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In power system some kind of control strategy is introduced to generate and deliver power in interconnected system as economically and reliably as possible while maintaining the voltage and frequency within permissible limits. Change in real power affects mainly the system frequency, while reactive power is less sensitive to change in frequency and mainly depends on changes in voltage magnitude. Thus real and reactive powers are controlled separately. The load frequency control (LFC) loop controls the real power and frequency and the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) loop regulates the reactive power and voltage magnitude. Load frequency control (LFC) has gained in importance with the growth of inter-connected systems and has made the operation of interconnected systems possible. Today it is still the basis of many advanced concepts for the control of large system. The methods developed for control of individual generators, and eventually control of large interconnections, play a vital role in modern energy control centers. Modern energy control centers (ECC) are equipped with on-line computers performing all signals processing through the remote acquisition system known as supervisory control and data ACQUISITION (SCADA) systems.


In an interconnected power system, load frequency control (LFC) and automatic voltage regulator (AVR) equipment are installed f each generator. Figure(-) represents the schematic diagram of the load frequency control(LFC) loop and the automatic voltage regulator(AVR) loop. The controllers are set for a particular operating condition and take care of small changes in load demand to maintain the frequency and voltage level within specified limit. Small change in real power are mainly dependent upon change in rotor angle and, thus, the frequency.

Excitation System

Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) Voltage Sensor

Gen .field steam


Valve Control mechanism

PG, QG Ptie
Load frequeny control (LFC) Frequency sensor


Fig- .1, Schematic diagram of LFC and AVR of Synchronous Generator.

Load frequency control

The operation objective of the LFC are to maintain reasonably uniform frequency ,to divide between the generators, and to control the tie-line interchange schedules. The change in frequency and tie-line power are synced, which is a measure of the change in rotor angle , i.e. the error to be corrected. The signal, i.e. f and Ptie are amplified, mixed, and transformed into real power command signal Pv, which is sent to the prime mover to call for an increment in torque. The prime mover, therefore, brings change in the generator output by an amount Pg which will change the value of f and Ptie within the specified tolerance.

The first step in design and analysis of control system is mathematic modeling of the system. The two most common methods is transfer function method and state variable approach. The state variable approach can be applied to portray linear as well as nonlinear systems. In order to use transfer function and linear state equations, the system must first be linearized. Proper assumption and approximation and transfer function model is obtained for the following components.


Applying the swing equation of a synchronous machine to small perturbation, we have

= Pm-Pe
or in terms of small deviation in speed




With speed expressed in per unit, without explicit per unit notation, we have



Taking laplacetrans form, we obtain (s) =



The above relation is shown in block diagram form

Pm(s) Pe(s) Fig .2, Generator block diagram.


Load model
The load on power system consist of a variety of electrical devices. For resistive loas, such as lightning and heating load the electrical power is independent of frequency. Motor load is sensitive to frequency. How sensitive it is to frequency depends on composite speed-load characteristics of all the driven devices. The speed load characteristic is approximated by Pe = PL+D .5

Where PL is non frequency-sensitive load changes, and D is the frequency sensitive load change. D is expressed is present change in load divided by present change in frequency. So block diagram corresponding to equation .5.

- PL(S) Pm(S) (S)

Fig- .3 This block diagram can be expressed as following diagram

- PL(S) Pm(S) (S)

Fig- .4, Generator and load block diagram

Prime mover model

The source of mechanical power, commonly known as the prime mover, may be hydraulic turbine at water falls, steam turbine whose energy comes from the burning of coal, gas, nuclear fuel, and gas turbines. The model for turbine relates change in mechanical power output P m to change in steam valve position PV. Different types of turbine vary widely n characteristics. The simplest prime mover model for non reheat steam turbine can be approximated with a single time constant T , resulting the following transfer function.

GT =


So the corresponding block diagram is



Fig- .5, Block diagram of simple non-reheat steam turbine

GOVERNOR MODEL When the generator load is suddenly increased, the electrical power exceeds the mechanical power input. This power deviancy is supplied by kinetic energy stored in the rotating system. The reduction in kinetic energy causes the turbine speed and, consequently, the generator frequency to fall. The change in speed is sensed by turbine governor which acts to adjust turbine

input valve to change the mechanical power output to bring the speed to new steady state. The earliest governor was Watt governors which sense the speed by means of rotating Fly balls and provides mechanical motion in response of speed change. However modern governor uses electronic mean to scenes speed changes. Governor typically have a speed regulation of 56percen from no-load to full-load.the speed governor mechanism acts as comparator whose output Pg is the difference between the reference set power Pref and he power as given from governor seed characteristic. Pg = Pref -


In S-domain,

Pg(s) = Pref(s) - (S)


The command Pg is transformed through the hydraulic amplifier to the steam valve position command Pv. assuming the linear relationship and considering a simple time constant g, we have the following S-domain relation

Pv(s) =





(s) Fig .6, Block diagram of speed governing system for steam turbine

Now combining block diagram of figure no. .4, .5, .6. results in a complete block diagram of the load frequency control of an isolated power station is shown below.

PL(S) Pref(S) Pg Pv Pm (s)



Rotating mass and load

Fig. .7 , LFC block diagram of an isolated power system.

Redrawing the block diagram of figure .7 with the -PL as input and (s) as output results in given block diagram,



Fig. .8 , LFC block diagram with input -PL(S) and output (S) .