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62 D. BONEFA I , J. JAN ULA, N. MAJUREC, MODEL OF A MONOPULSE RADAR TRACKING SYSTEM FOR ... Model of a Monopulse Radar Tracking Systemfor Student Laboratory Davor BONEFA I

1 , Julijana JAN ULA 2 , Ninoslav MAJUREC 3

1 Dept. of Wireless Communications, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia 2

FM & TV Department, Croatian Telecommunications Agency, Jurii eva 13, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia 3 Microwave Remote Sensing Lab., Dept. of El. and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USAdavor.bonefacic@fer.hr, julijana.jancula@telekom.hr, nmajurec@mirsl.ecs.umass.edu Abstract. Development, construction and testing of a stu-dent laboratory model of the radar system that can be used for monopulse tracking is described. The laboratory model is simple and can be assembled from the existing equip-ment while the missing parts can be manufactured in abasically equipped RF electronics workshop. The labora-tory model is used for student laboratory exercises as apart of a basic course on radar systems. The system isbased on a hybrid for processing signals obtained from two antennas. The composition of the model is de-scribed. Student exercises and measurements on the model are proposed. Alternative instruments which can be used inthe model are considered. Possible improvements of themodel are discussed. Keywords Education, radar, monopulse radar, tracking. 1.

Introduction Modern radar systems, used in many areas from civilair traffic control to various military applications, use mo-nopulse techniques [1], [2]. Improved angle sensing, reso-lution and angular accuracy offered by monopulse radarsare their main advantage over classic radar systems.Monopulse radar systems are complex, high-costequipment that can rarely be seen by engineering students.However, basic monopulse techniques are relatively simpleand can be made more comprehensible to students throughlaboratory exercises. The described laboratory model of aradar system that can be used for monopulse angle meas-urement and tracking is used in student laboratory exer-cises as a part of a basic course on radar systems at theFaculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing in Za-greb. Its purpose is to demonstrate the basic principles of how the RF part of the radar system is operating and howthe angle measurement accuracy can be improved by usingtechniques employed in monopulse radar systems. 2.

Monopulse Radar The monopulse radar system is mainly used for targetangle measurement and tracking. The information on thetarget angular position is determined by comparison of signals received in two or more simultaneous beams. Theterm "monopulse" comes from the ability of this system toextract the angular position from only one pulse. However,in practice the angular position of the target is obtainedfrom multiple pulses in order to improve target detectionprobability and further improve angle measurement accu-racy.The main advantage of a monopulse system in com-parison to standard angle measurement methods is that it isnot affected by amplitude fluctuations of the target echobecause the angle information is acquired by comparingsignals received by several simultaneous beams and pro-duced by a single echo pulse. If the echo amplitudechanges, it changes in the same way in all receiver chan-nels.There are three main monopulse techniques for angle-sensing. These techniques are: amplitude-comparison,phase-comparison and the combination of the amplitudeand phase comparison [1], [2]. The applied monopulsetechnique determines the nature of information in the re-ceived signal prior to any processing. This means that thechoice of a certain monopulse technique will determine theconstruction of the radar antenna system.Angle measurement in a monopulse radar system isperformed by an angle discriminator. If the angle discrimi-nator is non-coherent and the angle-sensing response isproduced only by amplitude relations, it is called amplitudediscriminator. Angle discriminators responding only tophase relations are called phase angle discriminators, whileangle discriminators responding to both amplitude andphase relations are called sum-and-difference angle dis-criminators. The type of angle discriminator determines thenature of the processing used to extract the angle informa-tion from the received signals.Any kind of angle-sensing can be combined with anytype of angle discriminator [2]. In this paper, a model of an

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RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 16, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2007 63 amplitude-comparison monopulse system with sum-and-difference angle discriminator is described.The amplitude-comparison monopulse system shouldhave

two equal antennas with overlapping patterns andtheir main beam directions squinted at certain angle s (Fig.1). Fig. 1. Partial antenna patterns for amplitude sum-and-difference monopulse system. Two resulting patterns (sum and difference) are ob-tained by adding and subtracting the signals from the twoantennas.

