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Sustainable manufacturing

Presentation for Cambridge University Horizon Day, 8th December 2004

What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge?

Julian Allwood Institute for Manufacturing University of Cambridge Mill Lane Cambridge CB2 1RX +44-1223-338181 jma42@cam.ac.uk 1

Sustainable manufacturing

Presentation for Cambridge University Horizon Day, 8th December 2004

What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge?

Julian Allwood Institute for Manufacturing University of Cambridge Mill Lane Cambridge CB2 1RX +44-1223-338181 jma42@cam.ac.uk 2

Sustainability: what are the issues?


United Nations indicators of sustainability:

Greenhouse gas Ozone layer Air quality De-forestation Desert-ification


Agricultural chemicals

Poverty Gender equality Nutrition Child mortality Sanitation

Anthropo-sphere Ecosphere

Health Education Housing Crime Population (Employment)


http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev 3

Bio-diversity Urbanization
Non-renewable material

Hazardous waste Waste volume


Energy consumption

Sustainability: some issues will never be solved

Poverty

Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying: O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubartutu: Abandon wealth and seek living beings! Spurn possessions and keep alive living beings!
Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet XI, ~2600BC

Gender equality Nutrition Child mortality Sanitation Health Education Housing Crime Population

Sustainability: some issues are already being addressed


Where a local lobby can create pressure for change on bodies with local authority
16 14 UK emissions (Mt) . 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
Agricultural chemicals

Carbon Monoxide Sulphur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxide

Ozone layer Air quality

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 5 4 3 2 1 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
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Hazardous waste

UK waste (Mt)

Nickel Zinc Lead

Sustainability: some issues are not solved but could be


Where a local lobby cannot create effective pressure for change
UK CO2 emissions (Mt)
700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1990 700 600 (Billion tonnes) 500 400 300 200 100 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02

Greenhouse gas
(energy consumption) Non-renewable material (material consumption)

Waste volume (Employment)

UK Municipal waste (Mt)

Global pig iron production

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Incineration with energy recovery Recycled/composted Landfill

Sustainable manufacturing is ...


Developing technologies to transform materials without emission of greenhouse gases, use of non-renewable materials or generation of waste.
Assembly
Components

Retail Use

Materials Extraction

Anthropo-sphere

Disposal

Ecosphere

Sustainable manufacturing is ...


Developing technologies to transform materials without emission of greenhouse gases, use of non-renewable materials or generation of waste.

Sustainable manufacturing

What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge?
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Five options for sustainable manufacturing:


1. Use less material and energy

Assembly
Components

Retail Use

Materials Extraction

Anthropo-sphere

Disposal

Developing technologies to transmit power with reduced emission of greenhouse gases: 50% of US industrial
electricity is used by electric motors, most of which could be reduced to around 20% of the current power
10

Five options for sustainable manufacturing:


2. Substitute input materials: non-toxic for toxic, renewable for non-renewable

Assembly
Components

Retail Use

Materials Extraction

Anthropo-sphere

Disposal

Developing technologies to join electrical components without lead:


WEEE directive likely to outlaw lead in solder by 2006
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Five options for sustainable manufacturing:


3. Reduce unwanted outputs: Cleaner production, Industrial symbiosis

Assembly
Components

Retail Use

Materials Extraction

Anthropo-sphere

Disposal

Developing technologies to manufacture PCBs without water pollution: Anglia Circuits cleans its effluent
water to drinking quality standards
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Five options for sustainable manufacturing:


4. Convert outputs to inputs: recycling and all its variants

Assembly
Components

Retail Use

Materials Extraction

Anthropo-sphere

Disposal

Developing technologies to take photographs with reduced use of materials:


Kodaks single use camera changed from an environmental problem to an example of good practice, once the used cameras were accepted back for renewal
13

Five options for sustainable manufacturing:


5. Changed structures of ownership and production: product service systems, supply chain structure

Disposal Use Retail Assembly


Components

Extraction Materials

Developing technologies to wash clothes with reduced end of life waste: Electrolux pay-per-wash system, means that the company retains
ownership of the material embedded in the product
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Sustainable manufacturing

What are the issues? What are the responses? What are we doing in Cambridge?
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Changed structures of production :


Environment & structures of production:
10% of World energy use is in freight
Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts

Extraction Materials

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Trillion BTu

10% of World energy use is in freight

Changed structures of production :

Environment & structures of production:

Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production

P Pu etro lp l & an c o C d p al he ap p m er rod ic ( u a p c Pr ls ( rim ts im pr a r Pr ary ima y) im m ry ar e t ) y a Pr Fe wo ls Tr i m rt o an ar iliz d sp y er or te s ta xt tio ile n s N eq on M uip Fa me ac m br tal hi en ic m ne t Pl a in as ted e ry C tic m ral om & e p pu ru tal rod te bb pro uc r, er d ts El ec W elec pro uct tri o . du s ca od pr c l a p od ts p p ro uc lia du ts nc cts Pr es e i M Fu ntin tc i Te sce rnit g xt lla ure ile ne pr ou od s uc ts D rin k F & oo to d ba cc o

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Primary Secondary

1998 US manufacturing energy use


(source eia.doe.gov)

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Changed structures of production :


Environment & structures of production:
10% of World energy use is in freight Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products
Materials Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts

Extraction

Globalisation results in disposal far from production, so inhibits recycling

18

Changed structures of production :


Environment & structures of production:
10% of World energy use is in freight Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products
Materials Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts

Extraction

Globalisation results in disposal far from production, so inhibits recycling

Policy drivers:
End-of-life legisation

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Changed structures of production :


Environment & structures of production:
10% of World energy use is in freight Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products
Materials Disposal Use Retail Assembly Componen ts

Extraction

Globalisation results in disposal far from production, so inhibits recycling

Policy drivers:
End-of-life legisation

Commercial attraction of different structures:


~10% of US GDP is tied up in Supply Chain costs (Delaney, 2000) Near to market production allows tracking of demand (eg. Zara)
Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop

Closed loop

Ideal extension of Just-in-time is Make-toorder


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Changed structures of production :


Environment & structures of production:
10% of World energy use is in freight Most energy use in manufacturing is in primary materials production 10 tons of material make 1 ton of products Globalisation results in disposal far from production, so inhibits recycling

Technology:
flexible small scale production technology, low tooling, low setup, trade-off flexibility against output rate small scale recycling technology - to convert used materials back into products with minimal damage to underlying material structure

Policy drivers:
End-of-life legisation

Commercial attraction of different structures:


~10% of US GDP is tied up in Supply Chain costs (Delaney, 2000) Near to market production allows tracking of demand (eg. Zara)
Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop Closed loop

Closed loop

Ideal extension of Just-in-time is Make-toorder


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Incremental Sheet Forming - a new machine


A substitute for pressing without specialist tooling Trades flexibility and setup times against production rate Allows new supply chain structures without stock

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Flexible Ring Rolling


If incremental sheet forming is possible, why not bulk forming? Early stage multi-university, two company collaboration

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De-photocopying
Existing paper recycling:
Regional collection Pulping and de-inking Re-entry into original paper making process

Novel process:
Collection within the office Toner removal within the office Second or third use within the office, prior to conventional recycling

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Recycling of Aluminium scrap by cold bonding


Existing Al recycling:
Collection, separation, sorting, cleaning Melting and casting in centralised capital intensive facilitites Ingots cost 5% of energy of virgin Al. Products from existing processing route

Novel process:
Collection (small scale), cleaning Deformation with high compression and high extension Lower strength product, but one stage from scrap to product, and 1% of energy of existing recycling process

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Localisation in Jamaica
For office chairs and carrier bags, what would be the environmental effect of:
Increased internal assembly of products Increased local sourcing of raw materials Increased recycling

Jamaica

Rest of World

Disposal

Disposal

Use

Use

Retail

Retail

For attractive scenarios:


How would product costs change? What technology would make the change economically attractive? What legislative or policy instruments would be effective? Assembly Assembly

Components

Components

Materials

Materials

Ground

Ground

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UK clothing & textiles


Formal analysis of mass flow and existing environmental effects: Flows and stocks of all materials and related matter during a year in the UK must balance Estimates of effects outside UK Scenario analysis: Simple model of basic processes Explore and evaluate alternative supply chain structures Specify technology requirements Resource stock
Production

Environment

Extraction

Emissions

Import

Export

Disposal

Other regions

Wastes

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Sustainable Manufacturing
Work in the Institute for Manufacturing developed since August 2003 (in person months Post-doctoral, PhD or Masters):

Polymer

Best practice and options Supply chain structure Flexible small scale production Recycling technology 3 66 12 9 6

6 42 6 6

6 3 3 24 3 3

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Key priorities for developing new work: Sharing of best practice; workshops to develop options for change - cross-sectoral Polymers - small scale production and recycling
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Generic 30 30

Textiles

Paper

Water

Wood

Metal

Food