (New)

Beam Diagrams Forces Truss Forces Beam Forces/Moments g Beam Diagrams Wall Forces/Moments Wall Diagrams Plate Forces/Moments Plate Cutting Line Diagram Member Di M b Diagrams

99

Gen V741 (New)

Beam Stresses Stresses Truss Stresses Beam Stresses g Beam Stresses Diagram Plane Stress/Plate Stresses Plane Strain/Stresses Axisymmetric Stresses Solid Stresses

100

Gen V741 (New)

Beam Stresses Diagram Stresses Truss Stresses Beam Stresses g Beam Stresses Diagram Plane Stress/Plate Stresses Plane Strain/Stresses Axisymmetric Stresses Solid Stresses

101

Data conversion Analysis Control Data

Th model fil created in the old version can b opened i th new version and are automatically converted i t th new i d l files t d i th ld i d in the i d t ti ll t d into the t format. t The be input f

Old Version

Gen V741(NEW)

Convergence Criteria Moved to the Pushover Global Control dialog dialog.

102

Data conversion Pushover Load Cases Old Version Gen V741(NEW)

Number of Incremental Steps Moved to the Pushover Load Case dialog. (Number of Increment Steps can be set by load cases separately.)

103

Data conversion Hinge Properties Assignment Old Version

Define hinge properties by components 1 Hinge properties by component

* 3 components of hinge properties have been defined.

Gen V741(NEW)

Define hinge properties by elements 1 Hinge properties by element

* 9 hinge properties have been defined.

* 36 hinge properties have been assigned.

* 9 hinge properties have been assigned.

2 2

Nonlinear hinge properties were defined by force components in the old version, however in the new version, they are defined by elements. For example, in order to assign axial and flexural hinge properties to one element in the old version, the user defined two different hinge properties. However, properties However in the new version only one hinge property defining the axial and flexural properties is needed version, needed. In the new version, when the user opens a model file created in the old version, the component hinge properties will be individually assigned to the corresponding elements (one component hinge property per element). So, the converted file size of the model may become larger than that of the old version. This is not the general way to define hinge properties in the new version, but it is intended to avoid errors in converting files. Refer to Assign Hinge Properties to learn how to assign hinge properties in the new version.

104

Data conversion Hinge Properties Type Old Version

Gen V741(NEW)

105

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