Only the sum pattern is used in transmission,while both patterns are used in reception. Therefore, theradar transmitter is connected in the sum channel with aT/R switch (Fig. 2). The same T/R switch (marked as cir-culator in Fig. 2) is usually placed also in the differencechannel in order to maintain the same phase relationship inboth receiver channels (Fig. 2). Fig. 2. Block diagram of the monopulse radar system. The received sum signal is used for target detection,range measurement, and as phase reference for determiningthe sign of angle error measurement. The magnitude of theangle error is determined from the difference signal.The angle error is measured in reference to the antennasystem axis 0 (Fig. 1). The described antenna system of two antennas (Fig. 1) must exist for every angular coordi-nate which the radar system is measuring (e.g. for simulta-neous measurement in azimuth and elevation the systemshould have two pairs of antennas). In that case also an-other similar receiver chain for the difference ( ) signalproducing the angle error for the other angle coordinateshould be added to the block diagram in Fig. 2. 3.

Laboratory Model

The purpose of the laboratory model is to clearlydemonstrate the advantage of a monopulse tracking systemto engineering students attending the basic radar course.The laboratory model had to be composed of the existinglaboratory equipment with minimal additional costs andinvestments. Therefore, the frequency band around 2 GHzwas selected for operation. Of course, any other frequency,depending on the availability of the needed equipment, canbe used. 3.1

Antenna System The emphasis is given to a model of the antenna sys-tem generating simultaneous sum and difference radiationpatterns. Any type of antenna or antenna array can be used.It is only important that the two antennas are identical, i.e.that they have equal radiation patterns which are then posi-tioned symmetrically with respect to the antenna systemaxis (Fig. 1). The antennas must also have reasonably highgain (~ 10 dB) because this affects the overall system per-formance. The effect of improving angle measurementaccuracy, which we wish to demonstrate, will be morepronounced if the gain of the single antenna is higher [2].The antenna system used in our laboratory modelconsists of two identical horn antennas. Each antenna has12.9 dB gain at the specified operating frequency. Theantenna phase centers are spaced 1.43 0 apart, where 0 isthe free space wavelength of the signal. The squint angle is~4.The signals at the antenna outputs are coherentlyadded and subtracted by using a -hybrid. When the -hybrid is used for adding and subtracting two signals it isoften called hybrid. 3.2

Design of the -Hybrid

Fig. 3. Symbol of the -hybrid. The -hybrid is the main component for simultaneously obtaining two radiation patters. Its symbol,with port numbering, is shown in Fig. 3. Following theconvention of port numbering in Fig. 3, the -hybrid isdescribed by its scattering matrix [3], [4]: [ ] = 0110 1001 1001 0110 21S . (1)

Transmitter

MatchedLoadAmplitudeDetector PhaseDetector LocalOscillator IFAmplifier IFAmplifier AGC

RangeAngle error Mixer Mixer T/R Switch

0 s targetradar antennaantennasystem axislobe 1lobe 2 -hybrid1 234 input 1input 2

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64 D. BONEFA I , J. JAN ULA, N. MAJUREC, MODEL OF A MONOPULSE RADAR TRACKING SYSTEM FOR ... This matrix can be obtained by various technical realiza-tions like magic-T or

ring hybrid [1], [3], [4].As this part was missing for completion of our sys-tem, to reduce the overall cost and complexity, it was de-cided to manufacture the -hybrid in the form of ring hy-brid in microstrip technology. The -hybrid was designedby using the ADS electromagnetic simulator package fromAgilent [5]. It was manufactured on Taconic PTFE sub-strate with thickness of 1.576 mm, relative dielectric con-stant of 2.55 and loss tangent of 0.0018. The manufactured -hybrid is shown in Fig. 4. Calculated and measured re-sults are compared in Figs 5 8. Fig. 4.

