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1 Kwaku Okyere AST101: (Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe) Our Modern View of the Universe Star: a large

glowing ball of gas that generates heat and light through nuclear fusion in its core. The sun is a star. Planet: a moderately large object that orbits around a star and shines primarily by reflecting its light from its star. Object considered a planet if it (a) orbits a star; (b) is large enough for its own gravity to make it round; (c) has cleared most other objects from its orbital path. Object that meets the first two criteria is called a dwarf planet (Pluto). Moon (satellite): an object that orbits a planet. Satellite is also used more generally to refer to any objects orbiting another object. Comet: a relatively small and ice-rich object that orbits a star. Like asteroids, comets are considered small solar system bodies. Solar system: the Sun and all the material that orbits it, including planets, dwarf planets, and small solar system bodies. Although the term solar system technically refers only to our own star system, it is often applied to other star systems as well. Star system: a star (sometimes more than one star) and any planets and other materials that orbit it. Roughly half of all star systems contain two or more stars. Galaxy: a great island of stars in space, containing from a few hundred million to a trillion or more stars, all held together by gravity and orbiting a common center. Cluster (or group) of galaxies: a collection of galaxies bound together by gravity. Small collections (up to a few dozen galaxies) are generally called groups while larger collections are called clusters. Supercluster: a gigantic region of space where many individual galaxies are packed more closely together than elsewhere in the universe. Universe (or cosmos): the sum total of all matter and energy- that is, all galaxies and everything between them. Observable universe: the portion of the entire universe that can be seen from Earth, at least in principle. The observable universe is probably only a tiny portion of the entire universe. Astronomical units (AU): the average distance between Earth and the Sun, which is about 150 million km. More technically, 1 AU is the length of the semi-major axis of Earths orbit. Light-year: the distance that light can travel in 1 year, which is about 9.46 trillion km. Rotation: the spinning of an object around its axis, e.g. Earth spinning on its own axis.

2 Orbit (revolution): the orbital motion of one object around another, e.g. Earth orbits around the sun. Expansion of the universe: the increase in the average distance between galaxies as time progresses. Note that as the universe as a whole is expanding, individual galaxies and their contents (as well as groups and clusters of galaxies) do NOT expand. Geocentric universe Earth-centred universe; Earth part of the Milky Way galaxy The Big Bang Theory: telescopic observations of distant galaxies show that the entire universe is expanding meaning that the average distances between galaxies are increasing with time; implies that galaxies were much closer together in the past and if we go back far enough well reach a point at which expansion began. From observed rate of expansion, the Big Bang occurred approx. 14 billion years ago. Stars a star is born when gravity compresses the material in a cloud to the point where the center becomes dense and hot enough to generate energy by nuclear fusion (process in which lightweight atomic nuclei smash together and fuse to make heavier nuclei). Star lives as long as it can generate energy from fusion and dies when it exhausts usable fuel. Much of stars contents blow back out in space upon death. Massive stars die in huge explosions called supernovae. Light year one light year is the distance light can travel in one year. Planets in our solar system: (1) Mercury, (2) Venus, (3) Earth, (4) Mars, (5) Jupiter, (6) Saturn, (7) Uranus, (8) Neptune Dwarf planets (not part of our solar system) Pluto and Eris

Chapter 1 continued (Notes from class) *Make sure to go over chapter summaries on Blackboard* Chapter 2: Discovering the Universe for Yourself Constellation: a region of the sky with well-defined borders; some constellations are only available at certain times during the year winter, etc. Stars in a constellation may not be close to each other in space the just appear grouped together as seen from Earth. Constellations serve as a background used to detect the motions of solar system objects. The Local Sky the sky according to where you are standing. Horizon at 0 degress, zenith (top of the dome at 90 degrees, the meridian (the dome based on where you are standing), and the direction you are looking in. Angular size: angle an object appears to span in your field of view; measured b/t the two points of whatever object one is looking at e.g. the edges of the moon are about degrees apart. Units of angles arcminutes and arcseconds; dont automatically conclude that these terms relate to time when they actually relate to angles. Angular distance: distance between a pair of objects in the sky is the angle that appears to separate them. Angle and distance share a relationship. Circumpolar stars: stars that remain above the horizon and make daily counter-clockwise circles around the north celestial pole.

3 Latitude affects the constellations we see because it affects the locations of the horizon and zenith relative to the celestial sphere. *The altitude of the celestial pole in your sky is equal to your latitude.* Reason for seasons: the tilt of the Earths axis causes sunlight to fall differently on Earth at different times of year; hemisphere tipped toward the sun has summer, hemisphere tipped away has winter and vice versa.

Sidereal day: (means related to the stars; star time) Earths 23 hr and 56 minute day is measured by timing how long it takes any star to make one full circuit through our sky. Star time slightly shorter Sun time in context of a full day. Summer strikes the summer hemisphere at a steeper angle than it strikes the winter hemisphere, meaning sunlight is more concentrated which is why summer is hotter than winter. The steeper angle also means that the Sun follows a longer and higher path through the summer sky which is why the days are long and midday shadows are short. Seasons are caused only by the axis tilt of the Earth and NOT Earths distance from the Sun.

