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Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990

1. Chapter 1 The justification for a pedagogy of the oppressed It is mans historical occupation to seek humanization and further development. As such, the ontological journey leads man to make him more human by discovering himself. The pedagogy of the oppressed aids man in realizing his false reality and provides him with the necessary tools to alter that reality through communication to a more just and human social order. The contradiction between the oppressors and the oppressed, and how it is overcome The oppressors often feel guilty because of their dehumanization of the oppressed and engage in false generosity, giving to the people not out of true need or compassion, but out of paternalism and a need to maintain their power. Likewise, the oppressed see within themselves the oppressor. They have a desire to hold power and possess the things of the oppressor class. This dichotomy becomes difficult for the oppressed to resolve and often leads to his acceptance of his current situation. This situation is overcome by the oppressed engaging in dialogue with one another. Through dialogue the oppressed come to realize their situation as dehumanizing and unnatural and engage in critical analysis and social action in order to change reality to a more just social structure. Oppression and the Oppressors Oppression serves to dehumanize the oppressors as much as the oppressed. Therefore the oppressors use false generosity to ease the contradiction. In addition, the oppressors view the oppressed both as inferior beings who are in need of salvation and civilization and as material objects which they (oppressors) can and must possess. The oppressors use the current reality and social structure to maintain the status quo in order to keep their social and political power. Any change to the system would result in a loss of power on their behalf, so therefore the oppressors are reluctant and unwilling to side with the oppressed or to allow the oppressed any freedom or ability to make changes to the social structure. Oppression and the oppressed Oppression serves to keep the oppressed subordinate to the needs and wants of the oppressor. By utilizing the social structure the oppressed are able to make the oppressed feel as through the current system is permanent and cannot be changed. The oppressed must also deal with the dichotomy of viewing the oppressor within themselves. If the oppressed achieve power, they ultimately use this power to oppress the oppressors in the same manner they were previously oppressed. Oppression leaves the oppressed without the necessary skills, worldview, organization structure, education, and leadership necessary to perceive their true position in life and engage in social change.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
Liberation: not a gift, not a self-achievement, but a mutual process Liberation is not a gift bestowed by the oppressor class (they do not want to lose power), or an individual achievement (man cannot liberate himself). Rather it is a mutual process between men and man and the world. This process requires man to understand his purpose is to become more human (through liberation), and perceive the structures of this world which prevent him from doing so. Once man has perceived the unjust quality of the world, he must enter into dialogue with other men in order to see how each perceives the reality in which they live. Through dialogue men are able to discover their common connection as oppressed individuals in need of liberation. Through dialogue and social action man can then alter the perceived reality to create a system which is free of oppression and truly liberates him.

*Conscientizacao: Refers to learning to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions, and to take action against the oppressive elements of reality (this is the essential goal of the praxis and of pedagogy of the oppressed).

2. Chapter 2 The banking concept of education as an instrument of oppression-----its presuppositions----a critique The banking concept of education view students as mere receptacles into which the teacher deposits knowledge. The teacher utilizes the lecture method for instruction and allows the students little if any time to engage in critical thinking activities. This method perpetuates the oppressors view of reality and makes the oppressed view themselves as ignorant and unable to change the existing social structure. The banking method presupposes children are incapable of learning and are ignorant therefore they require and educated teacher to give them knowledge. This method does not create problem solving skills or critical thinkers necessary for todays world. It also leads to a continuation of the oppression of the minority and limits chances for development in the nation where this system exists

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
The problem-posing concept of education as an instrument for liberation---its presuppositions The problem-posing concept views the relationship between students and teachers as mutual, with both learning together in the environment. The teacher is not the sole possessor of knowledge, but rather engages the students with problems for discussion. These problems serve to create critical thinking skills as well as a realistic view of the world. Students are viewed as knowledgeable and capable of critical analysis of a given situation. Teachers are seen as problem-posers and not the sole source of knowledge. Education is a mutual practice whereby the students and teacher engage in critical analysis together and thereby alter reality and become truly educated in the functioning of the current world. The banking concept and the teacher-student contradiction In the banking concept, students are viewed as incapable and ignorant. The teacher is the sole possessor of knowledge and it is his/her responsibility to deposit that knowledge into the students. Critical thinking is discouraged and the students views are seen as insignificant. The teachers methodologies and knowledge are all important as the professional he/she selects the material and the curriculum method by which it will be delivered to the students. Students sole responsibility is to deposit the knowledge delivered by the teacher and regurgitate it on a standardized testing format.

The problem-posing concept and the supersedence of the teacher-student contradiction The problem-posing method views teachers and students as equals within the education process. The knowledge students possess is of equal value as that of the teacher and should be incorporated; the teacher and students together dialogue about possible solutions to the problem situation with each sides view given equal consideration. Methodologies are constructed not by the teacher but by the students as a response to their interests and experiences. The educational process becomes more personalized and authentic to the students lives and develops skills of critical thinking and social analysis, which allows the students to become critical examiners of the social world.