-hybrid realized in microstrip technology as ring hybrid. -40-35-30-25-20-15-10-501,50 1,75 2,00 2,25 2,50Frequency [GHz] Reflection coeff. magnitude [dB] Calculated SMeasured SCalculated SMeasured S 11112222

Fig. 5. Calculated and measured S 11 and S 22 of the -hybrid. Satisfactory impedance matching at all ports of the

-hybrid was obtained at the design frequency of 2 GHz. InFig. 5 only the results for ports 1 and 2 are shown. Due tothe circuit geometrical symmetry (Fig. 4), the results for the ports 3 and 4 are practically the same. Also the isola-tion between the sum (port 1) and difference (port 4) portsis very good (Fig. 6).As the signals from the two antennas have to beadded and subtracted, the transmission coefficients be-tween the two inputs (ports 2 and 3) and the and out-puts (ports 1 and 4) have to be considered. At the center frequency of 2 GHz the measured phase difference be-tween the two channels at the sum output port is 1.3 (de-sired value 0), while on the difference port the phase dif-ference is 176.0 (desired value 180).At the same frequency the measured amplitude differ-ences between the two signals are less than 0.5 dB for transmission from any input to any output port (Figs 7 and8). Therefore, satisfactory operation can be expected. -50-40-30-20-1001,50 1,75 2,00 2,25 2,50Frequency [GHz] Transmission coeff. magnit. [dB] Calculated SMeasured S 4141

Fig. 6. Calculated and measured S 41 of the -hybrid. -7-6-5-4-3-2-101,50 1,75 2,00 2,25 2,50Frequency [GHz] Transmission coeff. magnit. [dB] Calculated SMeasured SCalculated SMeasured S 12121313

Fig. 7.

Calculated and measured S 12 and S 13 of the -hybrid. -7-6-5-4-3-2-10 1,50 1,75 2,00 2,25 2,50Frequency [GHz] Transmission coeff. magnit. [dB] Calculated SMeasured SCalculated SMeasured S 42424343

Fig. 8. Calculated and measured S 42 and S 43 of the -hybrid.

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RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 16, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2007 65 Finally, the antenna system consisting of two hornsand the -hybrid is assembled (Fig. 9). Fig. 9. Two horn antennas with hybrid. 3.3

Laboratory Model Operation The main objective of the student laboratory model of the monopulse radar system is to demonstrate how theangular tracking accuracy can be improved with the de-scribed antenna system (Fig. 9). All measurements andprocessing performed by the system shown in Fig. 2 arenot necessary for this purpose. Therefore, the range meas-urement part was omitted. The angle error information iscontained in the ratio of the difference and sum signals [2].Even if only the magnitude of this ratio is measured, sig-nificant improvement in angular tracking accuracy can beobserved. Such simplified implementation can be realizedwith two amplitude detectors, instead of the phase detector.In our laboratory model we have used an existing scalar network analyzer, because it allows to measure absolutedetected signal values as well as their ratios. The scalar network analyzer is the HP 8755A Swept Amplitude Ana-lyzer. It can measure the R, A and B channels and the ra-tios A/R and B/R on linear and logarithmic display.Although the antenna system in a real monopulse ra-dar would be used for transmitting and receiving, in our model it was used only for receiving. The target echo wasreplaced by a signal generator and a transmitting antennaon the far side of the lab.To realize a model closer to the real monopulse radar (i.e. a model which would use the antenna for both trans-mitting and receiving) a circulator with high

isolation,acting as T/R switch, should be placed in the sum portbranch of the hybrid to isolate the sum receiver chan-nel from the transmitted signal (in the same way as in Fig.2). The same circulator should then be added in the differ-ence port branch to maintain equal phase shift and attenua-tion in both channels as shown in Fig. 2. In addition a tar-get with high RCS (e.g. a corner reflector) should beprovided.The antenna outputs are connected to the ports 2 and3 of the hybrid by a pair of phase matched cables. Thediode detectors of the scalar network analyzer (channels Aand R) are connected to the sum and difference outputs of the hybrid (Fig. 9). Fig. 10. Laboratory demonstration system using a scalar network analyzer as indicator. Fig. 10 shows the student laboratory setup with thescalar vector analyzer and the antenna system. The antennasystem is placed on a turntable with angular scale in de-grees. The "target echo" - the transmitting antenna (quar-ter-wavelength monopole with corner reflector) - is locatedon the table bellow the blackboard on the left of the re-ceiving antenna system (Fig. 10). Further to the left of thetransmitting antenna is the signal generator. The transmit-ting antenna, which simulates the target echo, should alsobe directive to avoid reflections from the room walls.These reflected signals, combined with the direct signalcan produce undesired error in angle measurement. 3.4

