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108 Divya Kshetrams

(with grateful thanks to


www.templenet.com)
Introduction: This special edition of Templenet features the 108
temples and celestial Abodes of Vishnu revered in the tamil
hymns of the Alwars, of the 1st millennium CE.

The Alwars: Sri Vaishnavism is one of the pre-eminent


traditions of Hinduism. An unbroken lineage of teachers, (the
Acharyas) and a wealth of literature in Tamil and in Sanskrit and
the Vishishtadvaita philosophy form the backbone of the Sri
Vaishnava religion. Twelve saint (poet) devotees - the great
Alwars lived their lives dedicated to expressing their devotion to
MahaVishnu - considered to be the supreme manifestation of
Divinity in the Vaishnava system of beliefs.. These saints
composed verses in chaste tamil, and revitalized the religious
spirit of the region, sparking off a renewal of devotional worship
in what is generally referred to as the Bhakti movement. The first
of the twelve, Peyalwar, Bhootattalwar and Poikaialwar lived in
the first half of the first millennium CE.

The Paasurams: Srivilliputtur in southern Tamilnadu, is home


to Perialwar, and his foster daughter Andal; the works of Andal
are very well known to the tamil world. The Tiruppaavai hymns
written by Andal (a manifestation of the mother Goddess) are
chanted in congregations throughout Tamilnadu during the cold
month of Margazhi, in the cool pre-dawn hours, in temples as
well as in the streets that surround temples. The 30 hymns
constituting Tiruppavai have been recorded by several artists, and
the national radio station All India Radio (used to) broadcast(s) a
hymn each day throughout the month of Margazhi. Also
composed by Andal is 'Vaaranam Aayiram' (Kanaakkanden
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Tozhi), describing Andal's dream of her marriage to Narayanan
(Vishnu). This work is chanted during Sri Vaishnava weddings. A
popular version of Vaaranam Aayiram sung by S. Janaki hit the
charts in 1990.

Amalanaadipiraan, a decad of 10 verses composed by


Tiruppaanaalwar of Uraiyur, describing his ecstasy upon seeing
the image of Ranganathar at Tiruvarangam, is held in great
reverence. Tondaradippodialwar has composed several verses in
praise of Ranganathar at Srirangam. The most prolific poets of
the Alwars were Nammalwar and Tirumangaialwar (8th -
9thcentury CE). The collection of Nammalwar's works is referred
to as Tiruvaimozhi.

The compilation of these verses is the revered Naalayira Divya


Prabandam. Credit for this compilation goes to Nadamuni (923 -
1023 CE), who upon hearing Nammalwar's verse 'Araavamude'
being chanted at Kumbhakonam, researched into and compiled
the works of all of the Alwars. The lineage of spiritual leaders of
the Sri Vaishnava way of life, held these works in the highest
regard, considering them equivalent to the Vedas. The Alwar
paasurams therefore have been chanted in temples for centuries
together (in a manner similar to that of chanting the Vedas in
sanskrit).

The tradition of Arayar Sevai involving the expressive recitation


(enactment) of the paasurams originated during the period of
Nadamuni, at Srirangam. This tradition exists even today at
Srirangam, and at Srivilliputtur and Alwar Tirunagari (and at
Melkote in Karnataka). The descendants of the family of
Nadamuni are the torchbearers of this tradition.

Divya Desams: The verses of the Alwars, speak of the glory of


Vishnu, of instances from the puranams. of the devotion of the
Alwars and of the glory of the temples (and locales) enshrining

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Vishnu (which they had visited). The entire decad of verses
commencing with Amalanaadipiraan praises Ranganathar at
Srirangam. Some of these verses only refer to (or address)
temples in which Vishnu is enshrined as in the case of
Nammalwar's hymns referring to the deity enshrined in
Srivaikuntham in two verses in a decad of verses dedicated to
Tiruppulinkudi. Pillaipperumaal Iyengar's work Tirupati
Andadi captures 108 of the shrines, mentioned in the works of the
Alwars. These shrines are hailed as Divya Desams, hallowed by
the hymns of the saints.

History of patronage: These shrines have been held in reverence


for centuries. In Tamilnadu where 84 of these shrines are
situated, the Pallava rulers (as in Mahabalipuram,
Nandipuravinnagaram), and the Chola emperors (10th through
the 13th centuries) provided for the construction (in stone),
expansion and upkeep of these shrines through generous
endowments. The Pandyas who followed continued this tradition.
It was under the rule of the Vijayanagar emperors that shrines
such as Srirangam, Tirukkachhi and Tirupati received the
greatest extent of royal patronage. The Nayaka rulers of Madurai
continued this glorious tradition after the Vijayanagar rulers.
The shrines: 47 of the 108 Divya Desams have been addressed
only by Tirumangaialwar and 18 only by Nammalwar. While 2
are addressed only by Tirumazhisaialwar, 1 by Kulasekharalwar
and 1 by Perialwar, the remaining 39 are addressed by hymns
composed by more than one of the saints. In combination with the
other saints, Tirumangaialwar has addressed 83 of the 108 Divya
Desams and Nammalwar 35. While 247 verses are addressed to
Srirangam - 202 are addressed to Tirupati, 128 to Azhagar Koyil
and only 7 to Kanchipuram (Tirukkachhi Attigiri). The celestial
abodes Tirupparkadal (The Milky Ocean) and Paramapadam
(Vaikuntham) get 51 and 36 verses each.

