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Winter Operations Boeing 737

Winter Operations Boeing 737


1. Check your personal documentation to decode the snowtam and to convert the reported braking action and the runway state.
Or use this below

Snowtam, type 1 code


Single runway: SWEN0393 ENHF 04200243 (SNOWTAM 0393 A) ENHF B) 04200243 C) 05 F) 48/7/47 G) 02/XX/03 H) 60/58/53/GRT N) 47 R) 47 T) RWY SANDED) Two runways: SWEN0497 ENGM 04200155 (SNOWTAM 0497 A) ENGM B) 04200155 C) 01L F) NIL/NIL/NIL G) XX/XX/XX H) 5/5/5 N) NIL C) 01R F) NIL/NIL/NIL G) XX/XX/XX H) 5/5/5 N) NIL R) NIL)

SWEN0393 SWEN is an international code for SNOWTAM originated in Norway, and the number indicates how many SNOWTAM has been issued for the aerodrome shown in the following field. Field A This is the ICAO 4-letter location indicator for the aerodrome. Field B This is the day-time group for when the SNOWTAM was issued. The format is month-day-hour-minute UTC.

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Winter Operations Boeing 737


Field C This field shows which runway the SNOWTAM is for. A SNOWTAM will always tell you the condtions of a runway seen from the end with the lower designator, for example if the runway orientation is 03/21, then the conditions for RWY 03 will be in the SNOWTAM. Field F This field show runway contamination (any deposits on the runway). The runway is divided into three equal parts, and the SNOWTAM will give the values for each third divided by a slash (/). The following codes are used to describe the type of contamination: NIL: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: Clear and dry Damp Wet or water patches Rime (normally less than 1 mm deep) Dry snow Wet snow Slush Ice Compact or rolled snow Frozen ruts or ridges.

As shown in the ENHF example, there may be more than one code used for each third of the RWY. If this is done, the codes will show the different layers of contamination from the top down. 48 thus indicates that there are dry snow on top of compact snow on the first third of the runway, the next third has ice (7), while the last third is covered with dry snow on ice (47). Field G Gives the average depth of the contamination, again for each third of the runway. The depth is given in millimetres, but if the depth cannot be measured, as would be the case for ice, then the letters XX are used. Field H This field indicates the braking action, the friction on the runway. Again the runway is divided into three parts, and the numbers are the mean values for each third. The braking action may be determined by measuring equipment, or estimated. If measuring equipment have been used, the friction will always be given in two digits, and an abbreviation stating which equipment was used is also shown. If the friction have been estimated, a single digit will be used.

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Winter Operations Boeing 737


Measured fricton: >40: 39 36: 35 30: 29 26: <25: Good Medium/good Medium Medium/poor Poor.

Estimated friction: 5: 4: 3: 2: 1: 9: Good Medium/good Medium Medium/poor Poor Unreliable*

* If unreliable is used, it is because the contamination is outside the approved range of whatever equipment is used to measure the braking action. This could either be because the contamination is too deep, or of a type that the equipment is not approved for. For example, measured friction by Grip Tester (GRT) on wet ice is considered to be unreliable and the SNOWTAM will then have the value 9 in field H). Field H Friction measuring equipment used If the friction on the runway has been measured, the type of equipment used is indicated with the following abbreviations: BRD: Brakemeter-Dynometer GRT: RFT: SFL SKH TAP Grip Tester Runway friction tester Surface friction tester (low pressure tires) Skiddometer (high pressure tires) Tapleymeter MUM: Mu-meter SFH: Surface friction tester (high pressure tires)

SKL Skiddometer (low pressure tires)

Any other type of equipment will be stated in clear text.

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Winter Operations Boeing 737

Field N Gives the conditions on the taxiways associated with the runway. The codes are the same as for the runway, but the taxiways are not divided into thirds. Field R Tells you whats on the apron, again, the codes are the same as for the runway. Field T This is a clear text-field. In this field information of significance will be entered. If there is no text in this field, the T) will not be shown on the SNOWTAM.

Snowtam, type 2 code


8-Figure Group 12345678 12: Rwy designator 3: Rwy deposit 4: Extent of rwy contamination 56: Depth of deposit 78: Friction coefficient or braking action Rwy designator 12 The first two digits correspond to the rwy designator ( this is not necessarily the same rwy as that in an equivalent SNOWTAM ). The designator is expressed as follows: 09 Rwy 09 27 Rwy 27, or rwy 27 left 77 Rwy 27 right ( The right rwy of parallel rwys has 50 added to the designator ) 88 All rwys 99 Repetition of last message because no new message has been received in time of transmission.

