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Bad Hair Days in the Paleolithic: Modern (Re)Constructions of the Cave Man Author(s): Judith C.

Berman Source: American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 101, No. 2 (Jun., 1999), pp. 288-304 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the American Anthropological Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/683202 Accessed: 23/09/2008 11:53
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JUDITH BERMAN C. 1

Department Anthropology of Hunter College,CUNY New York,NY 10021

Bad Hair Days in the Paleolithic: Modern(Re)Constructions the Cave Man of


Although haveneverseenPaleolithic we humans the flesh,we recognize in themimmediately illustrations, carin art, toons,andmuseum displays. familiar The iconography the"Cave of Man" oftendepicts earlyhuman our ancestors with longish, unkempt However, conventionalized hair. this imageis notcongruent available with archaeological on the data appearance Upper of Paleolithic humans. lengthy The iconographic history representationsourprehistoric of of humans is rather palimpsest beliefsabout origins humans, a of the of "natural man," human nature, primitive humans, thesavage and "Other":history discourses a of about human evolution, human language, theplaceof humans thenatural and in world. Theseimagesaretraced their in anthropological, evolutionary, philosophical and contexts frommedieval through art recentscientific illustrations, cartoons, murals, their art, and and influence thescientiElc on interpretationourancestors of is assessed. [Cave Man,Paleolithic,evolution, primitive,illustration]

his first "scientific"appearance 1873 (Figin ure 1), the "CaveMan"2 seems utterlyfamiliar.A1thoughhe has never been seen in the flesh, we instantlyrecognizehim in illustrations, films, cartoons, art, and museum displays. His place in human evolutionary time is signaledby severalattributes, mostof whichappear concurrently: is foundin or in frontof caves, or in a wild he setting confrontingsavage beasts. He is equipped with (andarchaeologically identifiedby) stone,wooden,or best bone implements, usuallyassociatedwithhuntingor combat.In scientificillustration, is oftenquiteseriousin dehe meanor,as seems to befit the arduous circumstances his of life. He is attired fur,which is often drapedin ways that in shield the wearerfrom neitherthe weathernor untoward gazes. Accessories,when they exist, consist of bone, antler, or claw jewelry.His hairis particularly noteworthy: he sportsshoulder-length longer, often unstyledand even or unkempt, hairon his head and frequently bearded.Sigis nificantbodyhairis oftendepicted. This image is so familiarto us thatit is difficultto think of Paleolithic3 humansas looking any otherway. And yet our actualreferentsfor this image are extremelyscarceor are belied by the extantpaleoarchaeological record.Certainlymanypaleoanthropologists, archaeologists, physical anthropologists, evolutionarybiologists in the latter and partof this centuryhave contendedthatUpperPaleolithic humanswere "justlike us." Conversely,the image of the Cave Man is notablydata-independent, is, I suggest, and almostentirelybasedon a specificvisualconstruct has that remainedremarkably stablefor threemillenniaand more.

From

Whatthen accountsfor the persistenceof this counter-image thatpowerfullynegatespaleoanthropological reality? Visual conventionsor stereotypesprovide both artist and audiencewith a parsimonious mode of expression:a worldof meaningthrough single image.Conventions a immediately,simply,andeffortlesslyconvey the elementsof a situationor story so thatwe can properly"read" The it. economicsof popularimages, such as cartoons,forcereliance on visual shorthand, a common iconographic on vocabulary, orderto communicate in with an audience. Without this shorthand would not be in on the joke. But we althoughconventionsappearenface to simplifyand clarify, they contain complex and often contradictory messages. Readingsof images are psychologically,culturally, and socially conditionedand may bear only a contingent relationship reality. to Someimagesseemto takeon a life of theirown,to persist over long stretches time. These images endurebecause of they readilysustainpolyvalent,mutablereadings, because theyarepsychologically potent projections, becausethey and provide visualsupport histories narratives. for and Theyalso may be usedto createandmaintain boundaries. scientific In andpopular discourse, visualimageryis particularly important,for, as Myers(1988:231)has argued, 'nthe iconography of a scienceis morelikelyto have an impacton the public thanthe wordsor mathematics, whichmaybe incomprehensible to them"(see, for example,Moser 1992;Myers 1988; Rudwick1976, 1988, 1992 on the relationship betweenthe visualization scientificdata and the effects of thatvisuof alizationon the scienceitself andon its audience).

American Anthropologist 101(2):288-304. CopyrightC) 1999, AmericanAnthropologicalAssociation

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Figure 1. Harper'sWeekly, XVII(864):617,July 19, 1873.

Cave betweenthe scientificandpopular The distinction diverged only recently. However, the shaggy, Man haFs gruntingCave Man, who fights dinosaurs,taLks"rock," Cave andwoos prehistoric-bikini-clad Womenwitha club, andit is easy to see why. To takeone meis firmlyin place, dium as an example,in this centuty the public has been with over 150 Cave Man films, animatedcarsaturated toons,andtelevisionshows,beginningwiththe 1912 D.W. Griffithsilent,Man's Genesis.These films are a sexy mix of beefcake,cheesecake,and monstersand encompassalmostall film genres,fromcomedyto horror.4 and These filmed images are supported reifiedby other films,Man's Genemedia.Forexample,Griffith's popular sis and its 1913 sequel, Brute Force, were based on the 1897 ur-CaveMan novel TheStoryof Ab, by StanleyWaterloo (Wagenknechtand Slide 1975:10). Griffith also 1907 novel, BeforeAdam, used JackLondon'sillustrated of which,in turn,was allegedto be a plagiarization Water1983: loo's work(Kingman1979:118;Tavernier-Courbin 13). The ill-receivedDarrylHannahfilm, The Clan of the

CaveBear,was basedon the wildly successfulfirstnovel of the same name in Jean Auel's popularseries, Earth's (withmorebooks to come). And of course,dinoChildren saurs and Cave Men mix in the funnies:viz. Alley Oop (who, since 1933, has "a chauffeurthat's a genuinedinosaur"5),B.C. (since 1958), the Flintstones(since 1960), of andthousands othercartoons. These examplesshow thatwhile the Cave Manis vasuboth in scientific and popularculalizedstereotypically, as ways.Thesereadings, I in ture,he is read manydifferent will tty to show, reflectour views of ourselvesin termsof our place in nature,our origins,and perhapsour destiny. The Cave Man's long, polemicalpedigreeis a productof centuriesof debateaboutthe originsof humans,"natural humansandcomprises and man,"humannature, primitive discoursesabouthumanevolution,humanlanguage,and world.6 the placeof humansin the natural to attempt deconstruct this Certainly essay is notthe Elrst and of the CaveManor the "primitive" image the Western pointout how the conceptis more a reflectionof Western