Student Measurements With the described radar system model the studentscan measure the angular position of the "target" in twoways.For the first measurement the principle of the anglemeasurement used by tracking systems with sequentiallobing can be used. The target angular position is deter-

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66 D. BONEFA I , J. JAN ULA, N. MAJUREC, MODEL OF A MONOPULSE RADAR TRACKING SYSTEM FOR ... mined by two measurements, measuring the angles wheree.g. the 3 dB change in signal strength occurs. In the de-scribed system, by using the sum pattern alone the 3 dBpoints are spaced at 9 with respect to the antenna systemaxis. By using only the difference pattern the +3 dB pointsare spaced at 6 with respect to the antenna system axis.For these measurements the levels of the A and R channelson the network analyzer are used. The values are measuredrelatively to the maximum (measurement with sum pattern)and minimum (measurement with difference pattern).The second measurement should show the improve-ment in angular measurement by simultaneously using the pattern. By switching the scalar network analyzer toA/R measurement, the instrument is measuring the ratio / . In this case the 3 dB change in signal strength occursat 4 with respect to the antenna system axis. Althoughthe improvement is not so striking, the measured resultsclearly show to the students the advantage of simultane-ously using the sum and difference patterns (and their ratio) for angle measurement. -30-25-20-15-10-50-90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90Angle [degrees] Relative power [dB]....

Fig. 11. Measured sum ( ) and difference ( ) patterns obtainedby the antenna system in Fig. 9 and calculated / pattern. The students can also measure the simultaneous sumand difference radiation patterns and the / pattern (Fig.11). The latter can be measured directly by the network analyzer or calculated by the students from the measuredvalues of the sum and difference patterns. The / patternhas a narrower beam, which also evidently explains whythe measurement

accuracy of the angular coordinate isimproved by using a monopulse system. The sum and dif-ference patterns in Fig. 11 are normalized to the sum pat-tern maximum (value at 0). The / pattern is normalizedto its maximum value at 0. 3.5

Discussion and Model Improvements Instead of the scalar network analyzer, the describedsystem can be realized with one or two instruments whichcan be used to measure received RF power or field strengthlike power meter, spectrum analyzer, diode detector withan appropriate voltmeter, etc. If two instruments are avail-able, the received power level in the sum and differencechannels can be measured simultaneously. If only oneinstrument is available, it has to be switched between thesum and difference output ports. The disadvantage of thepower level indication with one or two power-measuringinstruments is that the indication is not as obvious as in thecase with network analyzer and needs some additionalcalculation (calculating the / ratio) performed by stu-dents. This approach also does not give any informationabout the phase of the signals in sum and differencechannels.The application of a vector network analyzer with thepossibility of R, A and B signal measurement would allowalso phase measurements to be performed and with it todetermine if the "target" is on the left side or on the rightside of the antenna system axis. 4.

Conclusion A model of a monopulse radar system, used for demonstration in the student laboratory, was described.The antenna system was realized of two identical hornantennas. A -hybrid was used to obtain the sum and dif-ference patters, while a scalar network analyzer was usedas indication instrument. Alternative parts and instrumentswhich can be used to assemble the described model arediscussed in order to allow the realization of the modelwith an existing laboratory equipment

and minimum cost.This simple model can be operated by students allowingthem to experience how the application of simultaneoussum and difference patterns improves angle measurementaccuracy. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank prof.dr.sc. Juraj Bartoli for helpful suggestions and comments during realization of the model described in the paper and in the preparing of this paper. References [1]

SKOLNIK, M. I. Introduction to Radar Systems. 3 rd ed. New York:McGraw-Hill, 2001.[2]