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Geographic distribution: 40 of the shrines are located in the
fertile Chola kingdom and 22 are in Tondainaadu - around
Kanchipuram and Chennai. 2 are in Nadu Naadu
(Tiruvahindrapuram and Tirukkovilur) and 18 are in
Pandyanaadu. 13 of the shrines are in Malainaadu, of which 11
are in Kerala and 2 are in Kanyakumari district; therefore the total
number of Divya Desams in Tamilnadu is 84. 11 Divyadesams are
in Vada Naadu, or the northern lands - of which two, Tirupati and
Ahobilam are in Andhra Pradesh. 7 of these 11 are in Uttar
Pradesh (such as Mathura, Ayodhya , Badrinath etc.). , 1 in
Nepal and 1 in Gujarat. Two of the Divyadesams -
Ksheerasaagaram and Vaikuntham are celestial abodes.
Thus, 106 temples have been addressed by the Tamil Alwars, who
were pillars of the Sri Vaishnava tradition that was to evolve in
Tamilnadu. The contrast in the nature of these temples is stunning,
given the diversity in the Indian subcontinent. Even a virtual
visit to these 106 shrines across the nation, is quite an
experience, and is illustrative of this contrast, given the difference
in the nature of temples in the various regions such as the Kaveri
basin, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, the Tirunelveli region, the
Gangetic plains and the Himalayas.

State of these temples: Some of the Divya Desam shrines are


grand monuments such as the Ranganathar Temple at
Srirangam, Naachiyaar temple at Srivilliputtur, the
Padmanabhaswamy temple at Tiruvanandapuram and the
Varadaraja Perumaal temple at Kanchipuram, visited by
thousands. Badrinath, the northernmost of the Divyadesams is a
shrine venerated throughout India. Tirupati (Tirumala) is the
most visited of these 108 Divya Desams, and is held in great
regard by pilgrims all over the country. Tiruvallikkeni a well
visited shrine and a prominent landmarks in the modern city of
Chennai, attracts thousands of devotees during the Vaikuntha
Ekadasi festival in the month of Margazhi.

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Some of the Divya Desams in Tamilnadu, stand as grand
monuments gracefully located away from the beaten track
(Tirukkovilur, Sri Vaikuntham for example). Three of the
Divya Desams are sub shrines in the prakarams of other Divya
Desams. The Tiruoorakam (Ulagalanda Perumaal Koyil) houses
the Divyadesams Oorakam, Neerakam, Kaarakam and
Kaarvaanam. Two of the Divyadesams are subshrines in other
temples. Nilattingal Tundam is a shrine to Vishnu in the inner
prakaram of the grand Ekambreswarar temple at Kanchipuram,
while Kalvanoor is a shrine to Vishnu in the Kamakshiamman
temple at Kanchipuram.Tiruchitrakootam, is located within the
grand Nataraja temple complex at Chidambaram.

1,Tiruvarangam (Koyil)

Location: Srirangam near Tiruchirappalli


(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Ranganathar, Azhagiya Manavaalan, Nam
Perumaal
Taayaar: Ranganayaki
Theertham: Chandra Pushkarini
Paasuram : All the Alwars with the exception of
Madhurakavi
Vimaanam: Pranavaakriti Vimaanam
Travel Base: Tiruchirappalli

2. Tirukkozhi (Uraiyur)

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Location: Uraiyur near Tiruchirappalli
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Azhagiya Manavaalan
Taayaar: Kamalavalli (Vaasalakshmi)
Theertham: Kalyaana Theertham
Paasuram : Tirumangaialwar, Kulasekharaalwar
Vimaanam: Kalyana Vimaanam
Travel Base: Tiruchirappalli

3. Tirukkarambanur - Uttamar Koyil


Location: Uttamar Koil (Bhikshandar Koil) near
Tiruchirappalli
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Purushottaman
Taayaar: Poorva Devi, Poornavalli
Theertham:Kadamba Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Karamba
Travel Base:Tiruchirappall

4. Tiruvellarai
Location: Tiruvellarai near Tiruchirappalli
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Pundareekakshan
Taayaar: Shenbakavalli, Pankajavalli (Utsavar)
Theertham:Divya Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai, Periyalvar
Vimaanam:Vimalakriti Vimanam
Travel Base:Tiruchirappalli