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notions than on-the-groundreality (see, e.g., Clifford 1988:189-214; Edwards 1992; Gombrich 1960; Kuper 1988; Lutz and Collins 1993; Moser 1992; Moser and Gamble 1997; Price 1989; Raymond 1990; Stoczkowski 1990, 1997). However, the Cave Man differs from the primitivein thathe is invisiblethrough barrier time, the of simultaneously real and imagined, unexploitable, and availablefor appropriation. image is always a (re)conHis structionand an opportunity fantasy. In this paper,I for shall attemptto interpret aspects of his iconographic history:his longish,wild hairandhairybody. The Cave Man's hairinessis one of the elementsof the constructionof an "imaginary prehistory" (Stoczkowski 1997:256),as identifiedin severalrecentanalyses,notably by Stoczkowski(1990, 1992, 1994, 1997; see also Moser and Gamble 1997). This prehistoryis composed of two masternarratives. One is the ascent of humansfrom their aiimal origins to becoming"masters nature." of Lovejoy and Boas ([1935]1997; see also Panofsky 1972:4041) identifythis as "hard primitivism," ascentfrom a besthe tial state. Early humansin such works as Lucretius'first centuryC.E. work,De rerum natura (Book V, 925-1010, as quotedin Lovejoy andBoas [1935]1997:225-228),are depictedas hairy,muscular hunters,thatis, as Cave Men. As Stoczkowski(1990:115-120,1997:253) notes,thismotif was picked up and embroidered the philosophes by of the Enlightenment. the alternate In "softprimitivism" narrative (Lovejoy and Boas [1935]1997:23-102), humans descendfroma GoldenAge to a degenerated state. Stoczkowski(1997:256) contendsthat "thisimaginary prehistorycontinuesto have a life of its own today only throughsheer apathy."However, I suggest that it is not apathythat supportsthe visual iconographyof the Cave Man, but ratherthe powerfulmeaningsbehindthe image as well as an endless arrayof present and past cultural icons thatreinforceand reify its presence.The Cave Man is, in part,a projectionof the wild, untamed,uninhibited, aggressiveself a projection, fact,thatexplainsthatself in by histoncizing its "uncivilized"elements. That is, the Cave Man relieves the anxietyof the uncivilizedpartsof oneselfby projecting themoutward backwards time. and in The Cave Man can be bothdebasedandnoble, expressing nostalgiafor our noble animalnature,as well as the negation of civilized society. In this essay, I shallattempt unpackone elementused to in the construction the Cave Man image, focusing on of one of the Cave Man's mostconsistentand meaningful attributes: hair.I firstconsidersome of the psychological his and anthropological aspects of hair itself and its use as a markerfor the Cave Man. Next, I review some of the extant Paleolithicdata from mobilaryart, wall engravings, and paintingson self-representations early humans,inof cluding hairstyles.I then discuss selected aspects of the iconographichistory of two of the images of the hairy Cave Man,fromthe imageryof the "WildMan"in medie-

val art throughthe evolutionary models of the nineteenth andearlytwentiethcenturies. concludewith some reflecI tions on how the image shapesourthinkingaboutourprehistoricancestors ourselves. and

Hair as Sign and Symbol


Hair,like otherparts thehuman of body,is ladenwithpsychological, social, philosophical, and emotionalmeaning (e.g., Eilberg-Schwartz Doniger 1995; Levine 1995). and However, differsfromolherpartsof ie bodyin several hair ways.It canbe readily altered without physicalpainas often as desired; regenerates it afterhavingbeen altezd; andit is visibleat a socialdistance(Wobst1977).Hairis the body's mostaccessiblesite for grooming, decoration, symbolic and marlting; is difficultto imaginethatit wouldnot have apit pearedso to MiddleandUpperPaleolitic humans, it has as to those who havefollowed(Nagwb1990).The symbolism of hairis overdetermined; is, it has multiplemeanings, that bothpersonal public,even withina singlecontext(e.g., and de Vries 1974; Eilberg-Schwartz 1995; Hallpike 1969; Hershman 1974;Leach1958). Given a myriadof potentialhairstyles (with theirmultivalent meanings),the individualartists7 consideredin this essay portray Cave Manalmostmonotypically wildthe as hairedandhairy.Why shouldthis conventionprevail,and what does it mean? Modern scientific illustratorsoften give him a "noncoiffure" (Grunwald1993:51) in an attempt to constructan "unmarked" "scientificallyneuor tral" Cave Man.Thatis, the argument goes, since we really don't know, for any particular place andtime, how prehistorichumanswore theirhair,theirhairis left unstyledand messy ratherthan topknottedor braided,for example. If they are given a coiffure,then we commit ourselvesto a depiction of our ancestors that might be inaccurateor prejudicial;certainly it is non-verifiable.But this "unmarked" hair,as I shallattempt show in thispaper,is not to neutral, rathera visual signifierfor an entireset of bebut liefs aboutour ancestors,placingthem in the categoryof Not Us, or at leastNot QuiteUs. The answersto these questionsreside,I believe, in the way in whichthe Cave Man'sbody actsas the primary site for delineatinghis evolutionaryposition and condition. Whilefacialandbodyhairareancientandimportant markers of maleness,the application these markers Cave of to Men transcendsissues of gender identification.The archaeologicaldata suggest that the Cave Man can control the worldaround to the extentof makingtools, making him art,andwearingclothing.Buthis hairiness subverts huhis manity;it impliesthathe cannotmaster own body,canhis not tameits nature, cannotseverhimselffromthe worldof animals.The Cave Man is locatedin Nature,markedas a primitive,andplacedbelow modernhumallson the ladder of evolution (readGreatChainof Being), exactly as, for example,Krao,the haily girl,was "scientifically" proposed

