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Submitted by: Anurag Gandhi 613/MP/10

Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology

Prepared for MA 219 Practical training May 16, 2012


I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks and deep gratitude to all those people who extended their whole hearted co-operation and have helped me in completing this project successfully. First of all I would like to thank the Maruti Suzuki Gurgaon Plant for providing the invigorating experience. The way this plant is run and managed clearly shows the tremendous growth of the Indian manufacturing sector through the years. We are also thankful to Mr. Pradeep Khanna, our faculty member for organizing this crucial industrial visit. The entire experience of making this report was fostering not only in intellectual, rational, academic facets but also in practical and realistic facets.

The following report describes the growth of Maruti Suzuki India Limited and its contribution to the automobile industry in India. The report also elucidates the methods adopted by Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. Gurgaon Plant for manufacturing and production process, preventive maintenance and conservation of energy.


1. Company Profile..............................................................................................6 1.1 Introduction 1.2 MSILs Principal Objectives 1.3 MSILs Competitive Strengths 1.4 Milestones

2. Manufacturing Process.....................................................................................9 2.1 Blanking and Pressing Shop 2.2 Weld Shop 2.3 Paint Shop 2.4 Assembly Shop 2.5 Machine and engine shops 2.6 Inspection

3. Preventive Maintenance..................................................................................19

4. Conservation of energy...................................................................................19

5. Research and Development............................................................................19

6. Conclusion......................................................................................................20

Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) was the result of the joint venture created in February 1981 between Japan's Suzuki Motor Company and the Indian Government when the latter decided to produce small, economical cars for the masses. The intention of the venture was to produce a 'people's car'. It was on December 14, 1983 that MUL launched the first Maruti vehicle - the Maruti 800 priced at Rs. 47,500. In late1980s, Suzuki increased its equity stake in MUL from 26% to 40% and further to 50% in 1992, converting Maruti into a non-government company. On 17 September 2007, Maruti Udyog was renamed to Maruti Suzuki India Limited (MSIL). The company's headquarters remain in Gurgaon, near Delhi. It is now a leading four-wheeler automobile manufacturer in South Asia. Maruti Suzuki has two manufacturing facilities in India, one in Gurgaon and the other in Manesar, North India.

The plant at Udyog Vihar, Gurgaon is spread over 1203364 square meters covering 396957 square meter area. This plant has 3 fully integrated production facilities with flexible assembly lines. While these three plants have a total installed capacity of 350,000 cars per year, several productivity improvements have enabled the company to manufacture nearly 650,000 cars per year at the Gurgaon facilities. In fact on an average, one vehicle rolls out of the factory every 21 seconds and the plant has already rolled out over 6.5 million vehicles till date. The entire facility is equipped with more than 150 robots, out of which 71 have been developed in-house. More than 50 per cent of our shop floor employees have been trained in Japan.

It is rated high among Suzuki's best plants worldwide and the plant was inaugurated in February 2007. The plant has several in-built systems and mechanisms to ensure that cars being manufactured here are of good quality. There is a high degree of automation and robotic control in the press shop, weld shop and paint shop to carry on manufacturing work with acute precision and high quality. In particular, areas where manual operations are hazardous or unsafe have been equipped with robots. The plant is designed to be flexible: diverse car models can be made here conveniently owing to automatic tool changers, centralized weld control system and numerical control machines that ensure high quality. The open layout and ergonomic design make work convenient and improve productivity. The plant at Manesar is the company's fourth car assembly plant and has started with an initial capacity of 100,000 cars per year. This will be scaled up to 300,000 cars per year. A total investment of Rs 2,500 crore will be made in this car plant by 2010. In March 2007, Maruti Suzuki India Limited crossed cumulative export figure of 4,50000 vehicles since its first export in 1986. It has exported vehicles to over 100 countries in 5 continents with 65% of total exports to the highly sophisticated and demanding European Markets.


As the leading player in the small car segment of the Indian market, they have the following principal objectives: To expand the size of the Indian market for small cars by strengthening and expanding the dealer network and making automobile financing available at competitive rates. To strengthen their leadership position in the small car segment of the Indian market To continue to benchmark themselves against improving global manufacturing, marketing and other practices and standards, strive to increase customer satisfaction through quality products and new initiatives, and promote the financial strength of their sale network.


