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Kennesaw State University Spring 2010 HIST 2112 / Brooking Exam #3 FORM A Part I. Multiple Choice 1.

Which of the following is a source of the conflict between the United States and the USSR? a. the fact that the State Department recognized the Soviet Union in 1933 b. the belief that capitalism and Communism cannot coexist c. Josef Stalins betrayal of the United States at the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk d. President Roosevelts mistrust of Josef Stalin at the Japanese surrender in September 1945 2. President Truman and many in his administration a. perceived that Josef Stalin was a Russian version of Adolf Hitler. b. knew there were Soviet spies throughout the postwar government. c. believed that the American government would fail if it had to confront the Soviets. d. all of the above 3. In February 1945, the Americans, British, and Soviets agreed to all of the following except a. the division and ultimate reunification of Germany. b. self-determination for nations. c. collective action through the United Nations to handle international problems. d. a permanent Soviet occupation of Poland. 4. In conversations with the Soviets, President Truman a. said one thing publicly to the Soviets but believed something else in private. b. was plainspoken and left no question about what he felt or believed. c. proved that he was an effective and persuasive speaker. d. deferred to Winston Churchill because Truman was new in his job. 5. The United States had one thing in 1945 that made her the most powerful nation in the world. This was that a. America had not suffered any physical damage during World War II. b. Americans had proved their willingness to fight battles to the bitter end. c. her national economy was strong and unemployment low. d. America had atomic bombs and was obviously willing to use them. 6. By the spring of 1946, Trumans administration favored a. a global economy based on free trade. b. the construction of military bases around the world to keep aggressors from harming the United States. c. the swift reconstruction of postwar Germany and Japan. d. all of the above 7. What became known as the containment policy was written by a. Winston S. Churchill. b. Harry S. Truman. c. George F. Kennan. d. George C. Marshall. 8. About the Soviet Union, George Kennan wrote that a. there can be no peaceful coexistence between capitalism and socialism. b. President Truman needed to bluff the Soviets into believing the United States would launch a nuclear strike. c. Stalins military was so weak following the war that it did not pose any threat to the United States. 1

d.

the United States needed to build hydrogen weapons.

9. The Truman Doctrine a. linked freedom of the world to U.S. security. b. defined the role the United States would play as protector of free peoples trying to prevent subjugation. c. was first implemented in Greece and Turkey. d. all of the above 10. The Truman Doctrine was initially designed to prevent a Communist takeover in a. Greece and Turkey. b. Italy and France. c. Iran and Afghanistan. d. East Berlin and Poland. 11. The Iron Curtain a. was built by the Soviets across the border between East Germany and Poland. b. was the first of many physical barriers built across Eastern Europe to protect the Soviet world. c. a metaphorical division between the nations supportive of the Soviet Union and those that supported the West. d. all of the above 12. The United States planned to contain the Soviet Union using a. diplomacy. b. economic policies. c. military strength. d. all of the above. 13. By 1950, the balance of power between the United States and the Soviet Union was affected by which of the following events? a. The United States had gone to war in South Korea. b. The Chinese civil war was resolved in favor of the Chinese Communists. c. The Soviets developed their own nuclear weapons. d. all of the above. 14. The Marshall Plan was designed a. to rebuild war-torn Europe. b. to combat the expansion of Communism into war-torn regions of Europe. c. to be a New Deal for Europe. d. all of the above 15. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a. a mutual defense treaty made up of European and North American nations pledged to protect one another in case of an attack by the Soviet Union. b. a military trade agreement designed to help European member nations recover economically. c. a buy-American trade agreement. d. a military alliance designed to coordinate an attack on the Soviet Union. 16. Regarding the theory of containment it obvious to the Truman administration that a. containment was going to be applied globally. b. once-unimportant nations in the big scheme of things could become important locations in the Cold War relationship with the Soviets. c. the United States was going to have to provide military training and weapons to troops in Third World nations. d. all of the above 2