LEONOV, A. I., FORMICHEV, K. I. Monopulse Radar . Norwood:Artech House, 1986.[3]

POZAR, D. M., Microwave Engineering . Reading: Addison-Wesley,1993.[4]

BARTOLI , J. Microwave Electronics - Lecture Notes (in Croatian).http://www.rc.fer.hr/nastava/me/predavanja.asp[5]

http://eesof.tm.agilent.com/products/ads_main.html

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RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 16, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2007 67 About Authors... Davor BONEFA I for biography, see p. 61 of thisissue. Julijana JAN ULA was born in 1978, in Banja Luka,Bosnia and Herzegovina. She has graduated from the Uni-versity of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering andComputing in 2005 majoring in Wireless Communications.Currently she is employed as Junior Planning Specialist atFM & TV Department of the Croatian TelecommunicationsAgency. Her research interests include monopulse radar systems and FM and AM signal propagation. Ninoslav MAJUREC for biography, see p. 61 of thisissue. R ADIOENGINEERING R

EVIEWERS

September 2007, Volume 16, Number 3

BEZOUEK, P., University of Pardubice

BIOLEK, D., University of Defense, Brno

BONEFA I , D., University of Zagreb, Croatia

ERN, P., Czech Technical University in Prague

P, O., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,Brno

DJIGAN, V., ELVEES R&D Center of Microelectronics, Moscow, Russia

DOBE, J., Czech Technical University in Prague

DOBO, L., Technical University of Koice,Slovakia

FRZA, T., Brno University of Technology

HJEK, K., University of Defense, Brno

HALMEK, J., Academy of Sciences of the CzechRepublic, Brno

HAR ANSK, R., University of Tren n, Slovakia

HENNIGER, H., German Aerospace Center,Wessling, Germany

HOZMAN, J., Czech Technical University, Kladno

JI

K, R., Brno University of Technology

KASAL, M., Brno University of Technology

KLMA, M., Czech Technical University in Prague

KULLA, P., Slovak University of Technology,Bratislava, Slovakia

LAZAR, J., Academy of Sciences of the CzechRepublic, Brno

LEVICK, D., Technical University of Koice,Slovakia

LUKE, Z., Brno University of Technology

MACH , J., Czech Technical University in Prague

MACHO, M., VTUO, Brno

MARTINEZ-VAZQUEZ, M., IMST GmbH,Kamp-Lintfort, Germany

MOHAMMED, A., Blekinge Institute of Technology,Ronneby, Sweden

MOTL, M., Flextronics Design, Ltd., Brno

ONDR EK, O., Slovak University of Technology,Bratislava, Slovakia

PETRELA, J., Brno University of Technology

POLVKA, M., Czech Technical University in Prague

PROKOPEC, J., Brno University of Technology

PROVAZNK, I., Brno University of Technology

RAIDA, Z., Brno University of Technology

SEKANINA, L., Brno University of Technology

SIGMUND, M., Brno University of Technology

SVA INA, J., Brno University of Technology

EBESTA, J., Brno University of Technology

IMA, J., Academy of Sciences of the CzechRepublic, Prague

KVOR, Z., Czech Technical University in Prague

UHL , J., Czech Technical University in Prague

VGNER, P., Brno University of Technology

WIESER, V., University of ilina, Slovakia

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Model of a Monopulse Radar Tracking System for Student Laboratory Development, construction and testing of a student laboratory model of the radar system that can be used for monopulse tracking is described. The laboratory model is simple and ... (More) Development, construction and testing of a student laboratory model of the radar system that can be used for monopulse tracking is described. The laboratory model is simple and can be assembled from the existing equipment while the missing parts can be manufactured in a basically equipped RF electronics workshop. The laboratory model is used for student laboratory exercises as a part of a basic course on radar systems. The system is based on a hybrid for processing signals obtained from two antennas. The composition of the model is described. Student exercises and measurements on the model are proposed. Alternative instruments which can be used in the model are considered. Possible improvements of the model are discussed. (Less) Download or Print 438 Reads Info and Rating

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