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Group Number ID#*

ME 440 CNC Machine Tools Solution of Assignment 2

Spring 2011 / 2012

1. INTRODUCTION In this assignment, the machining plan of a machine element with various geometric features is to be created on a 3-axis vertical machining center with power and spindle limitations. The workpiece is Aluminum 7076 with a dimension set of 4 [inch] and Brinell hardness of 150 HB. The report represented here summarizes the examination of this workpiece in terms of its ISO workpiece material selection grade and geometry, and then briefly gives a series of machining operations for the machining plan of the production of this machine element. These operations are mainly end-milling, drilling and chamfering by considering the geometry of the workpiece. 2. MACHINING PLAN 2.1. ISO Workpiece Material Selection The machine element that would be produced through the operations listed here is made of Aluminum 7076 which is made of aluminum (86.8-91.2 %) and other chemical additives including copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, silicon, titanium and zinc. Hence, it can be said that the workpiece belongs to the N-Class which is a typically aluminum alloys group. Thus, every machining operation should be analyzed by the consideration of N-Class properties within the machining planning. 2.2. Machining Operations Selection After getting knowledge about the workpieces features, now planning can be continued by the examination series of machining operations. From the geometry of the workpiece, it is clear that 2 end-millings, drilling and chamfering operations should be performed. The order of these operations can be written as follows. 1. End Milling (Roughing) 2. End Milling (Finishing) 3. End Milling (Roughing) 4. End Milling (Finishing) 5. Drilling 6. Chamfering However, during the consideration of the operations below, it should be noted that the available spindle power is provided as 3 kW and maximum speed as 10,000 rpm. The power requirement that is given as a machining center characterization is a commonly low value for such set of operations and thus the cutting forces should be reduced not to overload the machining center. This requirement can be achieved by the application of down-milling for all of the processes. When the operations and their order are determined, it is now time to select the cutting tools that would perform the machining operations with sufficient requirements in the given order. Firstly, tool material grade selection should be done. According to Sandvik 2012 Catalog, for the N-Class of ISO workpiece material classification several different tool grade types are available as it can be seen in Figure 1. It is decided to select H10 grade as it is suggested for the aluminum alloys with SiC<8 % and expected to be used according to Sandvik (page G8). Moreover, H10F uncoated carbide grade suitable for milling of aluminum alloys in combination with sharp cutting edges. Also, the same catalog suggests that each operation should include cutting fluid for the aluminum to avoid smearing on the insert edges and to improve surface finish and a maximum chip thickness (hex) value of 0.10-0.20 mm.

Group Number ID#*

ME 440 CNC Machine Tools Solution of Assignment 2

Spring 2011 / 2012

Figure 1. Tool material grades for different workpiece materials. For end milling (roughing) operation it is aimed to remove 5.969 mm (0.235 inch) and 2.54 mm (0.1 inch) of material with diameter of 12 mm from the top surface of workpiece by using Sandvik Coromill R216.32-10025-AP14A which is chosen from page D236. It is also said that this cutter has a new design improving drilling capability in Sanvik 2012 Catalog (page D236) and thus exhibits no substantial problem for the drilling of surface at given depth of cut. ii. Since there is no well-defined finishing end-milling tool for aluminum in the catalogs, the same tool can be used to process end milling (finishing) operation (Sandvik Coromill R216.32-10025-AP14A) in the range of semi-finishing. However, this time it is aimed to remove 0.381 mm (0.015 inch) of 0.635 mm (0.025 inch) material from the surface of processed workpiece with greater cutting speed to improve surface finishing quality. iii. For second end milling (roughing) operation it is aimed to remove 5.969 mm (0.235 inch) of material with diameter of 5 mm from the processed surface of workpiece by using Sandvik Coromill R216.32-05030-AC10A which is chosen from page D236. iv. The same tool can be used to process end milling semi-finishing operation. However, this time it is aimed to remove 0.381 mm (0.015 inch) of material from the surface of processed workpiece with greater cutting speed to improve surface finishing quality. v. For drilling operation, it is aimed to make a hole with a diameter of 6.35 mm (0.25 inch) and a depth of 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) by using R850-0635-30-A1A which is chosen from page E31. vi. For chamfering operation, it is aimed to break all sharp corners with a dimension set of 0.381 mm (0.015 inch) x 45o by using R215.84-01500-AC43G which is chosen from page D268. These operations are listed in Table 1. i.