Solstices and Equinoxes The summer solstice (June): occurs around June 21, is the moment when the N. Hemisphere receives its most direct sunlight (vice versa for S. Hemi) The winter solstice (December): occurs around March 21 at the moment when the N. Hemi goes from being tipped slightly away from the Sun to being tipped slightly toward the Sun. The spring equinox (March): occurs around March 21 at the moment when the Northern Hemisphere goes from being tipped slightly away from the Sun to being tipped slightly toward the Sun. The fall equinox (September): occurs around September 22 and marks the opposite change, when the N. Hemisphere first starts to be tipped away from the Sun. Precession: a gradual wobble that changes the orientation of Earths axis in space. Lunar Phases Half the moon is always illuminated by the Sun, but the amount of this illuminated half that we see from the Earth depends on the Moons position in its orbit (phases in Figure 2.19). Lunar phases from new to full are said to be waxing (increasing) and phases from full to new are said to be waning (decreasing). We see half moons at first quarter and third quarter phases which mark the time when the Moon is one quarter or three quarters of the way through its monthly cycle (taken to begin a new moon). The phases just before and after a new moon are crescent, while those just before and after full moon are called gibbous. Eclipses (Lunar and Solar) A lunar eclipse: occurs when Earth lies directly between the Sun and the Moon so that the Earths shadow falls on the Moon. A solar eclipse: occurs when the Moon lies directly between the Sun and the Earth.

4 Nodes: the two points in each orbit at which the Moon crosses the surface (of the imaginary pond). Central umbra: where sunlight is completely blocked; surrounding penumbra: where sunlight is only partially blocked. Total lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through the Earths umbra; a partial lunar eclipse occurs when, during a less perfect alignment, only part of the moon passes through the Earths umbra; a penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes only through Earths penumbra. Totality occurs when the entire moon is engulfed in the Earths umbra. Total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is relatively close to Earth in its orbit, and the Moons umbra touches a small area of Earths surface. A partial solar eclipse occurs when the Moons penumbral shadow falls within the region of totality. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is relatively far from Earth, therefore the umbra may not reach Earths surface at all. Anyone directly behind the umbra sees an annular solar eclipse in which a ring of sunlight surrounds the disk of the Moon.

Chapter 2 (Notes from Class) Suns Rising and Setting Solar Time Meridian: the imaginary dividing line that splits the horizon into eastern and western hemispheres. A common misconception - seasons are caused by Earth being closer to or farther from the Sun. Earth is closest to the Sun in January; Suns angular size is largest. Earth is farthest from the Sun in July; Suns angular size is smallest. Tilt of Earths sin (23.5 degrees) has two effects: (1) concentration of sunlight on the ground when Earth is tilted toward the Sun the sunlight hits the ground more directly; tilted away, sunlight hits the ground at a slanting angle (2) Numbers of hours of daylight Earth is tilted toward the Sun it is up for more than 12 hrs; away from the Sun, it is up for less than 12 hrs.

Moon How do we know that the Moon orbits around the Earth? We see the Moon move in front of the background star patterns. Moons orbit takes about 27.3 days in order to return to the same constellation of stars. Phases of the Moon are due to the Moons orbit around Earth. The Moon has a day side facing the Sun and night side turned away from the Sun. As the Phases of the Moon Waxing crescent, waxing gibbous, first quarter, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent. Why does the Moons cycle take 29.5 days and not 27.3. Phases depend on the objects: Earth, Moon and the Sun. As the Moon orbits Earth, Earth is also orbiting the Sun. Because Earth has moved, the Moon needs about 2 more days to return to the same phase = relative alignment. Retrograde Motion We cannot investigate directly - this is astronomys challenge. We must think up an explanation.

5 Explanation # 1: Mars is orbiting around the Sun. We observe Mars from Earth, which is also orbiting around the Sun. Earth is a moving location and orbits faster than Mars. Explanation was thought up more than 2200 years ago.

Test of Retrograde Motion This explanation requires Earth to orbit around the Sun. The opposite sides of Earths orbit are 2 AU 300 000 000 km apart. Observing from opposite sides of Earths orbit, we look in different directions to see a nearby star (not Mars) The stars direction should appear to shift compared to background stars = parallax

Result of Parallax Test Greek astronormers (2200 yrs ago) look for parallax NO parallax was detected ; conclusion: Earth does not orbit around the Sun. Problem: parallax is too tiny to see without a telescope. Parallax not detected until 1838, 200 yrs after the idea, when technology finally caught up.