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Winter Operations Boeing 737


Rwy deposit 3

The rwy deposit is indicated by the third digit as follows: 0 Clear and dry 1 Damp 2 Wet or water patches 3 Rime or frost covered ( depth normally less than 1 mm ) 4 Dry snow 5 Wet snow 6 Slush 7 Ice 8 Compacted or rolled snow 9 Frozen ruts or ridges / - Type of deposit not reported ( for example, due to rwy clearance in progress ) Extent of rwy contamination 4 The extent of rwy contamination is indicated by the fourth digit as follows: 1 10% or less of the rwy contaminated 2 11% to 25% of the rwy contaminated 5 26% to 50% of the rwy contaminated 9 51% to 100% of the rwy contaminated / - Extent of rwy contamination not reported ( for example due to rwy clearance in progress) Depth of deposit 56 The depth of deposit is indicated by the fifth and sixth digit as follows: 00 less than 1 mm 01 1 mm etc 90 90 mm 91 not used 92 10 cm 93 15 cm 94 20 cm 95 25 cm 96 30 cm 97 35 cm 98 40 cm or more 99 Rwy or rwys not operational due to snow, slush, ice, large drifts or rwy clearance but depth not reported // - Depth of deposit operationally not significant or not measurable Note 1: The quoted depth is the mean of a number of readings or, if operationally significant, the greatest depth measured

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Winter Operations Boeing 737


Note 2: If deposits of the type reported in the third digit by the code figures 3 ( rime or frost covered ), 7 ( ice ), 8 ( compacted or rolled snow ) and 9 ( frozen ruts or ridges ) are reported, the depth of deposit might not be reported and // used instead. This is to be understood as meaning that the actual depth of deposit is not measurable or is not of relevance. Note 3: The depth of standing water may only be reported if an accurate and representative measurement is guaranteed. Friction coefficient or braking action 78 The friction coefficient ( or, if the coefficient is not available, the braking action ) is indicated by the seventh and eighth digits as follows: For example: 28 Friction coefficient 0.28 35 Friction coefficient 0.35 or: 91 Braking action poor 92 Braking action medium/poor 93 Braking action medium 94 Braking action medium/good 95 Braking action good 99 Figures unreliable ( for example, if equipment has been used which do not measure satisfactorily in slush or loose snow ) // - Braking action not reported ; rwy not operational; aerodrome closed. Note 1: The mean value is transmitted or, if operationally significant, the lowest value. Note 2: CLRD If contamination on all rwys cease to exist, a group consisting of the figures 88, the abbreviation CLRD, and the braking action is sent. Example: 88CLRD95 All rwys cleared; braking action good If contamination on a single cease to exist, a group consisting of the rwy designator , the abbreviation CLRD and the braking action is sent. Example: 24CLRD93 Rwy 24 cleared; braking action medium Note 3: It should be noted that rwys can only be inspected as frequently as conditions permit, so that a re-issue of a previous half-hourly report does not necessarily mean that rwy has been inspected again during this period, but might mean that no significant change is apparent. Note 4: It is emphasized that this reporting system is completely independent of the noramal NOTAM system and these reports are not used by AIS for amending SNOWTAM received from originators.

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Winter Operations Boeing 737


2. Use Supplemantery Procedures in the Part B for de-icing, preflight, start, taxi, ...
This point can be bypassed if you are familiar with winter operation.

3. Use Notice to Aircrew from the Pilot Handbook to obtain holdovertime regarding the type of fluid and the weather conditions. Rem: The holdovertime starts at the beginning of the anti-icing process. So in a two step procedure, it starts at the beginning of the second step. 4. Use QRH section PI for weight and speed adjustement:
PI: Performance In flight

Rwy was contaminated Rwy contaminated by but braking action is water or slush good and water/slush removed

Rwy with braking action less than good

Rwy contaminated by water/slush and with braking action less than good

Use wet performance from perfo book

Obtain max weight for dry obstacle/field limit from perfo book Reduce the weight for the contamination with the PI graphe 1 Compare with max weight regarding the Rwy length to accelerate to Vmcg graphe 2 Take the less of graphe 1 and graphe 2 and compare with the climb limit weight of perfo book Obtain speed from QRH for dry balance field Reduce your V1
graphe 3

Obtain max weight for dry obstacle/field limit from perfo book Reduce the weight for the braking action with the PI graphe 1 Compare with max weight regarding the Rwy length to accelerate to Vmcg graphe 2 Take the less of graphe 1 and graphe 2 and compare with the climb limit weight of perfo book Obtain speed from QRH for dry balance field Reduce your V1
graphe 3

Check performance for contaminated and slippery Rwy Take the most restictive one

Check your Vmcg

Check your Vmcg

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Winter Operations Boeing 737

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