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5. Tirupper Nagar
Location: Koyiladi nearLalgudi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Appakkudattaan
Taayaar: Indra Devi, Kamaladevi
Theertham:Indra Theertham, Kollidam
Paasuram :Periyalvar, Tirumangai, Tirumazhisai, Nammalvar
Vimaanam:Indra Vimanam
Travel Base:Tiruchirappalli

6. Tirukkandiyur
Location: Tirukkandiyur near Tiruvaiyaru
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Harasaapavimochana Perumaal
Taayaar: Kamalavalli
Theertham:Kapaala Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Kamalakriti Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

7. Tirukkoodaloor
Location: Tirukkoodaloor near Tiruvaiyaru
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Jagatrakshakan
Taayaar: Padmasini, Pushpavalli
Theertham:Chakra Theertham, Kaveri
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Sudhdha Satva Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur
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8. Kapistalam
Location: Kapistalam (Papanasam) near
Kumbakonam
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Gajendra Varadan
Taayaar: Ramaamanivalli
Theertham:Gajendra Pushkarini, Kapila Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumazhisai
Vimaanam:Gaganaakriti Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

9. Tiruppullambhootankudi
Location: Tiruppullambhootangudi near Swamimalai
(Kumbakonam)
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Valvil Raaman
Taayaar: Potraamaraiyaal (Hemambujavalli)
Theertham:Jatayu Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Sopana Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

10. Tiru Aadanoor


Location: Tiru Aadanoor near Swamimalai (Kumbakonam)
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Aandalakkumaiyan
Taayaar: Ranganayaki
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Theertham:Surya Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Pranava Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

11. Tirukkudandai (Kumbhakonam)


Location: Kumbhakonam
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Sarangapani, Pallikondaar
Taayaar: Komalavalli
Theertham:Hema Pushkarini, Kaveri, Arisilaru
Paasuram :Periyalwar,Andal, Tirumazhisaialwar,
Tirumangaialwar ,Bhootattalwar, Peyalwar, Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Vaidika Vimanam
Travel Base: Thanjavur

12. Tiruvinnagar (Uppiliappan Koyil)


Location: Uppiliappan Koil near Kumbhakonam
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Uppiliappan
Taayaar: Bhumi Devi
Theertham:Ahoratra Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai, Peyalwar, Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Vishnu Vimanam, Sudhdhananda
Travel Base: Thanjavur

13. Tirunaraiyur (Naachiyaar Koyil)

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Location: Nachiar Kovil near Kumbhakonam
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Srinivasar (Tirunaraiyur Nambi)
Taayaar: Vanchulavalli
Theertham:Manimukta Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Srinivasa (Hema) Vimanam
Travel Base:Kumbhakonam

14. Tirucherai
Location: Tirucherai (Udaiyar Koil) near Kumbakonam
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Saranathan
Taayaar: Sara Nayaki
Theertham:Saara Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Saara Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

15. Tirukkannamangai (Krishna


Mangala Kshetram)
Location: Tirukkannamangai near Tiruvarur
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Bhaktavatsala Perumaal
Taayaar: Abhishekavalli
Theertham:Darshana Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar

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Vimaanam:Utpala Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

16. Tirukkannapuram
Location: Tirukkannapuram near Nannilam
(Tiruvarur)(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Neelameghapperumaal,Sowriraja
Perumaal,
Taayaar: Kannapura Nayaki
Theertham:Nitya Pushkarini
Paasuram :Periyalwar, Andal,Kulasekharalwar, Tirumangaialwar,
Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Utpalavataka Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

17. Tirukkannankudi
Location: Tirukkannangudi near Nagappattinam (Sikkal)
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Lokanathan (Syamalameni Perumal) in a
standing posture facing east,
Taayaar: Lokanayaki, Aravindavalli
Theertham:Sravana Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Utpala Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

18. Tiru Naagai (Nagappattinam)

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Location: Nagappattinam near .
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Neelamegapperumal
Taayaar: Soundaryavalli
Theertham:Sarapushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Soundarya Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

19. Thanjai Maamanikkoyil


Location: Thanjavur .
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Three sets of deities
Taayaar: Three sets of deities
Theertham:Amrita Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Nammalwar, Bhootatalwar
Vimaanam:Soundarya Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

20. Tirunandipura Vinnagaram


Location: Tirunandipura Vinnagaram (Naadan
Kovil) near Kumbakonam
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Jagannathan, Naathanathan
Taayaar: Shenbagavalli
Theertham:Nandi theertha Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Mandaara Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

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21. Tiruvelliyankudi
Location: Tiruvelliyangudi near Kumbakonam
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Kolavilli Raman
Taayaar: Raktavalli
Theertham:Sukra Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Pushkalavartaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

22. Tiruvazhundur
Location: Terezhundur near Mayiladuturai
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Devadirajan, Aamaruviappan
Taayaar: Senkamalavalli
Theertham:Darshana Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Garuda Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

