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Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important who or what is performing the action. (In the passive voice the subject of the sentence receives the action, while in the active voice the subject of the sentence performs the action). Active voice Passive voice.


SUGGESTIONS Ann suggested: lets go to the park! Ann suggested going to the park. Basic Tense Chart

Type Zero conditional: used for present and real situations First conditional: used for future and real situations Second conditional: used for present/future unreal, imaginary situations Third conditional: used for past unreal, impossible situations If-clause (condition) Present simple Main-clause (result) Present simple Example If it rains, I get wet. If I drink coffee, I wont sleep. If I were you, I would go to Brazil. If I hadnt eaten so much, I wouldnt have been ill.

Act: Someone painted the wall.

1. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence 2. The finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle) 3. The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence.

Present simple I'm a teacher. Present continuous I'm having lunch with my parents. Present perfect simple I've been to France three times. Present perfect continuous I've been working very hard.

Pass: The wall was painted (by someone). Changes in verbs. In passive voice verb To Be always appears in the tense in which the verb of the active voice is, and the main verb is put in participle. ACTIVE play/plays am/are/is playing played was/were playing have/has played had played will play can play must play should play PASIVE am/are/is played am/are is being played was/were played was/were being played has/have been played had been played will be played can be played must be played should be played Can I can swim under water Must All tickets must be bought in advance Shall What shall we do about it? May May I smoke? Other changes Direct speech This These Now Today Last (night, month, year..) Tomorrow Here Yesterday Past simple I bought a new car. Past continuous It was raining earlier. Past perfect The play had started when I arrived. Past perfect continuous I'd already been living in London for five years. Will I will come and see you soon

TENSE Present simple Present continuous Past simple Past continuous Present perfect Past perfect Future

Past simple He said that he was a teacher Past continuous He said that he was having lunch with his parents. Past perfect simple He said that he had been to France three times. Past perfect continuous He said that he had been working very hard. Past perfect He said that he had bought a new car. Past perfect continuous He said that it had been raining earlier. Past perfect NO CHANGE Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE Would He said that he would come and see me soon Could He said that he could swim under water Had to He said that all tickets had to be bought in advance Should He asked what we should do about it Might He asked if he might smoke

Present simple

Will + infinitive

Past simple

would + infinitive

Past perfect

Would have + participle


Defining Relative Clauses -We do not use commas (,). -A defining relative clause tells is necessary to know the person or thing mentioned. Relative pronouns Who/that Used for

Non-defining Relative Clauses -We use commas (,). -A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about the person or thing.

Examples We know a lot of people who/that live in London A knife is a utensil that/which is used for cutting things We met a young couple whose car had broken down. The time when we met was at 5 oclock The place where we spent our holidays was really beautiful. My brother Jim, who lives in London, is a doctor. (THAT) My pocket knife, which is made of steel, cost over 50.(THAT) Amy, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood. 1992 was the year, when the Expo was celebrated in Spain. Glasgow, where my sister lives, is the largest city in Scotland


Modal verbs


things or animals

1. STATEMENTS: Jack said: "My wife went with me to the show yesterday." Jack said that his wife had gone with him to the show the day before. QUESTIONS WH- questions He asked me: "Why are you studying English?" He asked me why I was studying English. YES/NO questions She asked Peter: "Do you want to come with me?" She asked Peter if he wanted to come with her COMMANDS Affirmative. She ordered me: Wash your hands She ordered me to wash my hands. Negative. The teacher ordered us: Dont talk aloud! The teacher ordered us not to talk aloud.



Reported speech That Those Then That day The previous night, month, year..) The next/following day There The previous day/the day before







**We can leave out who / that / which/when/where when it is the object in a defining relative clause, i.e. when the relative clause has a subject +verb (e.g. We stayed at a hotel (that/which) Ann recommended to us).


Adjectives Too =demasiado Too + adjective e.g. he is too young to drive Adjective + enough e.g. he isnt old enough to drive

Nouns Too + noun e.g. there are too chairs Enough + noun e.g. there arent enough chairs

enough =suficiente

Adjective One-syllable adjectives Adjectives ending in -y Adjectives with two or more syllables Irregular adjectives Old



Comparative Adjective -er + than e.g. My father is older than yours. Adjective ier + than e.g. This car is noisier than the bike More + adjective + than e.g. Classic music is more boring than pop Better than Worse than Further than

Good Bad Far

Superlative The + adjective est e.g. My father is the oldest. The + adjective iest e.g. This car is the noisiest. The most + adjective e.g. This is the most boring film that Ive watched The best The worst The furthest