Expertise in small car technology: As a subsidiary of Suzuki, they have access to globally respected technology in the small car segment. They have the advantage of Suzukis expertise in all aspects of small car technology and design, with respect to their products, manufacturing processes and business practices, the development of their supply chain and the training of personnel. Extensive product portfolio: They are the major manufacturer of cars in segment A (priced below Rs.300,000). The Maruti 800 has been the largest selling car in India for several years, and still continues to have the very high sales volumes. They also manufacturer three distinct models, the Zen, the Alto and the WagonR, in segment B (priced between Rs. 300,000 and Rs.500,000). Their dominance in segment A and extensive product range in segment B enables them to offer the customer a wider choice in the small car segment than any of their competitors. Quality products: In November 2001, MSIL was one of the first automobile manufacturers in the world to receive the ISO 9001:2000 certification. They benchmark their products against international quality standards. They export their products to approximately 70 countries, which are manufactured using the same assembly line as that for the domestic market. Extensive sales and service network: MSIL has the largest network of dealers and service centers amongst car manufacturers in India In addition to the distribution of cars, their dealership network is a critical resource in their efforts to provide customers with a one-stop shop for automobiles and automobile related products and services such as automobile finance, automobile insurance, Maruti certified pre-owned cars available for purchase, and leasing and fleet management, in order to promote customer loyalty. Brand strength: MSIL is present in the Indian market for almost 24 years and have built the brand on the basis of the values of trust and reliability In 2000, 2001 and 2002, J.D.Power Asia Pacific, Inc. ranked MSIL the No. 1 in the India Customer Satisfaction Index, which assesses customer satisfaction with product quality and dealer service. NFO Automotives

2002 Total Customer Satisfaction Survey ranked Maruti products as No. 1 in the Economy, Premium Compact and Entry Midsize segments respectively, for 2002. Integrated manufacturing facility: Their manufacturing facility consists of fully integrated plants with flexible assembly lines located at Gurgaon. The facilities have advanced engineering capability and each plant is upgraded on an ongoing basis to improve productivity and quality. They are one of the most efficient among the vehicle manufacturing facilities of Suzukis subsidiaries outside Japan in terms of productivity measured as the ratio of number of vehicles produced to number of employees. Strong vendor base and higher rates of localization: In order to improve quality and generate economies of scale, MSIL has reduced the number of vendors of components in India from 370 as of March 31, 2000 to about 100 as in 2005. As of the same date, they had strategic equity interests through joint venture agreements in their vendors, who together supply a substantial portion of the purchases of components. A number of their vendors are their dedicated suppliers in that they account for a majority of their turnover. Vendors located within a radius of 100 kilometers from the facilities supply the majority of the components. The production systems of their vendors are generally aligned to their needs for a reliable and timely supply of components that meet the required quality standards. This has enabled MSIL to increase the proportion of locally sourced, lower cost components in their models, a concept refer to as localization.

1981 Maruti Udyog Ltd. was incorporated. 1982 Stepped into a JV with SMC of Japan. 1983 Maruti 800, a 796 cc hatchback, India's first affordable car was produced. 1984 Installed capacity reached 40,000 units. Omni, a 796 cc MUV was in production. 1985 Launch of Maruti Gypsy (970cc, 4WD off-road vehicle). 1986 Produced 100,000 vehicles (cumulative production). 1987 Exported first lot of 500 cars to Hungary. 1988 Installed capacity increased to 100,000 units. 1992 SMC increases its stake to 50 per cent. 1994 Produced the 1 millionth vehicle since the commencement of production. 1995 Second plant launched, the installed capacity reached 200,000 units. 1996 Launch of 24-hour emergency on-road vehicle service. 1997 Produced the 2 millionth vehicle since the commencement of production. 1998 Launch of website as part of CRM initiatives. 1999 Launch of Maruti - Suzuki innovative traffic beat in Delhi and Chennai as social initiatives. 2000 IDTR (Institute of Driving Training and Research) launched jointly with Delhi nbbnbgovernment to promote safe driving habits. 2001 Launch of customer information centers in Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Chennai. 2002 SMC increases its stake to 54.2 per cent. Launch of Maruti Finance with 10 finance companies in Mumbai. Start of Maruti True value in Mumbai. 2003 Production of 4 millionth vehicle. Listed on BSE and NSE after a public issue oversubscribed 10 times. 2004 Maruti closed the financial year 2003-04 with an annual sale of 472122 units,

2005 The fiftieth lakh car rolls out in April, 2005. 2006 Maruti tops jd power csi survey for record seventh time in a row 2007 Govt of India awarded O SUZUKI with coveted Padma Bhusan Board of directors give approval to new name MUL to become Maruti Suzuki India limited. 2009 M-800 crosses 25 lakh mark MSIL celebrates SILVER JUBILEE MSIL launches national road safety program. Capacity to manufacture expanded from 800,000 to a million units(Gurgaon plus Manesar) annually. All India engineering export promotion council(EEPC) award. MSIL achieved highest sales ever in Dec2009



Production Division in Maruti Suzuki India Limited has been renamed as Production Business Vertical (PBV) after inclusion of Projects, Production Engineering, Vehicle Inspection & Supplier Quality Assurance divisions in it.