23. Tiruchirupuliyur
Location: Tiruchirupuliyur (Kollumangudi) near
Mayiladuturai
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Chalasayanapperumaal
Taayaar: Tirumaamagal Naachiyaar
Theertham:Maanasa Pushkarini, Anantasaras
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar

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Vimaanam:Nandavardana Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

24. Talaichchanga Naanmadiyam


Location: Talaichangadu (Aakkoor) near Mayiladuturai
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Naanmadiyapperumaal
Taayaar: Talaichchanga Naachiyaar
Theertham:Chandra Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Chandra Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram

25. Tiruvindaloor
Location: Mayiladuturai
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Parimala Ranganathar
Taayaar: Parimala Ranganayaki
Theertham:Indu Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Vedachakra Vimanam
Travel Base:Thanjavur

26. Tirukkaavalampaadi
Location: Tirukkaavalampaadi near Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Gopalakrishnan
Taayaar: Senkamala Naachiyaar
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Theertham:Tadamalarppoikai
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Swayambu Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

27. Kaazhicheeraama Vinnagaram


Location: Sirkazhi (Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Trivikraman
Taayaar: Lokanayaki
Theertham:Shankhapushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Pushkalavarta Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram

28. Arimeya Vinnagaram


Location: Tirunangur (Sirkali) near Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Kudamaadukoothan
Taayaar: Amritaghatavalli
Theertham:Koti Theertham, Amrita Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar.

29. Tiruvanpurushottamam
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Location: Tirunangur near Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Purushottaman
Taayaar: Pusushottama Nayaki
Theertham: Tiruppaarkadal
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Sanjeevivigraha Vimaanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

30. Tiruchemponsei Kovil


Location: Tirunangur (Sirkali) near Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Perarulaalan,
Taayaar: Alli Maamalar Naachiyaar
Theertham:Hema Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Kanaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

31. Manimaadakkoyil
Location: Tirunangur (Sirkazhi)
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Narayanan
Taayaar: Pundareekavalli
Theertham:Indra Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
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Vimaanam:Pranava Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

32. Vaikuntha Vinnagaram


Location: Tirunangur (Sirkali)
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Vaikuntha Nathan
Taayaar: Vaikuntha Valli
Theertham:Lakshmi Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Anantasatyavartaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

33. Tiruvaali and Tirunagari


Location: Tiruvaali near Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Lakshmi Narasimhar, Vedarajan
Taayaar: Amritaghatavalli, Amritavalli
Theertham:Ilaakshani Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Kulasekharaalwar
Vimaanam:Ashtakshara Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram

34. Tiru Devanaar Togai


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Location: Tirudevanar Togai - Keezhchaalai near
Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Deivanayakan,
Taayaar: Kadalmagal Naachiyaar
Theertham:Sopana Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Sopana Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

35. Tiruttetriambalam
Location: Tirunangur (Sirkazhi)
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Senkanmaal (Ranganathan,
Sreelakshmirangar)
Taayaar: Senkamalavalli
Theertham:Surya Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Veda Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

36. Tirumanikkoodam
Location: Tirunangur (Sirkazhi)
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Varadaraja Perumal,
Taayaar: Tirumaamagal Naachiyaar, Bhudevi
Theertham:Chandra Pushkarini
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Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Kanaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

37. Tiruvellakkulam
Location: Annan Koil near Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Srinivasan (Annan Perumaal, Kannan)
Taayaar: Alarmelmangai
Theertham:Tiruvellakkulam
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Tatvatyodaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

38. Tiruppaartanpalli
Location: Tiruppartanpalli near Sirkazhi
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Taamaraiyaal Kelvan, Parthasarathy
Taayaar: Taamarai Nayaki
Theertham:Shankha Saras
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Narayana Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram
Other: One of the 11 Tirunaangur Divya Desams closely
associated with Tirumangaialwar

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39. Tiruchitrakootam
Location: Chidambaram
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Govindaraja Perumaal
Taayaar: Pundarikavalli Taayaar
Theertham:Pundarika Pushkarini
Paasuram :Kulasekhara, Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Satvika Vimanam
Travel Base:Chidambaram

40. Tiruvahindrapuram
Location: Cuddalore
(Nadu Naadu)
Vishnu: Devanathan,
Taayaar: Hemambujavalli
Theertham:Garudanadi, Chandratheertham, Sesha Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Chandra, Sudhdhasatva vimamnam
Travel Base:Chidambaram

41. Tirukkovilur
Location: Tirukkovilur near Tiruvannamalai
(Nadu Naadu)
Vishnu: Ulagalanda Perumal - Trivikrama

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Taayaar: Poonkoval Nachiyaar
Theertham:Pennaar, Krishna Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangai, Poikaialwar, Bhootattalwar
Vimaanam:Sreekara Vimanam
Travel Base:Tiruvannamalai

42. Tirukkachchi
Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Varadaraja (Devaraja) Perumal (Vishnu),

Taayaar: Perundevi Taayaar (Mahadevi)