Group Number ID#*

ME 440 CNC Machine Tools Solution of Assignment 2

Spring 2011 / 2012

CALCULATIONS Op. # Mach. type Tool T Depth of cut ap [mm] 5.969 0.381 5.969 0.381 12.700 0.381 Depth Cutting Feed of width speed ae f Vc [mm] [mm/min] 10.000 10.000 5.000 5.000 6.350 0.381 573 636 182 210 3008 3008 300 310 130 150 30 250

1 End milling 2 3 End milling 4 5 7 Drilling Chamfering

Roughing Semi-finishing Roughing Semi-finishing

R216.32-10025AP14A R216.32-10025AP14A R216.32-05030AC10A R216.32-05030AC10A R850-0635-30-A1A R215.84-01500AC43G

Table 1. Tool selection procedure outcomes

Group Number ID#*

ME 440 CNC Machine Tools Solution of Assignment 2

Spring 2011 / 2012

3. CONCLUSION Creating a machining plan is the most important part of the manufacturing process. The time needed for production, the production cost and nearly all manufacturing parameters are affected by the plan constrained. So making a good and well organized machining plan can be considered as a base for the successful manufacturing process. The aim of this assignment is to be capable of being familiar with the tool selection for the specified workpiece. In this report, sufficient cutting tools for the machining operations are selected separately and they were 2 end-mills, 1drill and 1 chamfer cutter. Although, the tools selected for the end milling operations are, suggested to be used in roughing and semi-finishing process, we have also used them to run the finishing process with small depth of cut and cutting speed. This is a consequence of the fact that there was no restriction about the surface quality of the machine element produced and in addition to that for a time saving operation tool change is not preferred. By using the tool for finishing provides such benefits. Additionally, for brevity, each end mill cutting operation has been processed in 2 steps (roughing and finishing). However, it is better to make it more than 2 steps by reducing the depth of cut. This way provides less force on the workpiece and eliminates the risk of deforming the workpiece material. Furthermore, there was an elliptical shape on the workpiece material. This shape is difficult to manufacture due to its geometrical aspects. Therefore, for producing such a shape a detailed analysis on the dedicated tools can be hold. In this assignment we have been familiar with determining type of machining, selecting the cutting tools, and also using tool catalogs, determining machining parameters and conditions. We also tried to estimate the machining time, power required for all machining processes and the average material removal rates, which are the main parameters also in the real machining plans. We see the wide variety of the cutting tools; we faced with different manufacturing trajectory alternatives and see the difficulty of making decisions for the best one. All in all, this study was very helpful to understand the production environment in terms of tool selection procedures and their interpretation by a tool engineer by holding correlated mathematical operations and then using them in the cutting tool characterization.

4. REFERENCES Dlen, M. (2012). ME 440 Numerically Controlled Machine Tools, Lecture Notes. Middle East Technical University Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ankara. MatWeb. Material Property Data for Aluminum 7076-T6. Retrieved from <http://www.matweb.com/search/datasheet.aspx?matguid=8916a21e7d604d3499f7637fde053930 &ckck=1> Last viewed on April 29, 2012. Sandvik Coromant. 2012 General Catalog. Retrieved from <http://www2.coromant.sandvik.com/coromant/downloads/tech_guide/ENG/MTG_Intro.pdf> Last viewed on April 29, 2012.

Group Number ID#*

ME 440 CNC Machine Tools Solution of Assignment 2

Spring 2011 / 2012

APPENDIX: Sample Procedure for the Determination of the Specifications of a Tool

For end milling operation (roughing) calculations are shown below;

=0.149 kW 30.78 =

For end milling operation (finishing) calculations are shown below;

=0.0098 kW 2.03 =

Group Number ID#*

ME 440 CNC Machine Tools Solution of Assignment 2

Spring 2011 / 2012

For drilling operation it is aimed to drill 6.35 mm material of 12.7 mm depth by using Corodrill Delta-R850-0635-30-A1A which is chosen from page E4 and E38.

rpm

(for hole)

The group members who contributed to the preparation of this report are as follows: Name Alper KO Erdin HORASAN Enis DNMEZ Yarkn GL Student ID # 1824044 1676766 1628486 1676675 Signature