Press Shop and Blanking Line Weld Shop (1,2 & 3) Paint Shop (1,2,& 3) Engine Assembly (1,2,& 3) Assembly Shop (1,2,& 3) Machine Shop (1,2,& 3) Materials X (1,2,& 3) Plant maintenance KB Casting KB Engine KB Machine Shop Production facility at Manesar Plant SQA (Supplier Quality Assurance) Production Engineering & Projects Vehicle Inspection (VI)


Each of the shops has a product type of layout. In this type of layout machines are arranged in order of sequence of operation. Product Layout is suited for mass or continuous production and its advantage are that the cost per product is less and work in progress inventory is less.

The process flow of manufacturing process at Gurgaon plant is depicted below :


Blanking is the operation of punching, cutting, or shearing a piece out of stock to a predetermined shape and size by die cutting the outside shape of a part for the next operation such as pressing, drawing and forming. Pressing is the process of giving blanks required shapes with dies and presses The press shop can be regarded as the starting point of the car manufacturing process. Centrally located between weld 1, weld 2 and weld 3 supplies components to all the three plants. The press shop has a batch production system whereas the plants have a line production system. The press shop maintains an inventory of at least two days. The weld shop as per the requirements picks the finished body parts from the press shop. These may be divided as A, B and C. A components are large outer components as for example roof, door panels etc. These components are manufactured in the press shop at Maruti due to


design secrecy and huge investment requirements. B and C components are manufactured by joint ventures or bought from vendors. Steel Coil Blank Panel

Process Flow in Blanking and Pressing shop

The press shop has five transfer presses and two blanking lines. In the press shop, steel coils are cut to the required size and panels are prepared by pressing them between various die sets such as doors, roofs and bonnet. An anti-rust coat is applied at this stage. This plant uses 400 tonne presses to press the blanked sheets. There are six passages with a capacity ranging from 1000-4000 tonnes. The plant is capable of producing pressed sheets for all the ten models manufactured by Maruti Udyog Ltd. They have in-house capability and the necessary technical knowledge for the design and manufacture of medium-size press dies.


The body panels produced in the press shop and the other small components are joined here to give the white body or shell. In a typical car body 1400 different components are welded together. The weld shops have the following facilities. Welding jigs Spot welding guns Kawasaki welding robots Hemming machines Punching machines

Spot welding is a type of resistance welding, which is a method of welding two or more metal sheets together without using any filler material by applying pressure and heat to the area to be welded. It is used to weld various sheet metal products. Typically the sheets are in the 0.5- 3.0 mm thickness range. The process uses two shaped copper alloy electrodes to concentrate welding current into a small "spot" and to simultaneously clamp the sheets together.


Forcing a large current through the spot will melt the metal and form the weld. The attractive feature of spot welding is a lot of energy can be delivered to the spot in a very short time (ten to one hundred milliseconds). That permits the welding to occur without excessive heating to the rest of the sheet.

Spot Welding

PROCESS OUTLINE: The shop has different lines for different models, each of, which is further divided into three parts: Under Body: Here different underbody panels are welded together. These comprise of rear underbody, central underbody, front engine room panel. These underbodies are put on the conveyor and welded together to give the underbody. Main Body: As the body moves on, the conveyor roof and side body panels (prepared on the sub lines) are welded to it to give the main body. The chassis number is punched on the cowl top and it is welded to the front engine room panel. White Body: The doors, hood and back door are attached on the main body with the help of bolts and screws to make it a white body. The body is checked for dent, burr and spatter and these defects are repaired. After inspection and repairs the body is called WBOK. It is sent to the paint shop thereafter.



Paint Shop

In the paint shop following processes are carried out: -There are five plants/units that provide a uniform painting over the white body coming from the weld shop. In paint shop all the models are painted on the same line. The five units are: (a) Pre-treatment (PT): The body is thoroughly washed to remove the dirt and oil scales. Then the body is treated with ZnPO4 (phosphating) to prevent corroding of the body. (b)ED coat: This is done by electric deposition method, at 240V-dc supply. After applying the ED coat the body is baked in oven. (c) Sol-sealer and under coat: Here the left in the body (due to welding) are filled with sol-sealer to provide waterproofing. Under coat is done on the surface above wheels to prevent damage of body in that portion.


(d) Intermediate coat: This is done by spray-painting method using 10 Kawasaki Robots. After applying the coat, the body is dried in the oven. Painting done is basically an intermediate coating to provide base for the final coat. (e) Topcoat: This is done by spray-painting method using 20 Kawasaki Robots. For metallic coating, double coats are applied and aluminium flakes are provided to shine the metallic paints. After inspection and touch up, the PBOK, i.e. the paint body ok is sent to the assembly shop.