Theertham:Vegavati, Anantasaras
Paasuram :Tirumangai, Bhootattalwar, Peyalwar
Vimaanam:Punyakoti Vimanam
Travel Base:Kanchipuram, Chennai

43. Ashtabhuyakaram
Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Adikesava Perumal (Ashtabhuja
Perumaal)
Taayaar: Alarmelmangai (Padmasini)
Theertham:Gajendra Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Peyalwar

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Vimaanam:Gaganakriti, Chakrakriti
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

44. Tiruttankaa
Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Deepaprakasar,
Taayaar: Maragatavalli
Theertham:Saraswathi Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Sreekara Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

45. Tiruvelukkai
Location: Kanchipuram . (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Azhagiyasingar (Narasimhar),
Taayaar: Velukkaivalli (Amritavalli)
Theertham:Kanaka Saras
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Peyalwar
Vimaanam:Kanaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

46. Tiru Neeragam


Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Jagadeeswarar
Taayaar: Nilamangaivalli
Theertham:Akroora Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar

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Vimaanam:Jagadeeswara Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai

47. Tiruppaadakam
Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Pandava Dhootapperumaal
Taayaar: Rukmini, Satyabhama
Theertham:Matsya Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangai, Tirumazhisai, Bhootattalwar, Peyalwar
Vimaanam:Bhadra Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

48. Tirunilaattingal Tundam


Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Nilaattingal Tundattaan
Taayaar: Nilaattingal Tundattaayaar
Theertham:Chandra Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Purushasookta Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai. Kanchipuram

49. Tiru Oorakam


Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Ulagalanda Perumaal - Trivikrama
(Vishnu)
Taayaar: Amritavalli
Theertham:Naga Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangai, Tirumazhisai
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Vimaanam:Sarasreekara Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai

50. Tiruvegkaa
Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Yatotkaara Perumaal
Taayaar: Komalavalli
Theertham:Poikai Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumazhisai, Tirumangai, Poikaialwar, Peyalwar,
Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Veda Saara Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

51. Tirukkaarakam

Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)


Vishnu: Karunakara Perumaal
Taayaar: Padmamani Nachiyaar
Theertham:Akraaya Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Vaamana Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

52. Tirukkaarvaanam

Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)


Vishnu: Kalvar
Taayaar: Kamalavalli (Taamaraiyaal)
Theertham:Gowri Tataakam
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar

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Vimaanam:Pushkala Vimanam
Travel Base: Chennai, Kanchipuram

53. Tirukkalvanoor

Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)


Vishnu: Aadi Varaha Perumal,
Taayaar: Anjilaivalli Naachiyaar
Theertham:Nitya Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangai Alwar
Vimaanam:Vamana Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

54. Tiruppavalavannam

Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)


Vishnu: Pavalavannan
Taayaar: Pavalavalli
Theertham:Chakra Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Pravaala Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

55. Parameswara Vinnagaram

Location: Kanchipuram (Tondai Naadu)


Vishnu: Vaikuntha Naathan
Taayaar: Vaikuntha Valli
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Mukunda Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

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56 Tirupputkuzhi

Location: Tiruputkuzhi near Kanchipuram


(Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Vijayaraghava Perumaal
Taayaar: Maragatavalli
Theertham:Jatayu Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Vijayakoti Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Kanchipuram

57. Tiruninravur

Location: Tiruninravur near Arakkonam


(Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Bhaktavatsala Perumaal
Taayaar: Sudhaa valli
Theertham:Varuna Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Srinivasa Utpala Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai

58. Tiruevvuloor

Location: Tiruvalloor near Tiruttani, Chennai


(Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Veeraraghavaswamy
Taayaar: Kanakavalli (Vasumati)
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Theertham:Hridtaapanaasini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Tirumazhisaialwar
Vimaanam:Vijayakoti Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai

59. Tiruvallikkeni

Location: Chennai (Triplicane)


(Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Venkatakrishnaswamy, Parthasarathy,
Ranganathar (Vishnu),
Taayaar: Vedavalli,
Theertham:Allikkeni
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Peyalwar, Tirumazhisaialwar
Vimaanam:Ananda Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai

60. Tiruneermalai

Location: Tiruneermalai (Pallavaram) near Chennai


(Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Neervannan, Shanta Narasimhan,
Ranganathar, Trivikrama,
Taayaar: Animamalarmangai, Ranganayaki
Theertham:Manikarnika Tataakam
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Toyagiri Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai

61. Tirukkadalmallai

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Location: Maamallapuram near Chennai
(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Stalasayana Perumal (Vishnu),
Taayaar: Nilamangai Taayaar
Theertham:Pundarika Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Bhootattalwar
Vimaanam:Gaganakriti (Ananda) Vimanam
Travel Base: Chennai

62. Tirukkatikai
Location: Sholinghur near Arakkonam
(Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Bhaktavatsala Perumaal, Yoga
Narasimhar, Yoga Anjaneyar
Taayaar: Amritavalli
Theertham:Amrita Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Peyalwar
Vimaanam:Simhakoshtakrtiti Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai

63. Ayodhya (Tiruvayodhi)


Location: Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Rama (Chakravarti Tirumagan)
Taayaar: Sita
Theertham:Sarayu Nadhi
Paasuram :Tirumangai, Periyalwar, Kulasekharalwar,
Tondaradippodi, Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Pushkala Vimanam

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64.Naimisaranya
(Tirunaimisaranyam)
Location: Naimisaranya (Uttar Pradesh)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Devarajan (Sree Hari),
Taayaar: Pundarikavalli (Harilakshmi)
Theertham:Chakra Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Sree Hari Vimanam
Travel Base:Lucknow

65. Joshimath (Tiruppirudi)


Location: Joshi Mutt near Rishikesh (Uttar Pradesh)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Paramapurushan,
Taayaar: Parimalavalli
Theertham:Indra Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Govardhana Vimanam
Travel Base:Rishikesh

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66. Devaprayag (Tirukkandam)
Location: Devaprayag near Rishikesh (Uttar Pradesh)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Purushottaman
Taayaar: Pundarikavalli
Theertham:The Ganges
Paasuram :Perialwar
Vimaanam:Mangala Vimanam
Travel Base:Rishikesh

67. Badrinath (Tiruvadariashramam)


Location: Badrinath (Uttar Pradesh)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Badri Narayanan
Taayaar: Aravindavalli
Theertham:Taptakundam
Paasuram :Periyalwar, Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Taptakanchana Vimanam
Travel Base:Badrinath

Saalagraam
68.
(Tiruchaalagraaamam)
Location: Saalagraamam in Nepal
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Sree Murthy,
Taayaar: Sree Devi
Theertham:Chakra Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Periyalwar
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Vimaanam:Kanaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Nepal

69. Mathura (Vada Madurai)


Location: Mathura
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Govardhanesan, Balakrishnan
Taayaar: Satyabhama
Theertham:Govardhana Theertham
Paasuram :Perialwar, Andal, Tondaradippodi, Tirumangaialwar,
Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Govardhana Vimanam
Travel Base:Mathura, Agra, Delhi

70. Tiruvaaippadi
Location: Gokul near Mathura
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Navamohana Krishnan
Taayaar: Rukmini, Satyabhama
Theertham:Yamuna
Paasuram :Perialwar, Andal, Tirumangai
Vimaanam:Hemakoota Vimanam
Travel Base:Mathura, Agra, Delhi

71. Dwarka (Tiru Dwarakai)


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Location: Dwarka (Gujarat)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Dwarakadeesan
Taayaar: Lakshmi, Rukmini
Theertham:Gomti River, Samudra Sangamam
Paasuram :Perialwar, Andal, Tirumangai, Tirumazhisai,
Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Hemakoota Vimanam
Travel Base:Dwarka

72. Ahobilam (Singavel Kunram)


Location: Ahobilam near Nandyal(Andhra Pradesh)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Narasimha (Prahladavaradan),
Taayaar: Amritavalli
Theertham:Indra Theertham, Narasimha Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Guhai Vimanam
Travel Base:Cuddappah

73. Tiruvenkatam
Location: Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh)
(Vada Naadu)
Vishnu: Venkateswara (Srinivasa)
Taayaar: Padmavati
Theertham:Seshachala Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar, Perialwar, Andal, Kulasekharaalwar,
Tirumazhisaialwar,
Tiruppanalwar, Tirumangaialwar, Poikaialwar,
Bhutatalwar,Peyalwar
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Vimaanam:Ananda Nilaya Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirupati

74. Tirunavaya (Tirunaavai)


Location: Tirunavaya near Kalikota - Malappuram - Kerala
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Tirunavai Mukundan, Navamukundan
(Narayanan)
Taayaar: Malarmangai Naachiyaar
Theertham:Senkamala Saras
Paasuram :Nammalwar, Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Veda Vimanam
Travel Base:Thrissur

75. Tiruvithuvakkodu
Location: Tiruvinjikode near Thrissur
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Uyyavanda Perumaal (Abhayapradan),
Taayaar: Padmapani Naachiyaar
Theertham:Chakra Theertham
Paasuram :Kulasekhara Alwar
Vimaanam:Tatva Kanchana Vimanam
Travel Base:Thrissur

76. Trikakkarai (Tirukkaatkarai)


Location: Tirukkaatkarai near Irinjalakuda
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Kaatkaraiappan (Vaamanan)
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Taayaar: Perunchelva Naayaki
Theertham:Kapila Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Pushkala Vimanam
Travel Base:Thrissur

77.Moozhikkalam
(Tirumoozhikkalam)
Location: Moozhikkalam near Alwaye
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Moozhikkalattappan (Lakshmana Perumaal)
Taayaar: Madhuraveni Naachiyaar
Theertham:Shankha Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Soundarya Vimanam
Travel Base:Ernakulam

