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Griffith S-Strain disease-causing bacteria R-Strain Harmless bacteria Injections: disease-causing bacteria died Harmless bacteria stayed healthy

lthy Heat killed bacteria survived Heat killed s-strain bacteria with harmless live bacteria from r strain died The heat-killed bacteria passed their disease-causing ability to the harmless bacteria

Oswald Avery Used enzymes to determine which molecule in the heat-killed bacteria was most important for transformation --DNA was the transforming factor Hershey & Chase -Bacteriophage -- wanted to determine which part of the virusthe protein coat or DNA core entered the bacterial cell Grew viruses in cultures containing radioactive isotopes of phosphorus-32 and sulfur-35 Results: all radioactivity was from phosphorus marker in DNA Storing Information Copying Information Transmitting Information Components of DNA a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into strands or chains by covalent bonds. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids. 3-basic-components: 5-carbon sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base DNAs 4 Nitrogenous Bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine To determine the amount of DNA in a solution: by measuring the amount of light it absorbs at a wavelength of 260 nanometers.

Chargaffs Rule The percentages of adenine and thymine are almost equal in any sample of DNA (same for guanine and cytosine)

Franklins X-Rays X-Ray diffraction to get information about DNA molecule X-shaped pattern shows that strands in DNA are twisted around each other, also known as a helix Nitrogenous bases are near the center of the DNA molecule Watson & Crick Double helix: two strands of nucleotide sequences were wound around each other Anti-parallel StrandsDNA strands run in opposite directions Hydrogen Bonding: forces that hold double helixs together Base Pairing: a nearly perfect fit between nitrogenous bases along the center of the molecule Adenine with thymine, guanine with cytosine DNA Replication occurs during late interphase (S-Phase) The two strands of the double helix have separated allowing two replication forks to form Ex: TACGTT ATGCAA DNA Polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA. DNA at tips of chromosomes: telomeres uses a special enzyme: telomerase and adds short, repeated DNA sequences to the telomeres helps to prevent genes from being damaged or lost during replication PROKARYOTIC CELLS: single, circular DNA molecule in the cytoplasm, containing nearly all the cells genetic information replication: starts at a single point, and proceeds in two directions until the entire chromosome is copied EUKARYOTIC CELLS: DNA found in nucleus, packaged into chromosomes, tightly packed together with proteins to form chromatin. Together, DNA and histone molecules to form nucleosomes. Replication: begins at hundreds/thousands of locations, proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is completely copied.