1.Pre Treatment

2. Dry Sanding

3. Sol Sealing Line

4. PVC Coating

5. IC Coating

6. IC Oven


7. TC Coating

8. TC Oven

9. Final Inspection

10. To Assembly Shop


In the assembly shop the body is loaded on an overhead conveyor. As the conveyor moves the body, fitments are made at various stations. There are three Assembly Shops named ASSY-1, ASSY-2 and ASSY-3. Plant 2 and Plant 3 have similar setup but in Plant1 there are separate assembly lines for separate models. The assembly shop has a continuous production system. The assembly line can be subdivided into the followings: (a) Trim line The vehicle proceeds through a series of Trim workstations where team members begin by installing weather stripping, mouldings and pads. Then they put in wiring, vents and lights. After an instrument panel, windows, steering column and bumper supports are added, it starts to look less like a shell and more like a car.


(b) Chassis Line This is where many safety-related items are installed. Things like brake lines, torque, gas tanks and power steering are double-checked. The engine is installed, along with the starter and alternator. Then come suspension and exhaust systems. Then wheel is mounted with the help of wheel nut fastening machine. (c) Final Line From there the vehicle enters Final 1, which covers many interior items such as the console, seats, carpet, glove box and steering wheel. This is also where bumpers, tires and the battery are added, as well as finishing touches like covers and vents. Then, Coolant, Brake oil, Power steering oil are filled and also the A/C gas are charged.

Different assembly shop layouts are followed to reduce material handling operations & to facilitate material flow between workstations. a) Straight-line layout Car & omni line (Assy shop-1): Simplest layout in which material enters at 1 end & leaves at the other end. b) U shape layout Assy shop 2 & 3: Receiving & shipping ends of line are at same end of plant, due to material handling considerations (same forklift for both needs) or external needs.


The machine shop is the source of all major components for the engine assembly shop. The unmachined crankshaft and camshaft forgings, transmission case cylinder head and cylinder block castings are brought in the form of raw materials from the vendors. The cylinder heads and transmission case are aluminum castings while crankshaft and camshaft are steel forgings. It has the following lines: Transmission case line Cylinder head line Cylinder block line Crankshaft line Camshaft line



There are four types of engines which are assembled in the Engine Plant 1. FC Engine Engine with cast iron block a. M-800 b. Omni c. Alto d. Wagon-R e. Zen Estillo 2. Aluminium Engine Engine with aluminium block a. Gypsy b. SX4 c. Swift (Petrol) d. Dezire (Petrol) 3. KB Engine (New series of engines with aluminium block) a. A-Star b. Ritz 4. Diesel Engine a. Swift (Diesel) b. Dezire (Diesel) c. Ritz (Diesel)

Sample inspection is done i.e. in a lot only a few samples are inspected. Following tests are done to inspect the manufactured car: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Shower Test Headlight Test Brakes Test Speed Test Test Drive on Test Track

Shower testing is done by spraying water from all sides to check for leakages. For checking wheels speed the car is raised above the ground and then is operated at different speeds and on 18

different gears. The car is driven on a test track which consists of different terrains to check performance of car under different conditions.

Inspecting brakes

Emission Checks

If any defect is found, then all cars up to the last cleared car are checked again for defects and remedial actions are taken. The cars are then parked in the final vehicle parking area before dispatching.


Preventive maintenance is a schedule of planned maintenance actions aimed at the prevention of breakdowns and failures. The primary goal of preventive maintenance is to prevent the failure of equipment before it actually occurs. It is designed to preserve and enhance equipment reliability by replacing worn components before they actually fail. Preventive maintenance activities include equipment checks, partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, lubrication and so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure. Recent technological advances in tools for inspection and diagnosis have enabled even more accurate and effective equipment maintenance. The ideal preventive maintenance program would prevent all equipment failure before it occurs. Long-term benefits of preventive maintenance include: Improved system reliability. Decreased cost of replacement. Decreased system downtime. Better spares inventory management.

Maruti had followed the three principles of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle for conserving energy. Between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2004, they had reduced the consumption of electricity measured as the ratio of kilowatt hours of power consumed to the number of vehicles produced, by approximately 35%. This was achieved by using energy saving lights and natural light, and also the efficient usage of other electrical appliances, thus reducing wastage. In the same period, reducing the consumption of water, measured as the ratio of the volume of water consumed to the number of vehicles manufactured, by approximately 70%. This is achieved through the recycling of wastewater in their water treatment plant and effluent and sewage treatment plant.


R&D activities of Maruti have the twin objectives of reducing product costs by developing capabilities of local vendors and becoming a regional R&D hub for all Suzuki operations. The company has adopted a focused model cost reduction technique. Maruti has been continuously engaging in Value Analysis/Value Engineering (VA/VE) activities across its operations. Some areas in which MSIL carry out research and development is localization and development of components, cost reduction measures such as VA/VE, development of alternate fuel (CNG and LPG) vehicles, performance- benchmarking to certain parameters such as noise, ride handling and braking and


development of power-steering for certain models. MSIL regularly upgrade its models and also launch variants by adding features developed through research and development. All this has resulted in significant reduction in the investment required for the modifications.