78. Tiruvallavaazh
Location: Tiruvalla near Kottayam
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Vallabha, Kolappiraan
Taayaar: Vaatsalya Devi
Theertham:Pampa Nadi
Paasuram :Nammalwar, Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Chaturankola Vimanam
Travel Base:Kottayam

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79.Tirukkodittaanam
(Tirukkadittaanam)
Location: Tirukkodittaanam near Chenganacheri - Kerala
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Amrita Narayanan
Taayaar: Karpakavalli
Theertham:Bhumi Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Punyakoti Vimanam
Travel Base:Kottayam

80. Tiruchenkunroor
Location: Chengannur near Kottayam
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Imaiavarappan,
Taayaar: Senkamalavalli
Theertham:Shankha Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Jagatjyoti Vimanam
Travel Base:Kottayam

81. Tiruppuliyur
Location: Tiruppuliyur (Kuttanaadu) near Chengannur
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Maayappiraan
Taayaar: Porkodi Naachiyaar
Theertham:Pragna Saras
Paasuram :Nammalwar, Tirumangaialwar
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Vimaanam:Purushottama Vimanam
Travel Base:Kottayam

82. Aranmula (Tiruvaaranvilai)


Location: Aranmula near Chengannur - Kerala
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Parthasarathy (Tirukkuralappan)
Taayaar: Padmasini
Theertham:Vedavyasa Saras, Pampa
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Vaamana Vimanam
Travel Base:Kottayam

83. Tiruvamundur (Tiruvanvandur)


Location: Tiruvamundur near Chengannur - Kerala
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Kamalanathan
Taayaar: Kamalavalli
Theertham:Pampa
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Vedalaya Vimanam
Travel Base:Kottayam

84. Tiruvanandapuram
Location: Tiruvanandapuram- Kerala .
(Malai Naadu)
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Vishnu: Anantapadmanabhan
Taayaar: Harilakshmi
Theertham:Padma Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Hemakoota Vimanam
Travel Base:Tiruvanandapuram

85. Tiruvattar
Location: Tiruvattar near Kuzhitturai (Kanyakumari)
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Aadi kesava Perumal
Taayaar: Maragatavalli
Theertham:Vattar
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Ashtanga Vimanam
Travel Base:Kanyakumari

Tirupatisaaram
86.
(Tirruvannparisaaram)
Location: Tiruppatisaram near Nagarkoil(Kanyakumari)
(Malai Naadu)
Vishnu: Tirukkuralappan, Venkatachalapati
Taayaar: Kamalavalli
Theertham:Lakshmi Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Indrakalyana Vimanam
Travel Base:Kanyakumari

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87. Tirukkurunkudi
Location: Tirukkarangudi near Nanguneri (Tirunelveli)
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Azhagiyanambi
Taayaar: Kurunkudivalli Naachiyaar
Theertham:Tiruppaarkadal
Paasuram :Perialwar, Tirumazhisai, Tirumangai, Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Pancha Ketaka Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

88. Tiruchireevaramangai
(Vanamamalai)
Location: Nanguneri near Tirunelveli
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Totadrinaathan
Taayaar: Sireevaramangaittaayaar
Theertham:Indra Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Nandavartana Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

89. Tiruvaikuntham
Location: Sreevaikuntham near Tirunelveli
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Vaikunthanathar
Taayaar: Vaikunthavalli, Bhudevi
Theertham:Bhrigu Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
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Vimaanam:Chandra Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

90. Tiruvaragunamangai
Location: Varagunamangai (Naththam) near Sree
Vaikuntham
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Vijayaasanapperumaal
Taayaar: Varagunavalli Taayaar
Theertham:Agni Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Vijayakoti Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

91. Tiruppulinkudi
Location: Pulinkudi near Sree Vaikuntham
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Kaaisinavendan,
Taayaar: Malarmagal Naachiyaar
Theertham:Varuna Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Veda Saara Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

92. Tiruttolaivillimangalam
(Irattaittiruppati)

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Location: Irattaittiruppati near Sree Vaikuntham
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Srinivasan, Aravindalochanan
Taayaar: Karuntadankanni
Theertham:Varuna Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Kumuda Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

93. Tirukkulandai (Perunkulam)


Location: Perunkulam near Tiruppulinkudi (Sri Vaikuntham)
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Srinivasan,
Taayaar: Alamelu Mangai, Kulandaivalli
Theertham:Perunkulam
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Anandanilaya Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

94. Tirukkolur
Location: Tirukkolur near Tiruchendur
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Vaittha Maanidhi Perumaal
Taayaar: Kumudavalli, Kolurvalli
Theertham:Kubera Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Srikara Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

95. Tirupperai
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Location: Tentirupperai near Tiruchendur (Alwar
Tirunagari)
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Makara Nedunkuzhaikkaadan
Taayaar: Kuzhaikkaaduvalli Naachiyaar,
Tirupperai Naachiyaar
Theertham:Sukra Pushkarini
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Bhadra Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