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in and Link" shownatexhibitions thelate as the"Missing see 1992:51; alsoCook1996; (Poignant centuly nineteenth Fiedler 1978; Mitchell1979; Rothfels1996; Semonin 1996). body,anda "natuof Theassociation wildhair,a hairy and cross-culturally diachronioccurs ral"statefrequently carneswithit connoof Thewildaspect naturalness cally. of behavior, standing of of tations primitivism, animal-like of of of of outside civilization, power, lawlessness, amoraljust of of ity, of sexualabandon, perversion, madness, as unpredangerous, worldcan be unchecked, the natural dictable,and powerful(de Vries 1974:21-23;see also given This [1952]1970:10). is not surprising, Bernheimer and kingdom thefact in bothourmembership the animal as with sexuality, body thatthe hairybodyis associated neatly (1969:261) Hallpike puberty. during hairappears in evidence fact is it "there considerable summarizes thus: of for an association 'outsidesociety equalshairiness and society,theliterary arIn equalsanimality'." Western hero Mesopotamian fromthegreat extends tistictradition day. to the through Bible8 ourpresent Enkidu bodyof the CaveMan,theWild As we view thehairy as essential; hair Man, we imaginewe see something to body,it canbe thought express comesfrominsidethe of nature thebeing about fundamental theinner something if is Thisconcept clarified we think it fromwhence comes. animal hairy,powerful case:a normally of the opposite its wolf or gorilla; Thinkof a hairless hairless. rendered recalls Hairlessness diminished. seemsconsiderably power the state.Compare relatively dependent the fetal,utterly the cousin, hairy pig domestic withits dangerous hairless par Thuswildhairis thevisualsynecdoche exwildboar.9 the cellence for the primitivism, power,andthe natural stateof theimageof theCaveMan. are, like humans Krao in reality, wild-haired Veryhairy, may appearance havebeen Krao's Clinically, unusual. quite or rarer or imbalances, tothemuch acquired duetohormonal which resultin hair genetichypertrichoses, generalized than degree in grow all overthebody(oftento a greater fihe identified generesponsible have Scientists recently apes). mutation a hypertichosis, "rare generalized for congenital or was that reduced exa haverestoredfunction [iat] might ffie causing lossof facial evolution, human during tinguished as are hair.Suchbackmutations called'atavistic' theyare of an reappearance anceswith associated thepartial causally Hypertichoses et (Figurea al. 1995:206). tralphenotype" retardation; and deformities mental may involvephysical in theymayalsorun families. in for evidence thepoint human is Whilethere no direct has at evolution whichthickpelagewas lost, the subject 281-286).A1([1871]1981:ii, sinceDarwin beendebated point ison Jollymakestheimportant thatall knownnoncleaninvolves grooming have primates neathair; human not of ing coats andthe promotion socialbonding, hair

if styling it is not requires hair, Human in contrast, styling. communication, (personal to be tsgled and disorderly that have 1999).Somescholars hypothesized lossof fimctionalbodyhairis one of a complexsenes of important to system thermoregulatory adaptations the earlyhominid enviin for requirements survival opensavannah physical While these hunting.''l? and ronments, for "persistence placethe loss of a thickcoatin the LowerPaleostudies Paleoin ante lithic,we havea terminus quem theUpper fromthatperiodseemto lithic,sinceimagesof humans huthat resembling of present-day havehairdistributions mans.Thus,the tropeof the hairyCaveManhas everybeen that to thing do withthereading hashistorically given and and hirsutism hypertrichoses little to casesof extreme from suffering fact. to do with evolutionary Individuals and have theseconditions beenimmediately unequivocally of hypertrichoses ge"generalized linkedwith animals: and neticcauseareoftencongenital maygiveriseto sucha have been disthat phenotype affectedsubjects striking Skye men','dogmen','human as played circuses 'hair in silvestris'" werewolfor 'Homo 'ape terner', men','human Whilethesecasesareextremely et (Figurea al. 1995:202). huanimal-esque of the they rare, support legends elusive, to to mans,fromSasquatch werewolves the Wild Man. wild assigning hair between there a difference is However, We it and to a fewindividuals assigning to a wholespecies. of for dohavesomeevidence theappearance ourancestors, andto thisI nowturn.

Hair in the Middleand Late Paleolithic: Evidence The Archaeological


to look?The answer this How did CaveMenactually as someunbundling, the historical first question requires homnids MiddlePaleolithic often conflates convention calledNeanof variety whicharefamiliarly (theEuropean (early modern Paleolithic with derffials) thoseof theUpper Cro-Magnon) termed formerly were humans, of whom some and Age."Inthepastcentury a half, "Stone intoone great of three sources dataon Midhadat ourdisposal we have remains, (1) humans: theskeletal dleandUpperPaleolithic Paleolithic, and, artifacts, (3) fortheUpper (2) thematerial humans. Paleolithic by produced Upper of images humans by produced imagesof Neanderthals Thereareno extant themselves. theNeanderthals yielda greatdealof inforrnation remains The skeletal musclemass,sex, in aboutappearatlce termsof stature, how but diet,age,andhealth, donotinanywayindicate ar or or wore individual his orherhair, dressed, woretattoos, to nordo thesedatahaveanything addaboutskinor hair skeletons, allowsusto construct color.So thefirstcategory to to posethemin groups, showyoungandold,maleand female;it does not provideus with skin or hair. The in discovery, 1856, consistedof a originalNeanderthal part thighbones, of a partial skullwiththickbrowridges,

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pelvis, ribs, and arm and shoulderbones (Trinkausand Shipman1994:4).By 1873, only fourmoreboneshadbeen addedto the Neanderthal corpus:the Gilbraltar skull (with a face) from 1848, recognized as Neanderthalin 1864 (Trinkausand Shipman 1994:89); and a group from La Naulette, Belgium, found in 1866, which consisted of a lower jaw, ulna, and metacarpal (Trinkausand Shipman 1994:102-3). These few bones were used to construct the Harper'sWeekly Neandertal CaveMan(see Figure1). cum The secondcategoryof data,material remains,enriches our view of the past. We can say much more about lifeways: dwellings,tools, settlementpatterns, diet, activities. We may infer social behaviorfromthese data,andwe can add to our knowledgeof physicalappearance throughthe documentation itemsof personaladornment, of suchas accessories, fastenings, combs, needles, and paints. However, we do not have directevidence of hairdos,skin, or clothing.We mightsurmisethatthe Neanderthals, living as they did in a severeglacialperiod,had little opportunity or motivationto groomtheir hair, but this is conjecturenot specificallygrounded the data. in The thirdcategoryof data,visualrepresentation, most is useful here.Thereareseveralhundred extantfiguralrepresentations from Upper Paleolithic contexts, mostly of women. We have absolutelyno way of judging what the creatorsof these imagesintended; example,we cannot for even say if these representations naturalistic are portrayals of contemporary humans,or if they wererecorded because the subjectsweretypicalor becausethey were exceptional. However,we do knowthatthe imagesof animalsproduced by UpperPaleolithichumansare realisticrepresentations, andwe mightinferthatat least some of the representations of humansare also naturalistic. we look specificallyat If headhair,we can see thatit is styled.The images most familiar to us are the so-called "Venus figurines.''While these small statues of women depict parts of bodies in some detail,theyoftendo not applythe sameamountof attentionto extremities, includingthe hands,feet, andhead. However,when thereis some detailin the headswe often see hairdos. mostfamousVenus figurine,the Venusof The Willendorf(Figure2) seems to be wearinga hairnetor some kind of elaborate hairdo,andthe Venus of Brassempouy (Figure3) has a clearlydefinedshoulder-length hairstyle.OtherVenusfigurines have dressed,or at leasttamed, hair. Archaeologists have argued that there are local "styles' of Venus figurines;these local styles reflectboth differencesin local artistictraditions may also reflect and differencesin local hairdosand otheraspects of personal adornment(Gvozdover 1989a, 1989b). However, body hair(excludingthatfromthe pubicarea)is not represented on female figures (Duhard 1993:16S167). There are fewer representations men in which hair styles can be of observed.Theirhairstylesare less elaboratethanthose of the women.VeIy few have facialhair,andnone arerepresentedwithbodyhair(Duhard1993:167).