The industrial visit to Maruti Suzuki India Limited was very informative and gave us a fair idea of the steps involved in the manufacturing of a car. It was very impressive to see the amount of automation being used in the industry. It showed us how production, maintenance, inspection, inventory control, demand forecasting all operated simultaneously and with high efficiency. It was heartening to see practical application of a lot of our course content. To sum up we can say that the trip improved our knowledge and helped us to understand the working of a large-scale production unit.




Our sincere thanks to the Diesel shed, Shakurbasti for providing the invigorating experience. The way this colossal shed is run and managed clearly shows the tremendous growth of the Indian manufacturing Sector through the years. We are also thankful to Mr. Pradeep Khanna, our faculty member for organizing this crucial industrial visit. The entire experience of making this report was fostering not only in intellectual, rational, academic facets but also in practical and realistic facets.


1. Introduction....................................................................................25 1.1. Details 2. Diesel Locomotive Technology.....................................................28 2.1. Diesel Locomotive 2.2. Classification of Locomotives 2.3. Parts of a Diesel Locomotive 2.4. Transmission 2.5. Dual Brake System 3. Maintenance of Diesel Locos.........................................................33 3.1. Cooling 3.2. Lubrication 3.3. Laboratory Tests and Inspection



Diesel shed, Shakurbasti was established on 5th of April 1955 for preventive maintenance of diesel locomotives. The shed at Shakurbasti has total area of 41141 sq. m but a covered area of 15417 sq. m. It is a pioneer WDS4 shed of Indian Railways. It is the the oldest maintenance shed in India. The first WDS-4A ('Indraprastha', #19057) is homed here but is due to be decommissioned soon and sent to the NRM for preservation. This shed had some (16) WDM-2 locos for a brief period, before they were sent on to Tughlakabad, Ludhiana, and Bhagat-ki-Kothi sheds. Bahamukhi Diesel Shed, Shakurbasti of Northern Railway celebrated its Golden Jubilee recently; it is making all efforts to keep up with the times with innovations and technological development. From its humble beginnings in 1955, the Diesel Shed has evolved to become the premier shed for dieselhydraulic locomotives over Indian Railways. Showing its commitment towards quality and environmental management, the Diesel Shed has acquired ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 4001:1996certifications. This shed has also been entrusted with the maintenance of 140T Gottwald Cranes (Break-down Cranes). It is a matter of pride to state that it is the first shed to successfully carry out trials on dual-fuel (CNG&HSD) on the DEMU. M/s IGL has commissioned a CNG filling station inside the Railway premises, it is for the first time that a CNG filling station has been erected on Railway premises. The various Workshops/Production Units of the zone worked steadily towards better maintenance practices during the year.


1. Year of Establishment : 5th April 1955. 2. Road No./Type of the first loco - : WDS-2 Loco homed in Shed 3. ISO Certification Year 9001 14001 18001 :2001 :2005 : Nil

4. Type-wise holding WDS4 Loco : 69 WDM2 : 12 WDM2s : 23 DEMUs DPC TC DTC

: 18 : 51 : 05

5. Maximum holding (Year/Number of Locos) : 1992-93, 108 nos. locos. 6. Homing capacity : WDS-4 58 Locos : WDM2s 31 Locos : WDM2 10 Locos. : DEMU - 5 rake of 16 coach

7. Augmentation plans (i) Provision of the art rubber component storage section in Dsl Shed SSB (ii) Modernization of DTC


1. Sanctioned Strength : 858 2. On Roll Strength : 684 3. No. of Officers : 05 4. No. of Supervisors : 49 5. Total Area : 41141 SQM. 6. Covered Area : 17417 SQM 7. % age of Staff housed in Railway Quarters : 19.68% 8. Power Consumption : 80892 Unit/month 9. Water Consumption : 71000 liters/month 10. Educational profile of staff : Upto 8th > 8th 10th Pass 10-12th 8.81 % 20.84% 36.35% 25.30%

ITI 40.47%


11. Age Profile of Staff <30 Yrs. 30-40 5.38 % 11.58%

41-50 27.08%

51-55 33.60%

56-60 22.34%

12. MPR as circulated by E&R Dte. : 6.65


1. 2. 3. 4.

Freight Passenger SFC 1.06 1.15* LOC 1.59 -Shed consumption of fuel : 8175 ltrs / month KMs. Earned by shed Locos/Month : DEMU WDM2s 79199 23115

WDM2 41429

WDS4 308954


1. 1st time starting of the POH activities of WDS4 locomotives. 2. Production facilities for Bio-Diesel has been established and approx. 700 liters Bio- Diesel is being produced per month.




