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Basic Research & Documentation Skill D t ti Skills

Indraneel Bh I d l Bhowmik k
Tripura University

Knowledge Enhancement Workshop organised by CPA, Agartala in collaboration with CUTS International held @ Agartala Press Club on 19th May, 2012

Research is a careful and exhaustive investigation of a phenomenon with an objective of advancing knowledge

Uses of Research
Improves Decision Making Reduces Uncertainty Enables Adoption of New Strategy Helps in Planning the Future Helps in Ascertaining Trends

Types of Research
Descriptive
Answers to the questions relating to
WHO WHAT HOW WHERE & WHEN

Exploratory
Better Understanding of the Problem

Explanatory
Explains Causes of the Problem

Methods of Research
Field Study
Observation

Experimental
Controlled

Survey
Sample

Case Study
Thorough/ Intensive/ Indepth

Statistical Statistical
Quantitative

Historical Historical
Secondary

Evolutionary
Changes over time
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Phases in Research Design


Specifying the problem/topic to be studied Framing Research Design Planning a Sample
probability & nonprobability or combination of the two

Collecting the data Analysing the Data


Editing Coding Processing Tabulating

Preparing the Report p g p


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Sampling
A VANTAG S ADVANTAGES Manageable Saves Time & Money Increases Accuracy
TYPES Probability Simple Random Stratified Random Systematic Cluster MultiStage M lti St Multiphase NonProbability Convenience Purposive Quota Snowball Volunteer

Data

Time Series Data sequence of observations ordered in time


Profits of MRF since 1991 GDP of India from 195051 to 199900

Cross Sectional Data parallel data on many units (individuals, firms, nations) at the same point of time
Heights and weights of the people present in the room Literacy rate of the member countries of UN in 2010

P l D t same crosssection unit surveyed Panel Data ti it d over time


AGR of G20 countries from 2001 to 2010 R R of return of 10 mutual f d over th l t 10 RoR f t f t l funds the last years

Methods of Collection Questionnaire Interview Schedule PRA FGD

Exploring Data
Descriptive Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean Average, Geometric & Harmonic; Median; Mode

Measures of Dispersion
Range Inter Inter Quartile Range Standard Deviation Mean Deviation Quartile Deviation

Graphical Representation
Scatter Column Bar Line Pie
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Descriptive Statistics
By hand. Software packages
Example: Show xls. File

D t A l i f Data Analysis from th menu D t the Data; choose Descriptive Statistics select the input range select summary range statisticsspecify the output location get the result
Command for descriptive available in the menu of all other packages

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Graphical Representations
MSExcel is the most popular way use of the insert menu Diagram should be on the basis of data
Pie for one time period; 100% stacked column/bar for multi period Line graph: time series trend line fitting: checking the R.sq Tradition: B /C l T diti Bar/Column f cross for sectional data

Manipulations on the axis is often important e.g: scale

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Case Studies
Characteristics In Totality Multiple Methods for Data Collection Often a single Unit Respondent is knowledgeable

Principles Use Multiple Sources Maintain a Chain of Evidence Record Data


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Writing Case Studies


A puzzle requiring Solution 3 basic steps Research
Library and Internet research Interview relevant people p p

Analysis
Put all the information in one place p Assign sections to different people Formulate the case problem in a brief

Actual Writing
Describe the problem or case question you want the reader to solve t th d t l Organise the sections of the case

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Thank You ALL

Comments & suggestion to eyebees@gmail.com b @ il

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