Figure 2. "'Venus' of Willendorf." Photo courtesy of Musee de l'Homme, MuseumNationald'HistoireNaturelle,Paris.

If we can make the not unreasonable leap from Upper Paleolithic art to Upper Paleolithic behavior, the data stronglysuggestthatUpperPaleolithichumanswereattentive to hair alld thatthey styled it.l1It is difficultto make any case for the meaningof hairstyles7 a personalstateas ment, as a reflectionof group membership,etc.; for my purposeshere,it is enoughto say thathairwas aKended to by UpperPaleolithic humans. This observation clarifiesthe disjunction between what we know of UpperPaleolithic humansarld imageof the the hairyCave Man.Thus,whilemostof the extantdatafor the UpperPaleolithicdo nots7wggest huir,the lackof duta wild for the Middle Paleolithic does not requireits insertion. From this perspective,the total absence of evidence for Neanderthal appearance turnsinto an opportunity freefor

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Figure 3. Head of a woman called "La Dame de Brassempouy." Photo courtesy of St-Germain-en-LayesAntiquites Nationales. C)PhotoRMN-J.G.Berizzi. Persons wishing to photocopy or otherthis wise reproduce materialmust contactthe permissionsdepartment at St-Germain-en-Laye.

that floatingfantasies;it is thereforeespeciallyinteresting datais filled in with the idealimageof the this blankin our Cave Man. Certainly,as Moser (1992; see also Stringer and Gamble 1993:18-33) has shown, the lower the place in of Neanderthals the GreatChain of Being, the hairier andmoreape-likethey are.But even when they are repreMuseumof Natural sentedat theirbest, as in the American History'snew Hall of HumanBiology and Evolution(see as still below),ffieyarenevertheless represented hairymen.

Two Hairy Men: A Visual History


Let us examine the images of two types of hairy men: the Cave Man and an image that I proposeas one of the of progenitors the Cave Man. Our by now familiarCave

malein the diorama by Manis represented theNeanderthal History'sHall of Huin the AmericanMuseumof Natural this manBiology andEvolution(Figure4).l2Certainly Neis anderthal not the stoopedbrutalcavemandepictedin a century's worth of images (Moser 1992; Stringerand reflectsthe mostrecent Gamble1993) Indeed,the diorama and expresses serious scientific data about Neanderthals cognitive abilitiesas well aboutNeanderthal assumptions to as living conditions.But the dioramaalso appears emCave Man tropes and so is useful in ploy some standard going intothe convensome of the assumptions unpacking tionalCaveManimage. by this We may understand modernreconstruction goimage.In a Late ing backto an older,seeminglyunrelated Medieval illumination attributedto Jean Bourdichon, Tours, ca. 150() (Figure 5), a Wild family is groupedin front of a cave in the woods?presumablysomewherein is mild) paterfamilias standFrance.The Wild (andrather ing next to his seated wife and child. He is naked,hairy, He and somewhatwild-haired. holds a long woodenstaff. In castle is visible in the background. fact,the A medieval thatthis is not castle is perhapsour only directindication life depictionof prehistoric (the image also clearly another refersto the Holy Family). So far,we have a simplevisualparallelbetweentwo immaycomparisons ages, from which some straightforward be made; indeed, the diligent observercould fondmany are When the representations juxtasuch comparanda. similar.In each,the manhas wild posed,theyarestrikingly hairandbeard,holds a wooden implement,andis dressed eitherin a crudeanimalskin or his own hairypelt. The alfor most inevitablefur drapemay be seen as a substitute the Wild Man's/CaveMan's hairy skin. Indeed,they apthe relationship; less bodyhairon the pearin a near-inverse Wild Manor Cave Man,the morehe is likely to be in furs. The fur associatesthese figures with theiranimalnatures capableof andalso impliesthatthe associationis mutable, into transformed clothevolution.As the fur drapecan be ing, the Wild Manor CaveMancanbe civilized.However, boththe Wild Man andCave Man are quiteapartfromorganized society, the formerby space, the latterby time. to Now we may ask if theseimagesowe theirsimilarity ininvention,or whetherthereis some geneticlink dependent betweenthem. TheWildMan,typifiedbytheone we see in Bourdichon's is, painting, I suggest,the ur-imageof the hairyCaveMan. and Cave Manphysicalattributes He has all of the familiar props:the wild hair,the hairycoat, the club, the cave, and, like the CaveMan,he is a figurejust out of sight.TheWild Man embodies the same debates abouthumans'place in that,in a latertime,rageaboutthe CaveMan.Hownature figure,butrather ever,the Wild Manis not an evolutionary to a theologicalone: "the[WildMan]had been brought its amongbeasts,or conditionby loss of mind,by upbringing

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Figure 4. NeanderthalDiorama, Hall of Human Biology and Evolution, American Museum of NaturalHistory, New York, 1993. Neg. no. 338383. Photo by Finnin,Chesek, Beckett. CourtesyDepartmentof LibraryServices, AmericanMuseumof NaturalHistory.