A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine, a reciprocating engine operating on the Diesel cycle as invented by Dr. Rudolf Diesel. Like the electric locomotive, it has electric drive, in the form of traction motors driving the axles and controlled with electronic controls. It also has many of the same auxiliary systems for cooling, lighting, heating, braking and hotel power (if required) for the train. It can operate over the same routes (usually) and can be operated by the same drivers. It differs principally in that it carries its own generating station around with it, instead of being connected to a remote generating station through overhead wires or a third rail. The generating station consists of a large diesel engine coupled to an alternator producing the necessary electricity. A fuel tank is also essential. It is interesting to note that the modern diesel locomotive produces about 35% of the power of a electric locomotive of similar weight. Several types of diesel locomotive have been developed, the principal distinction being in the means by which the prime mover's mechanical power is conveyed to the driving wheels (drivers).


In India, locomotives are classified according to their track gauge, motive power, the work they are suited for and their power or model number. Locos, except for older steam ones, have classification codes that identify them. This code is of the form '[gauge][power][load][series][subtype][suffix]' In this the first item, '[gauge]', is a single letter identifying the gauge the loco runs on: 1. W = Broad Gauge 2. Y = Meter Gauge 3. Z = Narrow Gauge (2' 6") 4. N = Narrow Gauge (2') The second item, '[power]', is one or two letters identifying the power source: 1. D = Diesel 2. C = DC traction 3. A = AC traction 4. CA = Dual-power AC/DC traction 5. B = Battery electric(rare) The third item, '[load]', is a single letter identifying the kind of load the loco is normally used for: 1. M = Mixed Traffic 2. P = Passenger 3. G = Goods 4. S = Shunting


5. L = Light Duty (no longer in use) 6. U = Multiple Unit (EMU / DEMU) 7. R = Railcar The fourth item, '[series]', is a digit identifying the model of the loco. Until recently, this series number was simply assigned chronologically as new models of locos were introduced. 1. WDS4 The transmission of the engine is diesel-hydraulic. Initially only 10 nos WDS4 locos were imported from Germany. Initially holding capacity was for 50 nos till 1987 and further expansion of shed was done for holding of 100 locos in 1992 and the shed now has a total holding capacity of 108 locos. Since the shed came into existence it has given different services of WDS4 locos like passenger services in local areas, pilot, departmental, shunting within Delhi and adjacent areas. These locos are having MAK- Germany six cylinders, 700hp engine, with hydraulic transmission like L-217 imported KPC suri transmission with the latest voith transmission type L-4r2u with improved design and higher speed. This shed is also earning by rendering Engg. Services to public sector undertakings having 37 locos since 1979 & carrying out all major schedules upto periodic overhauling with total satisfaction of customers.

2. WDM2 The transmission is diesel-electric. The WDM-2A is a variant of the original WDM-2. These units have been retro-fitted with air brakes, in addition to the original vacuum brakes. The WDM-2B is a more recent locomotive, built with air brakes as original equipment. The WDM-2 locos have a maximum speed of 120 km/h(75 mph), restricted to 100 km/h (62 mph) when run long hood forward. The gear ratio is 65:18.


The following diagram shows the main parts of a basic diesel-electric locomotive.


Diesel Engine This is the main power source for the locomotive. It comprises a large cylinder block, with the cylinders arranged in a straight line or in a V. The engine rotates the drive shaft at up to 1,000 rpm and this drives the various items needed to power the locomotive. As the transmission is electric, the engine is used as the power source for the electricity generator or alternator, as it is called nowadays. Main Alternator The diesel engine drives the main alternator which provides the power to move the train. The alternator generates AC electricity which is used to provide power for the traction motors mounted on the trucks (bogies). In older locomotives, the alternator was a DC machine, called a generator. It produced direct current which was used to provide power for DC traction motors. Many of these machines are still in regular use. The next development was the replacement of the generator by the alternator but still using DC traction motors. The AC output is rectified to give the DC required for the motors. Auxiliary Alternator Locomotives used to operate passenger trains are equipped with an auxiliary alternator. This provides AC power for lighting, heating, air conditioning, dining facilities etc. on the train. The output is transmitted along the train through an auxiliary power line. Electronic Controls Almost every part of the modern locomotive's equipment has some form of electronic control. These are usually collected in a control cubicle near the cab for easy access. The controls will usually include a maintenance management system of some sort which can be used to download data to a portable or hand-held computer. Traction Motor A traction motor is a type of electric motor used to power the driving wheels of a vehicle such as a railroad locomotive, electrical multi-unit train (such as a subway or light rail vehicle train), a tram, or an automobile. Traditionally, these are DC series-wound motors, usually running on approximately 600 volts. In diesel-electric and gas turbine-electric locomotives the horsepower rating of the traction motors is usually 81% that of the prime mover. This assumes that the electrical generator converts 90% of the engine's output into electrical energy and the traction motors convert 90% of this electrical energy back into mechanical energy. Calculation: 90% x 90% = 81%. Because of the high power levels involved, traction motors are almost always cooled using forced air. Pinion/Gear The traction motor drives the axle through a reduction gear of a range between 3 to 1 (freight) and 4 to 1 (passenger). Drive Shaft The main output from the diesel engine is transmitted by the drive shaft to the alternators at one end and the radiator fans and compressor at the other end.