Education: a mutual process, world-mediated Education should be a mutual process between students, teachers, and the community each working to develop methodologies to be used in the education process. Similar to the view of liberation, education is world-mediated, meaning the currently reality and world conditions dictate the structure and curriculum for education. Man is not separate from the world, but in it. Therefore education cannot be separate from the world (objective) or entirely subjective. It must be a mutual dialogue between men and the world to resolve the objectivesubjective dichotomy of reality.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
Man as an uncomplete being, conscious of his incompletion, and his attempt to be more fully human Uncomplete man describes the ontological pursuit in which he is engaged throughout life. Societal forms of oppression have made man dehumanized (viewed as a commodity for possessing) and have lost the value of his contribution through labor in creating the world. Once man becomes conscious of his incompletion (and the forces which created it) he seeks to alter these circumstances to achieve liberation. Through liberation man becomes more fully human by recognizing his reality and engaging in dialogue with other and discovering his relationship with the world thus eliminating the dehumanizing social order

3. Chapter 3 Dialogics---the essence of education as the practice of freedom Dialogics involves the combination of reflection and action in order for man to create his world through the process of naming it. It requires man be free to speak his word and engage in authentic dialogue with other men in order to be free. True dialogue includes: love of man and the world, humility, faith in man which creates trust between the dialoguers and allows for the development of action to alter the current view of reality thereby gaining freedom for the dialoguers. Dialogics and dialogue Dialogue is essential for men to engage in the praxis of liberation. True dialogue includes the elements listed above and requires men to view each other as equals. Through dialogue man creates and re-creates his world through naming. Giving word and voice to objects and situations creates a concrete reality which man perceives Understanding one is in an oppressive state allows man to critically examine the causes of his oppression. Once understood, dialogue with other men allows for the re-creating of this reality through reflection and action to create a revolutionary movement to alter the perception of reality

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
Dialogue and the search for program content Authentic program content cannot be developed by observers (teachers). They will undoubtedly include their own worldview and views of reality which may be contrary to that of the people they are working to liberate. Authentic program content comes from the people. By dialogue and observation of the peoples daily lives, they engage in the process of developing a program designed to meet the specific needs of their lives and current situation. The program then becomes authentic and powerful way of aiding the people to discover their consciousness and engage in action and reflection to change their worldview. The men-world relationship, generative themes, and the program content of education as the practice of freedom Man exists in the world not apart from it and he exists uniquely within that world. In comparison to animals (who cannot act, but merely react to their environmental conditions), man is capable of action as well as consciously perceiving the world as it exists. Generative themes involve the structural conditions in which the thought and language of the people are dialectically framed (86). It is to the reality which mediates men, and to the perception of that reality held by educators and people, that we must go to find the program content of education. The investigation of what I have termed the peoples thematic universe---the complex of their generative themes---inaugurates the dialogue of education as the practice of freedom (86)

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
The investigation of generative themes and its methodology

The awakening of critical consciousness through the investigation of generative themes

Figure 1 Process and steps in the investigation of "generative themes"

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
The various stages of the investigation

See figure one above.

4. Chapter 4 Antidialogics and dialogics as matrices of opposing theories of cultural action: the former as an instrument of oppression and the latter as an instrument of liberation Antidialogics involves the practices utilized by the oppressor class to maintain power. Elements such as false generosity, inferiority complex and other designed to help maintain the status quo and keep the oppressors in power. Dialogics involves the process by which men engage in dialogue and action with one another in order to understand and re-create their world. It is through this praxis by which men are able to discover their conditions within the world and its causes. They are then able to alter this reality and create a system of justice and equality, thereby achieve his ontological quest to make himself more human in the process.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
The theory of antidialogical action and its characteristics: conquest, divide and rule, manipulation , and cultural invasion Antidialocial action is utilized by the oppressors to maintain their position and power within society. Since the oppressors are incapable of joining with the people (thereby relinquishing their power, they must employ methods to maintain their position). Oppressors employ the following methods to maintain oppression of the people: 1. Conquest: the conqueror imposes his objectives on the vanquished, and makes of them his possession. He imposes his own contours on the vanquished, who internalize this shape and become ambiguous beings housing another. From the first, the act of conquest, which reduces men to the status of things, is necrophilic. (134) 2. Divide and rule: the oppressors must divide the people in order to rule over them. Any act of organization is viewed as dangerous and must be stopped by any means necessary (including violence). 3. Manipulation: the dominate elites try to conform the masses to their objectives. And the greater the political immaturity of these people (rural and urban) the more easily the latter can be manipulated by those who do not wish to lose their power (144). Myths (especially of accent) serve to keep the people subjugated. 4. Cultural invasion: the invaders penetrate the cultural context of another group, in disrespect of the latters potentialities; they impose their own view of the world upon those they invade and inhibit the creativity of the invaded by curbing their expression (150).

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire The Continuum Publishing: NYC, 1990
The theory of dialogical action and its characteristics: cooperation, unity, organization, and cultural synthesis Dialogical action is utilized by the people to supersede the objectives of the elites. Through dialogue (and action) with one another the people are able to realize their oppressed state and alter the perception of reality to develop liberation and freedom from oppression. Oppressed people use the following techniques to accomplish this task: 1. Cooperation: subjects meet in cooperation in order to transform their world. Cooperation, as a characteristic of dialogical action---which occurs only among Subjects (who may, however, have diverse levels of functions and thus of responsibility)---can only be achieved through communications (168) 2. Unity: unity among the oppressed---and unity of the leader with the oppressedin order to achieve liberation (173). 3. Organization: not only directly linked to unity, but is a natural development of that unity. Accordingly, the leaders pursuit of unity is necessarily also an attempt to organize the people, requiring witness to the fact that the struggle for liberation is a common task (176). 4. Cultural synthesis: dialogical cultural action does not have as its aim the disappearance of the permanence-change dialectic (an impossible aim, since disappearance of the dialectic would require the disappearance of the social structure itself and thus of men).; it aims, rather, at surmounting the antagonistic contradictions of the social structure, thereby achieving the liberation of men (180181). In cultural synthesis, the actors who come from another world to the world of the people do so not as invaders. They do not come to teach or to transmit or to give anything, but rather to learn, with the people, about the peoples world (181).