hardships.... The statusof Wild Man was by outrageous ascentfromthe brute,butby thusreachednot by a gradual a descent" (Betnheimer[1952] 1970:8; see also Bartra 1994; Dudley and Novak 1972; Husband 1980; White 1972). Over time, the significanceof the Wild Man to European society changes,especiallyafterthe greatage of exploration.He accruesa varietyof meaningsand associations. He is celebratedfrom the marginsof manuscripts themselves,includ(Camille1992:109)to the manuscripts ing The Faerie Queeneand The Tempest.He is found in and foLktales, art.Indeed,the figureandcharsong, theater, throughout acterof the WildManwas widelydisseminated medieval and RenaissanceEurope.He is a familiar,una children, symbolof godly figure,a bogeymanto frighten As desiresandcruelsavagery. a local European, unfettered "Noble he becomes more benign a more tender-locked discovto the real "savagesn' Savage,"in contradistinction ered outside of Europe.But he never wholly disappears, andthe associationbetweenhairinessandwildnesshe emwholly to the Cave bodies is preservedand transferred Man.

mostclearlyandironicallyshown His impactis perhaps in the early encountersbetween Native Americansand Europeans.The Europeansarrivingon the shores of the with the iconogacquainted New Worldwere thoroughly thereto. raphyof the Wild Manandthe meaningsattached Native when they firstencountered Imaginetheirsurprise The NativeAmericanswere, in the firstplace, Americans. and, wild-haired, in fact,often hairynornecessarily neither were shocked dressedhair.The Europeans hadelaborately maleNative illustrated by this lackof hair,andaccordingly Americans with long, flowing beards (Figure 6; Colin of 1976);indeed,verbalreports hairyNa1987;Sturtevant tive Americanspersistinto the eighteenthcentury,as do surpnsed or admonitoryreports saying that the Native Americanswerenot hairyat all (Dickason1977:22).In the most delicious of ironies,the Native Americans,who detestedbody hairand pluckedit from theirbodies, were in The Native Ameritum shockedby the hairyEuropeans. cans, it seems, had a hairyWild Man of theirown, called (Dickason1977:22).Thus,boththe hairyEuroSasquatch havea hairyWild Man peansandthe hairlessAmerindians eachis repelledby the Other. in theirforests,arld

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Figure 5. "Etatde sauvage."Attributedto Jean Bourdichon(Tours, ca. 1457-1521), France,about 1500. Temperaon vellum. Miniatures 9s93. Photo courtesy of Ecole Nationale Superieure des BeauxArts, Bibliotheque,Paris.Persons wishing to photocopy or otherwise reproducethis materialmust contact the permissions departmentat des Ecole NationaleSuperieure Beaux-Arts,Bibliotheque,Paris.

The aboveexampleis instmctivein severalways. First, the it emphasizesthe pervasiveness, palpableforce of the image of the hairyWild Man, to the point whereits insistence denies reality.Second, it underlinesthe fact that a hairy Wild Man is not an exclusively Westerninvention, and thatthe associationof hainness and animalityis quite Indeed,an almostexactparallelis foundin acwidespread. counts by the Chinese of their encounterswith European (Dikotter1998:52-54). While the geneticand missionaries causingexcess hainnessmay ariseanysomaticconditions where, they seem, interestingly,to be read in similar ways as beings who are somewherebetweenanimalJnaMany societies createhairyOthtureandhuman/animal.l3 ers, and,while outsidethe scope of this essay, it wouldbe edifying to identify this reading cross-culturallyand For example, hairy, often fearsome wild diachronically. men and monstersabound,from China (Dikotter 1998), SouthAfrica(Kuper1987:171),and, as we have seen, the Legendsof a mystenousWild Man arealso New World.l4 the found cross-culturally: Yeti (Nepal and China), the AbominableSnowman(Siberia),the Almas (Mongolia),

and Sasquatch(NorthAmerica)(see Shackley 1983 for a of and summary a connectionto the disappearance the NeFinally,the exampleprovidesa point of enta anderthal). into the largerdebates about pnmitivism,savagery, and evolution, from which we will see the hairy Wild Man as emerge,(re)constructed, the CaveMan. askedaboutNativeAmericans The questionsEuropeans and other Others Were they entirelyhuman?Did the) possess a soul? Can they be redeemed?Did they really speaka language?-were thoseaskedaboutthe WildMan. urgentwith the disThese questionsbecame particularly humans.How to place them in coveries of non-European relationto the "civilized"humansof Europe?To vastly oversimplify,those tryingto answerthese questionswere by constrained the Bible andby Aristotle.As life on earth began with the Biblical Creation the living things that had werecreatedthenexist today.Thus,humans no prehistory.On the otherhand,all living thingshad to fit into the GreatChainof Being, which was a hierarchiAristotelian cal classificationwith humansat the top. Some naturalists filled the gap between animalsand humansin thatchain, the "missinglink," with newly discoveredhumans.Significantly,the Wild Man appearsin that category,along in with the (naturallyhairy) orangutan, Linnaeus' 1758 Naturae(Greene1959:18>1 87). editionof Systema By the eighteenthcentury,the Wild Man is believed to exist andto occupya placebetweenanimalsandhumansin in the naturalworld. In these schemes,he is illustrated a wild-lookMissingLink lineup,along with hairyapes and to humans.It is important markthat the ing "primitive" creatures-one imagivisualcopulaof theseverydifferent and nary,one non-human, one human is hair.Theirhairilackof morality, features: ness impliestheirotherprimitive lack of language,lack of civilization,lack of humanity. They are the primitiveOther,one notchbelow humansin the GreatChain of Being. When that chain becomes an scheme, these Othersappearin one guise as evolutionary centuryto ilthe Cave Man,who arrivesin the nineteenth evolutionand lustratethe debatesarisingfrom Darwinian the firstdiscoveriesof humanfossils. After the discovery of the remains of Homo sapiens of in neanderthalensis 1856 and the publication Darwin's The Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection in figure.He 1859,the Cave Manemergesas an independent niche. His iconogevolutionary now occupies a temporal, raphy is notably an off-the-shelf version of the Wild artMan the MissingLink usedby nineteenth-centuIy ists to illustrateStone Age life. The hairyWild Man, retrope as constructed the Cave Man,becomes the standard reasons.First, the for the Cave Man for three important Cave Man is familiar. He has been loiteringin the correct position in the Great Chain of Being for centuries.He that seems so natural one has troubleimaginingourarlcesof else. Secondly,theproducers the image, torsas anything

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Figure 6. Anonymous. [EarlyGermanwoodcut of a New World scene.] Woodcut, ca. 1505. Photo courtesyof the SpencerCollection, The New York Public Library,Astor,Lenox and Tilden Foundation.