17. General MacArthurs early successes in Korea were reversed when a. the Soviet Union used its veto in the United Nations to halt the fighting. b. the Allies abandoned South Korea due to heavy combat losses. c. Communist Chinese forces entered the war on the side of North Korea. d. he urged President Truman to negotiate a settlement in Korea. 18. __________ was the first African American man in decades to play in major league baseball. a. Medgar Evers b. Jackie Robinson c. Philip Randolph d. Larry Doby 19. In the 1950s Americans could be characterized by which of the following statements? a. They were insecure. b. They were doubtful about the future. c. They feared a nuclear war. d. all of the above 20. All of the following except which symbolized the new consumer society of the 1950s? a. Consumers were not afraid to buy what they wanted on credit. b. The new consumer thinking celebrated consumption rather than work. c. The new consumers were directed by men as the dominant purchasers of family goods. d. The period was the culmination of several decades of movement into a full-fledged consumer society. 21. In the 1950s Americans who emulated the good life in the 1950s tended to focus on all of the following except a. spiritual values. b. home ownership. c. automobile purchases. d. greater amounts of leisure time. 22. Several factors enhanced the economic growth of the 1950s. Of the following, which is not among the reasons? a. Americans following World War II had money, and they wanted to spend it. b. Older and more traditional industries were strong, and new technologies were becoming increasingly important. c. Americans remembered the Depression and the sacrifices of the war years, and they commonly saved their money for their children. d. The buildup of the defense industry and foreign aid helped stimulate the economy. 23. American workers during the 1950s enjoyed a. high employment. b. low inflation. c. rising incomes. d. all of the above 24. William J. Levitt was the pioneer of a. modern computer production. b. affordable housing for the working class. c. consumer credit cards. d. television. 25. Of all of the consumer products representative of the 1950s, which of the following symbolizes the dreams and attitudes of the 1950s? a. television b. computers c. transistors 3

d.

automobiles

26. In the years following World War II, a group of social scientists and writers noticed a disturbing uniformity across America. What did they find so disturbing about this uniformity and conformity? a. They feared the loss of personal freedom and individuality that seemed basic to American life. b. They feared that the growth of conformity could retard economic growth and prosperity. c. They feared that conformity could lead to the destruction of the advances made in the civil rights movement. d. all of the above 27. Malvina Reynoldss song titled Little Boxes [note: in class, we watched the version performed by Pete Seeger] a. maligned suburbs. b. protested the mass manufacture of TV dinners for American consumers. c. suggested that Americans embrace of the consumer society was turning them into little automatons. d. questioned the role of nonunion labor in the American housing industry. 28. In what way did the Cold War contribute to homogeneity in American society in the 1950s? a. The Cold War encouraged Americans discontent. b. Americans feared that the lack of conformity might draw unwanted attention to themselves. c. Americans feared being labeled gay or lesbian. d. American role models of the decade were white upper-middle-class men and women. 29. During the 1950s, all of the following were generally expected of American family men except that a. they should provide financially for their families. b. they should act as the head of their households. c. they should be gentler and more involved with the family than had been the men in their fathers generation. d. they should do housework in their spare time. 30. Suburbanization was characterized by all of the following except which? a. It broke down the differences between whites. b. It intensified the differences between whites and African Americans. c. White Americans moved to the suburbs, and African Americans moved to the city. d. Despite their differences, the housing available to whites and blacks was virtually the same. 31. All of the following characterize President Eisenhower except that a. his middle-of-the-road, moderate attitude suited the times. b. he accommodated rather than fought Communism. c. he was reassuring rather than bold and brash. d. his modern Republican values of limited government were popular. 32. Complete this quote from a 1957 Colliers magazine article: Never in our 180 years history has the United States been so aware ofor confused aboutits _____. a. role in the world b. interracial relations c. teenagers d. future obligations to other nations 33. All of the following were developments in the civil rights movement of the 1950s except a. the Supreme Courts overturning of Plessy v. Ferguson. b. the Southern Manifesto that was issued in Congress. c. federal troops being sent to desegregate Central High School in Little Rock. d. a year-long boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, that led to desegregation of the bus system. 34. The federal government during the 1960s had pledged to end poverty in the United States and a. eradicate racism and integration at home. 4

b. c. d.

continue the war on terror. confront Communism abroad. all of the above

35. In the 1960s Americas domestic problems included a. poverty. b. racism. c. inequality. d. all of the above 36. The deliberate speed of desegregation had what effect? a. a period of deliberation about just what integration would mean in American sports b. to anger African American activists who believed the process was too slow c. slow but steady desegregation of American public schools d. all of the above 37. __________ was the location of the start of lunch counter sit-ins in 1960. a. Greeneville, Tennessee b. Waco, Texas c. Greensboro, North Carolina d. Greenville, South Carolina 38. One of the results of the sit-ins was a. the creation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). b. that young men and women, some of them college students, found that their individual actions could change the world. c. that Woolworth and other large stores allowed their employees to serve African American clients. d. all of the above 39. In the election of 1960, which of the following candidates won election? a. Hubert Humphrey and Lyndon Johnson b. Lyndon Johnson and Barry Goldwater c. John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon d. John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson 40. All of the following lost their lives in the civil rights movement except a. Medgar Evers. b. Fannie Lou Hamer. c. Michael Schwerner. d. Martin Luther King, Jr. 41. To ensure the success of liberty, President Kennedy vowed in his inaugural address to do all of the following except a. support any friend. b. bear any burden. c. meet any hardship. d. spread liberalism abroad. 42. All of the following occurred in the critical year of 1963 in reference to the end to segregation except a. the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.. b. the letter from Birmingham Jail. c. the enrollment of two African Americans at the University of Alabama. d. Martin Luther Kings I Have a Dream speech. 43. The Kennedy administrations defense policy 5

a. b. c. d.

reduced the size of the military-industrial complex. overcame the missile gap between the United States and the Soviet Union. restricted the power of the CIA. stressed a flexible response.