Gear Box The radiator and its cooling fan is often located in the roof of the locomotive. Drive to the fan is therefore through a gearbox to change the direction of the drive upwards.

Turbocharger In internal combustion engines a turbocharger is a turbine-driven, forced-induction compressor powered by the engine's exhaust gas. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor linked by a shared axle. The turbine inlet receives exhaust gases from the engine causing the turbine wheel to rotate. This rotation drives the compressor, compressing ambient air and delivering it to the air intake manifold of the engine at higher pressure, resulting in a greater amount of the air entering the cylinder. In some instances, compressed air is routed through an intercooler which cools the air before introduction to the intake manifold, as the reduced density of hot air will cause a loss in power gained through turbocharging. The objective of a turbocharger is; to improve upon the size-to-output efficiency of an engine by solving one of its cardinal limitations Turbocharger Air Reservoirs Air reservoirs containing compressed air at high pressure are required for the train braking and some other systems on the locomotive. These are often mounted next to the fuel tank under the floor of the locomotive. Air Compressor The air compressor is required to provide a constant supply of compressed air for the locomotive and train brakes.

Like an automobile, a diesel locomotive cannot start itself directly from a stand. It will not develop maximum power at idling speed, so it needs some form of transmission system to multiply torque when starting. It will also be necessary to vary the power applied according to the train weight or the line gradient. There are three methods of doing this: mechanical, hydraulic or electric. Most diesel locomotives use electric transmission and are called "dieselelectric" locomotives. Mechanical and hydraulic transmissions are more common on multiple unit trains or lighter locomotives. Reverse Transmission



Dual braking systems is used in the locos like in WDM2. It consists of: 1. Vacuum brake 2. Air brake Vacuum brakes were the older system, where vacuum is used for braking. However, this suffers from the disadvantage that is not easy to detect leaks in the brake pipes. Air braking systems, on the other hand, need to maintain a constant pressure in the pipes. Thus, any leak will be easily detectable due to the sound (hiss) of the leaking air. There are multiple options for braking. The most common ones, of course, are the A9 and the SA9. These are levers in the WDM2 control stand as shown in the image. As is obvious, the train brake is for stopping the entire train, whereas the loco brake only gets applied to the loco. Applying the loco brakes with an entire train behind it, when in motion, is quite dangerous since it can cause banging and even derailment; the inertia of the coaches behind would result in their banging into the slowed-down loco causing great harm. When the loco is started up, the brake pressure gauge should show 5 kg / sq.cm. Only then is enough pressure built up throughout the brake pipe (connected across all the coaches) to enable effective braking. The pressure is built up using a compressor. This also means that once the loco is cranked up, the pilot needs to wait until the appropriate brake pressure is built up. Further, if there is a (substantial) leak, the required pressure would fail to build up. To brake, the pilot simply pulls the appropriate lever (train or loco) one notch at a time. As soon as that is done, the brake pressure falls down.



The locos come here for maintenance according to the following schedule: W5- schedule : After 2 months Yearly schedule: After 3 years

A loco coming here passes through a number of inspections and safety tests 1. The fuel is drained out and the fuel system is checked. 2. Then some safety items like wooden blocks are placed below the locos wheels. 3. After that various parts of the loco electrical and mechanical systems are checked and inspected manually and automatically(semi-automatic). 4. The lab parameters are verified for each loco and after that they are marked right or wrong.

A new repair bay has been recently installed which can hold 6 locos at a time for repair, maintenance & cleaning. The general life span of a loco is 32-36 yrs and it needs around 4lts of fuel to run 1km. Diesel locomotives can be viewed as an assembly of sub-systems. Whenever a sub assembly requires maintenance attention which cannot be done on site or is time consuming, then it is replaced with an operational unit. The removed unit is repaired, tested in a separate place and kept ready for next repair needs. This is called Unit Exchange (UE) repair system and is widely practiced in Indian Railways. The UE systems are required during maintenance for the following cases: a. b. c. d. Scheduled overhauling needs of the shed Scheduled maintenance needs of the shop Non-scheduled maintenance needs arising out of line failures Non-scheduled maintenance needs identified during periodic maintenance

A sub-assembly sectioning is done and the various parts are checked for any repairs or defects Pump section: Seal kits are changed. Levels of the consumables are checked. Proper lubrication of the various parts is done. Power pack (Engine): The dimensions of the connecting rods are checked for proper clearance. The surface of the cam shaft is checked for any irregularities.