the the artists,did not acknowledge Cave Man's visualgenealogy,butinsteadlegitimizedtheirworkas Science.Accordingly,the consumersof the image thoughtthey were Finally,in the age of menot viewing Truth, interpretation. these illustrationswere circulated chanical reproduction, among the widest possible mass audience. Haiw Cave and Men filled the pagesof magazinesandnewspapers appearedin salons,fairs,andexpositions. in We can see how this happened a brief examplefrom France.The emphasison scientificacnineteenth-century curacyin imagesof CaveMen coincideswith a moregeneral trendtowardrealismin art. Artists were attempting LindaNochlin(1971:25)aptlyterms whatthe arthistorian "genre paintings of history." While Realists confined life, of themselvesto paintings contemporary otherFrench Academicartistsworkedat the same time to createhighly influentiall5paintings of history and prehistory.These Academic paintings and sculptures were enormously popularand were widely exhibitedat the FrenchSalons (Maiexhibitions andmanyof the greatnineteenth-century nenardi1987, 1993).WhilethisAcademicartis generally

it glectedtodayfor its aestheticandcreativeshortcomings, of role plays an important in the historyof illustration the Cave Man. loci ThatFrancewas one of the most important of Cave Many of the early and widely Man art is not surprising. publicizedPaleolithicskeletalfinds were made in France and andFrenchscientists scholarswereheavilyinvolvedin public,enchanted and this work.An enthusiastic fascinated with their own culture,avidly demandedmore and more the Further, FrenchAcademicestablishment information. the of had already a tradition genrepaintings; yearlySalons repwere filled with historicalscenes, as well as elaborate in resentations, that blithely imperialistperiod, of exotic and savage figures from all over the world. Finally, the the sauvage, Wild Man, was a familiarfigure to homme Frenchartists. The work of the artistFernandCormon (1845-1924) serves to illustratethe way in which the Wild Man beCave Man.Cormonwas one of the comes the "scientific" of painters StoneAge humans. mostprolificandinfluential on a His paintingCain, variant the usualCaintheme,based

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upon a poem (La Conscience) by Victor Hugo (Hugo large(584 x [1859]1974:2S27), is seen in an impressively 700 cm) paintingthat was exhibitedat the Salon of 1880 (Mainardi[1993:94] notes that it got in by its sheer size alone).The paintingshows a hairy,raggedbandof prehistoric figures on a forced and desperatemarch(Figure7). traitsof the Wild Man arefloridly All of the iconographic won Cormonthe Legion of Honor evident.This portrayal 1993:94);this award,as well as his otherpaint(Mainardi choice to ings of prehistoncsubjects,made him a natural paint prehistorichumans on the walls of Paris's new MuseumNationald'HistoireNaturelle. Cave Men These paintings,which depictedwild-haired in a vanety of activities,influencedgenerationsof scienas tists and scientificillustrators, well as the public.Many Cormon's works persuasivenot just because they found after and weredramatic compellingnarratives; all, manyof that histoncal genre were equally appealing.It was that of Cormon'swork bore the imprimatur Science. He was and archaeological, natural for celebrated his ethnographic, werenot (Michel 1898);thushis paintings historyresearch and seen as mere artisticinterpretations, certainlynot as of appropriations the Wild Man, but instead as accurate in of representations humanancestors imaginedconfigurations. to This work provideda perfectvisual accompaniment andfits well with of the verbalnarratives humanevolution the more general trend toward realism in art. Cormon's Cave Men areindeedbeingswho arenot quite wild-haired human,or not quitecivilized,somewherebetweenthe apes andcivilization.One cannotimaginebeings who look like Cormon'sCave Men being anythingbutuncivilized.They appearas raw, crude blueprintsfor the modernhumans they will become. The Cave Man image drives the disThe thanthe otherway around. courseof evolution,rather to dislodgebecauseit is so image is so powerful,so hard familiar as muchto Cormonas it is to us. As we terribly of have seen, the "truth" the Cave Man image is derived and fromhis Wild Man forebear not fromthe archaeological record.Thus, the emendationof the bodies of our ancestors with the visual signifiersof the Wild Man notait inevitable,although bly, his wild hair-seems altogether of interpretations the of is actuallya narrowing alternative data. The scientificCave Man came to Americathroughthe for R. workof Charles Knight,the artistlargelyresponsible AmericanMuseum the greatand influentialmuralsin the of NaturalHistoryin New York andthe Field Museumin Cave Men werewildlypopuHis Chicago.l6 shaggy-haired lar and widely influential(Figure 8).17 As noted above, Cave Men have been staplesof Americanpopularculture for the lastcentury. the To summarize: Cave Man's lineageextendsbackto the ancientand hairyWild Man. Artistsof the nineteenth

that simplyappropriated readycenturies and twentieth artisof theimageis part their because in made image, part CaveManapthe More tic vocabulary. importantly, hairy link"should:his hairiness pearsto look as a "missing huand animals modern between placeshim somewhere and animals Civilization. between mans, Implications to I haveattempted tracethe imageof the CaveMan and backto its roots, to showthathairis a visualsynecdothe that and che for the nature animality connects image The anditsprecursors. CaveManlooksashe doesbecause and nature human of he is a representationourideasabout basedon sciHis origins. imageis notnecessarily human with in anchored andentwined entificdata,butis rather from deriving representations puissant tremendously other conWe traditions. arereadily and pagan Judeo-Christian they because of vincedof the ''tmth'' CaveManimages on to or seem"natural" familiar us;in fact,theydraw a set aboutthe originsand observations of conventionalized of history humans. natural tree on are Hairstyles a clueto where theevolutionaty an a Certainly placeshis or her subject. artistor illustrator head thickcoatof bodyhairandungroomed hairputsan (although humans frommodern a ancestor greatdistance coat on we havenodata whena hairy waslost),whilemost PaUpper hair and have Neanderthals longer untidier than accurate Now these may be perfectly leolithichumans. but of representations ourancestors, we haveno dataon Hair Paleolithic. is ourmarker until thissubject theUpper awayfromouranimal the position; further of evolutionary (In control. manyof thepictothe origins, moreit is under leavethePaleolater of rialhistories humal3kind, humans invent clothcoats,l8 put lithicbehind, on goodNeolithic farms.) downontheir and and headbands pageboys, settle of history some So far,we havedelineated of thenatural the of the convention the CaveManandhaveexamined of significance his hair.But why shouldthis CaveMan of so matter to us?TheCaveManis a representationour forcesus to acknowledge the ancestors; factof evolution eachof us.Heis ouraniwithin thattheCaveManresides the self, mal,primitive before limitsof society. man natural behe Inoneversion, is theNobleSavage, as He by forehe wascorrupted civilization. is romanticized peiaps because being, natural a purely
a our fantasyof the noble savagerepresents realityof ourexsurrenistence,it standsfor oursense of somethingunhappily dered, the truthof the body, the truthof full sexuality, the truthof open aggressiveness.Something,we know, must infor evitably be surrendered the sake of civilization;but the of "discontent" civilizationwhich Freuddescribesis our selfrecriminationat having surrenderedtoo much. [Trilling 1974:18-19]