44. In order to counter the appeal of Communism, the Kennedy administration supported a. modernization programs. b. democratic political reforms. c. the Peace Corps. d. all of the above 45. President Kennedy confronted the Soviets over their construction of launch sites for nuclear missiles in Cuba. Kennedys initial response was to a. recognize the legitimacy of the Castro government so that the Soviets would remove their warheads and missiles. b. order a naval quarantine of the Caribbean island. c. threaten to invade the island. d. shut off American aid to all countries that recognized Castros government. 46. During the Cuban missile crisis, a. President Kennedy worked quietly through diplomatic channels to resolve the problem. b. Khrushchev used television to alert the world to the crisis. c. the United States and the Soviet Union went on full military alert. d. Khrushchev ordered a quarantine of American shipping headed for Cuba. 47. To date, the Cuban Missile Crisis represents a. the closest the world has gotten to a nuclear war. b. the furthest either nation was willing to go short of nuclear war. c. the beginning of a new, more intense period of the Cold War. d. all of the above 48. The situation in Vietnam that President Kennedy inherited in 1961 was characterized by which of the following statements? a. Ho Chi Minh was secretly sending troops and supplies into South Vietnam. b. The Viet Cong was newly organized and energized. c. Ngo Dinh Diems administration was under increasing attacks from the North Vietnamese. d. all of the above 49. President Johnsons war on poverty a. implemented national health insurance for all Americans. b. launched a war on dependence on Middle East oil. c. tried to implement programs in South Vietnam to teach the values of democracy. d. implemented the Head Start program, which provided early schooling, meals, and medical exams for poor preschool-aged children. 50. Like his predecessors, President Johnson believed a. in the domino theory. b. that the Communists were bound to take over the world beginning in Third World nations. c. in the superiority of the American military against any power. d. all of the above 51. That there were more than 300 race riots in American cities can be explained as a. reactionary policies of American police forces. b. proof that Kings nonviolence protest was pointless. 6

a dramatization of the conflict between the promises of the Great Society programs and the reality of life in black America. d. Communist infiltrations of the civil right movement, as the FBI believed.
c.

Part II. Short Answer 52. RICHARD NIXON was the Republican nominee for president in 1968. He promised to end the Vietnam War and unify the country but also exploited the nations social divisions in order to secure victory. 53. RACHEL CARSON wrote the book Silent Spring and brought about a renewed environmental consciousness in America. 54. The government report To Secure These Rights called for FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (WILL ACCEPT IMMEDIATE) action to fight lynchings, segregation, and job discrimination. 55. JOHN FOSTER DULLES was the Secretary of State under President Eisenhower. 56. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR was a prominent civil rights activist beginning in the 1950s until his assassination in 1968. Among his many achievements during the civil rights era was the founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. 57. RICHARD NIXON was vice president to Dwight D. Eisenhower. He turned his Kitchen Debate into a celebration of the prosperity and freedom of the consumer society. 58. DOMINO THEORY (WILL ACCEPT CONTAINMENT) was the belief that allowing one country, anywhere in the world, to fall to Communism would create a chain reaction that would topple other countries. 59. The ZAPRUDER film recorded the assassination of President Kennedy. 60. EMMETT TILL was the 14-year-old boy murdered by white racists in Mississippi. Part III. Matching 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. Mao Zedong B Medgar Evers E Strom Thurmond C Joseph McCarthy A Kim Il Song D Adlai Stevenson A Mohammad Mossadeq D Francis Gary Powers B Ho Chi Minh C Ngo Dinh Diem E Gamal Abdel Nasser A Allen Ginsberg E Eugene Bull Connor C Huey P. Newton B Malcolm X D A. B. C. D. E. A. B. C. D. E. A. B. C. D. E. Red scare Chinese communist leader Dixiecrat Party / Southern Manifesto North Korean communist leader Civil rights activist / martyr Democratic presidential candidate U-2 pilot North Vietnamese leader Overthrown, but not killed, by U.S. supported coup South Vietnamese leader Pan-Arab nationalist leader Black Panther Party Birmingham Public Safety Commissioner Intellectual father of the Black Power movement Beat poet

Part IV. Map Africa 7

76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

Libya Sudan Egypt Rwanda Kenya

Middle East 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. Lebanon Iran Saudi Arabia Israel Iraq