96. Alwar Tirunagari (Tirukkurukoor)


Location: Alwar Tirunagari near Tiruchendur
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Aadinaathar
Taayaar: Aadi Naatha Valli, Kurukoorvalli
Theertham:Bhrama Theertham
Paasuram :Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Govinda Vimanam
Travel Base:Srivaikuntam, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli

97. Srivilliputtur (Tiruvilliputtur)


Location: Srivilliputtur near Tirunelveli
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Andal, Vatapatrasayee-Rangamannar
Taayaar: Andal (Godha Naachiyaar)
Theertham:Tirumukkulam
Paasuram :Periyalwar, Andal
Vimaanam:Samsana Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli, Tuticorin
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98. Tiruttankaal Temple
Location: Tiruttankal near Srivilliputtur (Virudunagar)
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Ninra Narayanan,
Taayaar: Senkamala Taayaar
Theertham:Papavinasa Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Bhootattalwar
Vimaanam:.Somachanda Vimanam
Travel Base:Tirunelveli

99. Tirukkoodal (Madurai)


Location: Madurai (Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Koodalazhagar
Taayaar: Madhuravalli
Theertham:Hema Pushkarini, Vaigai
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Tirumazhisaialwar
Vimaanam:,
Travel Base:Madurai

100. Tirumaaliruncholai
Location: Azhagar Koyil near Madurai
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Kallazhagar
Taayaar: Sundaravalli, Sri Devi
Theertham:Noopura Ganga
Paasuram :Periyalsar, Andal, Tirumangaialwar,
Bhootattalwar,Peyalwar, Nammalwar
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Vimaanam:Somasundara Vimanam
Travel Base:Madurai

101. Tirumogur
Location: Tirumugur near Madurai
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Kaalamega Perumaal,
Taayaar: Mogurvalli, Mohanavalli
Theertham:Ksheerapti Pushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar, Nammalwar
Vimaanam:Ketaki Vimanam
Travel Base:Madurai

102. Tirukkottiyur
Location: Tirukkottiur near Tiruppattur (Karaikkudi)
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Uragamellanaiyaan, Sowmya Narayana
Perumal
Taayaar: Tirumaamagal Naachiyaar
Theertham:Deva Pushkarini
Paasuram :Periyalwar, Tirumangaialwar, Bhootattalwar,
Peyalwar, Tirumazhisaialwar
Vimaanam:Ashtanga Vimanam
Travel Base:Karaikkudi

103. Tiruppullaani
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Location: Tiruppullaani near Ramanathapuram
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Kalyana Jagannathan,
Taayaar: Kalyanavalli, Padmasini
Theertham:Hema Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Kalyana vimanam
Travel Base:Rameswaram

104. Tirumayam
Location: Tirumayam near Pudukkottai
(Pandya Naadu)
Vishnu: Satyagirinathan,
Taayaar: Uyyavanda Naachiyaar
Theertham:Palaa Vriksham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Satyagiri Vimanam
Travel Base:Tiruchirappalli

Tiruppaarkadal
105.
(Ksheerasamudram)
Location: Celestial Abode
Vishnu: Ksheeraabdi Naathan,
Taayaar: Kadal Magal Naachiyaar, Bhudevi
Theertham:Amrita Theertham
Paasuram :All but Madhurakavi and Tiruppaanaalwar
Vimaanam:Ashtanga Vimanam

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106. Vaikuntham (Paramapadam)
Location: Celestial Abode
Vishnu: Paramapada Naathan
Taayaar: Periya Piraattiyaar
Theertham:Viraja Nadi
Paasuram :Perialwar, Andal, Tirumazhisaialwar, Tiruppanalwar,
Tirumangaialwar, Nammalwar, Poikaialwar, Peyalwar
Vimaanam:Annataanga Vimanam

107. Tiruvanbil
(This, I could not find earlier, but found it after some search.
This should go as No.4)

Location: Anbil nearLalgudi


(Chola Naadu)
Vishnu: Vadivazhagiya Nambi
Taayaar: Azhagiyavalli
Theertham:Mandookapushkarini
Paasuram :Tirumazhisai
Vimaanam:Taaraka Vimanam
Travel Base:Tiruchirappalli

108. Tiruvidandai
This, I could not find earlier, but found it after some search.
This should go as No.62)

Location: Tiruvidandai (Vandalur) near Mahabalipuram


(Tondai Naadu)
Vishnu: Varahamoorthy, Nityakalyana Perumaal

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Taayaar: Akilavallinachiyaar
Theertham:Kalyana Theertham, Varaha Theertham
Paasuram :Tirumangaialwar
Vimaanam:Kalyana Vimanam
Travel Base:Chennai, Mahabalipuram

OM NAMO NAARAYANAAYA

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