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In this sense, the Cave Man embodiesa yearningfor nature, for simplification.Things were simpler and more natural the GoldenAge of the past,desireswere unbriin untilwe ruinedit with Civilidled, lusts were uninhibited, zation. We hear the echo of the Noble Savage when we natuthinkthatthose close to Natureare living a superior, (1997:183)has shown,for the white rallife. As Joel Pfilster middle and upperclasses between the two World Wars, to "recovenngthe primitivebecametantamount restoring This humanity the innerCave one's 'deeper'humanity." by Man was often represented the libidinous,neurosisfree, naked,pop cultureCave Man,embodiedby such as Taizan.l9In a variationof this representationthe Flintstones and othercartoonsmake an essentialistargument: humannature that is, modernWesterncapitalisthuman behavior has always been the same. Thus, family proband manners lems, economicproblems,strifeandwarfare, mores are eternalhuman issues. The Cave Man can be as the used to defendhumannature eternally same. to The image can also be turnedaround suggesthow far we have come, how advancedwe are.We can embracethe Cave Man's struggles with language, with the natural world,withotherCaveMen in a benignway, seeinghim as a humorous figure.In cartoonsandmovieshe is oftenportrayedthis way: somehowhe arrivesin the modem world, where he bumbles with technology, with language,and

with a societybeyondhis ken. The Cave MaIlis in effect a childin an adultworld,the evolutionof CaveManto modfromchild to as ern humanrecapitulated the development found adult;thiswas a commonpop psychologyargument, Us in self-helpbookssuchas TheCavemanWithin (Fielding 1922).But thereis a moremaligntwistto the pnmitive, savageCave Manfromwhomwe have evolved.His visual markers be readas meaninghe is outsideof civilizacan His and tion, is withoutmorals,is animal-like threatening. nature. exists insideus, a lurking He linkis to a threatening Mr.Hyde.In modetnWesternsociety,he is outtherein the the the world,andmenacing: "wildman"roaming streets.20 All of these images and historiescoexist as we "read" the the hairyCave Man.Understanding sourcesof the imto age is a smallbutnecessarycounterweight its power. Notes Thanks C. LoringBrace,EricDelto Acknowledgements. Marcus, AlisonJolly,Susan Lees,Michelle son,Linda Jacobs, RobertPollack, DerekMiller,Lois Morris,Holly Pittman, reviewers Olga SusanSidlauskas, Soffer,andtwo anonymous on reading helpful and comments thispaper, fortheirattentive GailReed,for their especially andto my familyandfriends, remain my Any of support encouragement. errors, course, and own. to: 1. Please addresscorrespondence JudithC. Berman, Apt.3D, New York,NY 10025. 639 WestEndAvenue,

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Manto denotethe constructedimage 2. I use the termCave and neanderthalensis Homosapienssapiens. of Homosapiens In this paper, and much to my regret,I do not discuss the female version of the Cave Man. Her naturaland icono-graphic history differs in significantways from that of her male counterpart,and she is worthy of her own excursis. However, as there is much more availableon the visual, literary,and scholarly history of the male Cave Man (!), I use him to establish certain importantlines of inquiryin a limited space. Her history requiresa separatepaper.The Wild Child is yet another importantsubject,with links to stories of feral children. 3. I shall not address the complex issues of dating or human evolution in this paper.This essay treatsthe hominids of the Middle Paleolithic in Europe (Homosapiens neanderthalensis, who date from approximately 230,00040,000 sayears ago) andthe humansof the UpperPaleolithic(Homo piens sapiens,who date from around40,000 years ago to the is present). H. s. neanderthalensis popularly termed "Neanwas the derthal7'; term Cro-Magnon used to denote early H. s. sapiens.Because the Cave Man image discussed in the course of this essay often conflates Middle and Upper Paleolithic and hominids,I use the termsPaleolithic StoneAge to include both the Middle and UpperPaleolithicunless otherwise specified. 4. At least one new Cave Man movie, cartoon,or television show has been introducedin almost every year since the end of World War II. Filmic Cave Men have great range, reflecting their great appeal. Some examples of Cave Man movies include: science fiction (e.g., Thetost World, 1925; Teenage Caveman, 1958); drama (The Caveman, 1926, with Hedda Hopper and Myrna Loy); horror (The Neanderthal Man, 1953); musicals (On the Town 1949, which features"anthroMan"to Cave Man pologist" Ann Miller singing "Prehistoric look-alike Jules Munshin); comedy (everyone from Charlie

Chaplinto the ThreeStooges to Ringo Starras Atouk in CaveLink,1988); and anthropoman, 1981); adventure(Missing for Fire, 1981). This survey is based on the logical (Quest Cave Filmographyon the website http://www.banamba.com/cave/film. Musical references are from Mesolithic Music at the same link. 5. From the popularsong, 'Alley Oop," words and music by Dallas Frazier,1960. This song was coveredby severalartists andreachednumberone in 1960. 6. I write from the point of view of the "West,"a termI do not like to use, as it reducesthe enormouscomplexitiesand vicissitudes of a variety of European and American cultures over many centuries to a seemingly simple, monolithic, and createsan Otherthatis as self-conscious entity. The term West misleadingly stereotypicaland reductive as the other stereotypes I discuss here. In fact, the experienceof the Otheris individual-each person determines his/her own definition of Self and Other but this definitionis dynamicallyshapedand mediated by the historical, social, and cultural context in which the individual is located (Mason 1990:2; Obeyesekere 1981:13-14). Thus, in the course of this essay, I shall try to groundmy observationsin person,time, and space as specifically as possible. 7. The term artistis a bit misleading, as the portrayalof Cave Men in scientific settings, such as book illustrationsand museum dioramas, was almost always a collaboration between artist and scientist. The work of artists was often and necessarily bound by the stricturesof anthropologists,curators, and other scientific personnel. For example, CharlesR. Knight's hand was guided by Henry FairfileldOsborn and other members of the American Museum of NaturalHistory staff (Czerkasand Glut 1982). 8. The Cave Man is also influencedby anotherfigure, that of the hairyHoly Man. He is also outsideof civilization,living