Engine being overhauled Cylinder Heads: Carbon deposits on valves are cleaned by dipping them in tanks. This is a manual cleaning process. The valve seats are inserted in cylindrical head holes. Liquid nitrogen is used to shrink fit these valves.

Engine Cylinders

Like an automobile engine, the diesel engine needs to work at an optimum temperature for best efficiency. When it starts, it is too cold and, when working, it must not be allowed to get too hot. To keep the temperature stable, a cooling system is provided. This consists of a water-based coolant circulating around the engine block, the coolant being kept cool by passing it through a radiator. The coolant is pumped round the cylinder block and the radiator by an electrically or belt driven pump. The temperature is monitored by a thermostat and this regulates the speed of the (electric or hydraulic) radiator fan motor to adjust the cooling rate. When starting, the coolant isn't circulated at all. After all, you want the temperature to rise as fast as possible when starting on a cold jjkjkjkjkjIntercooler morning and this will not happen if you a blowing cold air into your radiator. Some radiators are provided with shutters to help regulate the temperature in cold conditions. An intercooler is used to cool the air entering the engine, hence increasing volumetric efficiency.


Like an automobile engine, a diesel engine needs lubrication. In an arrangement similar to the engine cooling system, lubricating oil is distributed around the engine to the cylinders, crankshaft and other moving parts. There is a reservoir of oil, usually carried in the sump, which has to be kept topped up, and a pump to keep the oil circulating evenly around the engine. The oil gets heated by its passage around the engine and has to be kept cool, so it is passed through a radiator during its journey. The radiator is sometimes designed as a heat exchanger, where the oil passes through pipes encased in a water tank which is connected to the engine cooling system. The oil has to be filtered to remove impurities and it has to be monitored for low pressure. If oil pressure falls to a level which could cause the engine to seize up, a "low oil pressure switch" will shut down the engine. There is also a high pressure relief valve, to drain off excess oil back to the sump.

Lubricant Pump

Lubricant Testing


Maintenance Support Laboratory at Diesel Locomotive Shed, Shakurbasti has an efficient laboratory facility for testing : Coolant Water Lubricants Cleaning chemicals Metallurgical analysis of materials Spectrographic analysis of lubricants to detect water element NDT (Zyglo, Dye penetrate Test and Magna flux Test) testing of Loco Components UT Testing of Axles and Bearings

At present diesel shed is using mainly dye penetration inspection and magnetic particle testing methods for surface / sub-surface crack detection.



Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT), is frequently used for the detection of surface breaking flaws in nonferromagnetic materials. The subject to be examined is first of all chemically cleaned, usually by vapour phase, to remove all traces of foreign material, grease, dirt, etc. from the surface generally, and also from within the cracks. Next the penetrant (which is a very fine thin oil usually dyed bright red or ultra-violet fluorescent) is applied and allowed to remain in contact with the surface for approximately fifteen minutes. Capillary action draws the penetrant into the crack during this period. The surplus penetrant on the surface is then removed completely and thin coating of powdered chalk is applied. After a further period (development time) the chalk draws the dye out of the crack, rather like blotting paper, to form a visual, magnified in width, indication in good contrast to the background. The process is purely a mechanical/chemical one and the various substances used may be applied in a large variety of ways, from aerosol spray cans at the most simple end to dipping in large tanks on an automatic basis at the other end. The latter system requires sophisticated tanks, spraying and drying equipment but the principle remains the same.

Illustration of Dye Penetrant Testing


Magnetic particle inspection is a method that can be used to find surface and near surface flaws (0.050 to 0.100 inch deep) in ferromagnetic materials such as steel and iron. 36

MPI is done by introducing a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material and spraying the surface with iron particles (either dry or suspended in a liquid). Surface imperfections will distort the magnetic field and concentrate the iron particles near imperfections, thus indicating their presence. The technique uses the principle that magnetic lines of force {flux) will be distorted by the presence of a flaw in a manner that will reveal its presence. The flaw (for example, a crack) is located from the "flux leakage", following the application of fine iron particles, to the area under examination. There are variations in the way the magnetic field is applied. but they are all dependant on the above principle . The iron particles can be applied dry or wet; suspended in a liquid, coloured or fluorescent. While magnetic particle inspection is primarily used to find surface breaking flaws, it can also be used to locate sub-surface flaws. But it's effectiveness quickly diminishes depending on the flaw depth and type. Surface irregularities and scratches can give misleading indications. Therefore it is necessary to ensure careful preparation of the surface before magnetic particle testing is undertaken.

MPI Equipment