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Algebra principal sings and symbols

1. Numbers may be either whole or fractional.


2. The word quantity is often used with the same meaning as number.
3. The word integer is often used instead of whole numbers.

. If a. represents 9 and b. represent 3, then a + b represent 12


The sing + is called the plus sing, and a + b is read thus “a plus b.”

. If a. represents 9 and b. represent 3, then a – b represents 6.


The sing – iscalled the minus sing, and a – bis read thus “a minus b.”

. Similarly a + b + c denotes that we are to add b to a and then add c to the


result;

a + b – c denotes that we are to add b to aand then subtract c from the result;

a – b + c denotes that we are to subtract b from a, and then add c to the result;

a – b – c denotes that we are to subtract b from a, and then subtract cfrom the
result.

. The sing = is called the sing of equality, and a = b is read thus “a equals b’’ or ‘‘a
is equal to b.’’

The sing x is called the sing of multiplication, and a x b is read thus ‘’a into b.’’
Similarly a x b x c denotes the product of the numbers represented by a, b, and c.

For brevity ; thus abis used instead of a x b, and has the same meaning; so also
abcis used instead of a x b x c and has the same meaning.

The multiplication sing (x) must not be omitted when numbers are expressed in the
ordinary way by figures. Example; 45 cannot be used to express the product of 4
and 5 because a different meaning has already been, appropriated to 45, namely,
forty-five. We must represent the product 4 and 5 in another way, and 4 x 5 is the
way to do so.

Sometimes a point (.) is used instead of the multiplication sing (x) ;so 4.5 is the
same as 4 x 5 . So a x b = a.b = ab . 3 x a = 3.a = 3a but 4 x 5 = 4.5
and not 45 , because we must represent the product 4 and 5in another way, and 4
x 5 is the way to do so. To prevent confusion with multiplication and decimal point,
it is advisable to place the point in the latter case higher up; thus 4 5may be kept
to denote 4 + 510 .

If 8 represents a and b represent 4, then a ÷b represents 2 The sing (a ÷b ) is


called the sing of division , and a ÷ b is read as thus “a by b.’’

Another way of denoting that one number is to be divided by another; the divided is
placed over the divisor with a line ( –) between them. Thus ab is the .same as a ÷
b.
Factor.

A factor in algebra can be one number or letter ; a is one, a and bare two factors; 7
is one ,7 and 10 are two factors 1 , 2 and 10are three factors and so are a + b + c
; because a + b + c are the factors of the product abc, 2 x 10 = 20 x 1 = 20 the
product is (20), or 2 x 10 = 20 + 1 are all factors the product is (21). When all
the factors of a product are equal, the product is called a power of that factor; 4 x 4
= 16 , 4 x 4 x 4 = 64, 7 x 7 x 7 = 343 or 7 x 7 x 7 x 7 = 2401 ; however , if one of
the factors are not equal, then they are both factors or co-factors of the product.
E.g. 4 x 7 = 28.

The product.

Multiplying two or more factor will give you the product; 2 x 6 = 12, here 12 is the
product of the two factors 2 and 6 ; 5 x 7 = 35, and here 35 is the product of the
two factors 5 and 7.

The index ,the exponent or the power .

A small number or letter is placed over [a product,] a number or letter is a factor or


are factors of that [product,] number or letter in a power is called the exponent ,
index or power. A=b 2 , b=10 2. here the small 2 is the index or exponent.

Coefficient or Co-factor;

When finish multiplying , one of those numbers is called the coefficient or co-
factor of the product; thus ; 2 x 5 = 10here ten is the product of 2 and 5; now 2
and 5 are the Coefficients or Co-factors of the product 10. Note; b + b + b = 3b
this is an Coefficient or Co-factor, and b x b x b = b 3 this is an index,
exponent or power.

Quotient;

The quotient is the result when one number divided by another; ( 3) in 12 ÷ 4 = (3)
, so 3 is the quotient.

Numerical coefficient

We have 6a + b = 6ab ; 6 is known as the Numerical coefficient . 7abc; abcis not


the Numerical coefficient but 7 is the Numerical coefficientof abc [7abc].