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freely and close to nature.He may have the same hair as that of the savage Wild Man, but he is his inverse: he is peaceful, in harmony with nature,and even possessed of holy characteristics (Warner1995:66). Here, wild hair is a markerof asceticism, of the renunciationof the rules and goals of society, of purity, of piety, of penance for impurityand impiousness, and of separation.The sources of this image are found in the Bible. Both Hebrew priests (Leviticus 21 :5) and ascetics termed "nazirites"had long hair, which was emphaticallya public sign of position and devotion. Conversely, shaven heads (or having one's head shaved) was an act and sign of public humiliation (II Samuel 10:4; Isaiah 3:17-24; see also Milgrom 1996:907; Plaut 1981:106>1061). The Hebrewroot of the word nazir, meaning to "'set aside,' 'dedicate,' or 'curse"' (Plaut 1981:1058 fn), suggests the dualityof the hairy man as the Holy Man, separatedfrom society because he is impure and wishes to cleanse himself, and the cursed Wild Man, removed from society because he is impure and cannot be cleansed. Christianascetic monks, or anchorites,followed that tradition.From the beginning, a set of legends accrued aroundthe desertmonks (Williams 1925,1926,1935) and it is in these legends that the connection between the Holy Man We and the Wild Man can be most closely apprehended. can underline the similarities between the Wild Man and Holy Man: their separationfrom society, their animal nature,and, emphatically, their wild hair, which serves as a signifier of their inner natures.Both images externalize the animalityof the characterthroughtheir hairiness,as both figures lose their hairiness as they are redeemed. The Cave Man image is the product of the Wild Man and the Holy Man. He is also, by the evolutionaryretrojection, sourceof thatanimalnature. 9. One may play this game out and think of counterexamples, the elephant,to cite an obvious one. We might also argue that human hairlessness can be powerful: Michael Jordan comes to mind. Certainlyasceticism is expressed by hairlessness as well as hairiness.Exploringthese exceptions is stimulating. 10. Much of the recent work concerns the evolution of systems and their hominid body and brain thermoregulatory associations with bipedalism and, later, increased brain size. Wheeler (1984, 1985; see also Ebling 1985; Kushlan 1985) has suggested that bipedalism, as well as loss of functional body hair and the development of eccrine sweat glands and to subcutaneousfat, were early adaptations the direct solar radiation of open savannah environments. Carrier(1984; see also Brace 1995:157-159) has argued that the evolutionary thatallowed huloss of body hairis one of severaladaptations mans to be successful persistence hunters, able to outlast game. Falk (1990; see also Dean 1990; Wheeler 1990) has discussed the evolutionaryevidence for regulationof braintemperature and the consequences of this change for hominid brainevolution, using fossil evidence for cranialblood flow. 11. Contrastthe hairdos of these figures with the description of Neanderthalhaircare describedby Auel (1981:67-68) in The Clan of the Cave Bear. The Neanderthalwoman shampoos and conditions her own hair as well as that of her newly (i.e., Homo sapiens sapiens) daughter. adopted"Other" 12. To be clear, the American Museum of Natural His tory's Hall of HumanBiology and Evolution also depicts Up-

per Paleolithic humans that are clearly not Cave Men. They areratherwell-dressedand tressed. 13. I thank an anonymous reviewer for insight on this
point.

14. For an interestingparallel, see Cecelia Klein's (1995) of study of the transformation the wild-hairedAztec goddess Cihuacoatl in colonial Mexico. As Klein (1995:263) notes: "the EuropeanWild Woman could make herself at home in colonial CentralMexico precisely because the Aztecs . . . had termsthat expressedtheirvalues and concepts in metaphorical congruentwith those of Europe." were often remarkably 15. Note that the influence I am concernedwith here is not just thaton science, but on the popularimagination. 16. The data on Knightpresentedhere are based largely on by by the biography CzerkasandGlut(1982). Knightwas trained George de Forest Brush, who was a noted painterof Native indeed,some of Knight'searlierworksare fanciful Americans; that representations cross Native Americanswith an imagined (Czerkasand Glut 1982:8, 22). In the course of his "primitive" work at the American Museum of Natural History, Knight traveled to Paris and saw the work of the French Academic painters(Czerkasand Glut 1982:8-9). Upon his returnto New York, he started working on murals and exhibits at the museum, painting prehistoric humans in the same "scientific" style as the French. 17. Knight's influence was quite widespread. His work was extensively seen in the United States, and he dominateda whole school of artists,includingZdenekBurianand Jay Matternes. Burian's work (Augusta and Burian 1960) has been widely disseminatedin textbooksand popularpieces. Perhaps the most familiaris his hairyCro-Magnonmale (Figure9). He is a robust, lively man, with somewhat scraggly hair and beard,dressedin fur and leather,and carryinga toolkit thatincludes a bow and arrow.Most archaeologytextbooksproperly point out Burian's error:the bow and arrow was not used in Europefor anotherten thousandyears. This is an excellent example of the influence of the traditionof Wild Man/Noble Savage on this genre of art: the Cro-Magnonis carryingthe bow and arrows because his referentis the Native American (but see Mason 1990:117 for an alternativereadingof the ims age). In eithercase, Burian' image belongs to the realmof the of Wild Man, not in the interpretation prehistoricdata. 18. For example, the recent discovery of evidence for fabric weaving by the residentsof an UpperPaleolithicsite in the Czech Republic shows that the heretoforefur-cladPaleolithic Cave Men wore woven nettle coats (Adovasio et al. 1996). 19. In the 1949 musicalOn the Town,Ann Millersings about Man"as having "No repression he just her sexy "Prehistoric Thereis also some delightful believed in free self-expression." and wordplayon "bearskin" "bareskin."The lyrics areby Betty ComdenandAdolf Green,musicby RogerEdens. 20. A July 27, 1993, headlinein the New York Post reads: "'Wild Man' to Go Free Again."The "WildMan"referredto was a homeless, mentally ill drug addictnamedLarryHogue, who assaulted and harassedresidents of Manhattan'sUpper West Side. A follow-up story several days later (August 2, otherpeople like Hogue as "wild men." 1993) characterized

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Figure 9. Zdenek Bunan, Cro-Magnon Man (Augusta and Burian 1960: Plate 24). Copyrightunknown.

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