Chapter 3: The Science of Astronomy From Observing to Understanding (Notes from class) Look for regular behaviour seasons, phases of the moon Look for tends - hours of daylight increase and decrease with seasons Look for exceptions eclipses do not occur every month

The Greek Model (model as in an idea or concept) Greek astronomers were not great observers; Greek astronomers applied logic to understanding their observations Model lets us get close to our subject or what we are viewing

Earths Shape and Size Earth shape and size not obvious Observational evidence (2000 yrs ago) to work with: lunar eclipses are always curved (shadow of the Earth is curved)/ merchants travelling from Greece down into Africa saw unfamiliar stars The observational evidence CANNOT be correct if the Earth were flat; Earth being a sphere observations can be explained

Cosmic Calculation of Earths Size Angle = 7 degrees/360 degrees = distance from Alexandria to Syene/ Earths Circumference = Pie, Distance of the Earth Distance of Earth = Distance from Alexandria to Syene x 360 degrees/

6 Planetary Motion We observe the Sun, Moon, planets moving around us = Earth each day and we feel nothing Conclusion: Astronomers (2000 yrs ago) pictured Earth as stationary with the planets and stars (etc) with everything orbiting around the Earth (GEOcentric model)

Complication Models also contain our assumptions based on our beliefs

Retrograde Motion (again) Model 2 - conceived by Claudius Ptolemy in year 150 Geocentric and each planet is assumed to have a circular orbit around Earth. Each planet moves on a small circular orbit (epicycle) that moves along a large circular orbit (deferent) Retrograde on the inside of the epicycle orbit

End of the Geocentric Model Ptolemys model was a great success in the year 150 From 150 onward more and more observations of the planets were made 13th century team of astronomers needed 10 years to calculate and update (explanations that are complicated probably wrong?; look for another model)

Copernican Revolution Copernicus recalled that Greek astronomers had tried to explain retrograde motion through the heliocentric model Consider that idea that Earth orbits or revolves around the Sun revolutionary Simpler explanation won, but it was still assumed that the planets orbits were circular

Tycho and Kepler Tycho Brahe made the best observations possible before the telescope accurate to 1 = 1degree/60 the eyes limit Johannes Kepler analyzed Tychos observations for clues about the orbits of the planets. Kepler found that (1) planets do not have circular orbits. The orbits are elliptical (there is a close and far approach to the Sun). Ellipse has a major and minor axis. Average separation between planet and Sun = major axis = semimajor axis a. (2) Planets do not orbit at a constant speed highest orbits speed occurs at perihelion and vice versa. (3) There is a numerical relationship between a planets orbital period (P) and its average separation from the Sun (a) P2 =a3 (equation still used today) Peri (closest) hellion (Sun); ap (farthest) hellion (Sun) Numerical relationship (law 2) separation (up) x speed (down) = constant; separation (down) x speed (up) = constant

7 (My notes) Ptolmaic Model: the geocentric model of the universe stating that each planet moved on a small circle whose center moved around Earth on a larger scale which was developed by Ptolemy in about 50 A.D. Keplers three laws of planetary motion: (1) the orbit of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus (planets distance from the Sun varies during its orbit; closest at perihelion (near Sun) and farthest at aphelion (away from the Sun Greek) (2) As a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times meaning a planet moves a greater distance when it is near perihelion than it does in the same amount of time near aphelion planets travels faster nearer to the Sun and slower when its farther from the Sun. (3) More distant planets orbit the Sun at slower average speeds, obeying a precise mathematical relationship (p squared = a cubed) Scientific method: make observation ask a question suggest a hypothesis make a prediction perform a test (experiment or additional observation) fig. 3.2 page 71 Occams razor: idea that the simpler of two models that agree equally well with observations should be preferred by scientists. Chapter 4 (Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity) Speed tells us how far an object will go in a certain amount of time; velocity tells us both the speed and direction of an object; acceleration tells us if the velocity of the object is changing in any way, whether in speed or direction Acceleration of a falling object known as acceleration of gravity Momentum = mass x velocity; the only way to change an objects momentum is to apply force to it Net force overall force Mass the amount of matter something carries

Free-fall: falling without any resistance to slow you down. Newtons laws of motion: (1) An object moves at constant velocity unless a net force acts to change its speed or direction (2) A net force changes momentum; Net force = mass x acceleration (3) For any force, there is always an equal and opposite reaction force. Angular momentum: type of momentum used to describe objects turning in circles or going around in curves. Law of conservation of angular momentum: states that angular momentum can never change. An individual object can change its angular momentum only by transferring some angular momentum to or from another object. Law of conservation of energy: energy cannot appear from nowhere or disappear into nothingness. Kinetic energy: energy of motion, e.g. falling rocks or orbiting planets Radiative energy: all light carries energy which is why light can cause changes in matter, e.g. light altering molecules in our eyes.

8 Potential energy: energy that might be converted into kinetic or radiative energy, e.g. a rock perched on a ledge has gravitational potential energy because it will fall if it slips off the ledge. Joule: standard unit of energy. Thermal energy: subcategory of kinetic energy which represents the collective kinetic energy of the many individual particles moving randomly within a substance, like a rock. Temperature: measures the average kinetic energy of particles Kelvin temperature scale: does not have negative temperatures because it starts from the coldest possible temperature known as absolute zero (0 k) at which there are no random motions at all. Gravitational potential energy: energy that an object has by virtue of its position in a gravitational field; an object has more gravitational potential energy when it has a greater distance that it can potentially fall. Mass-energy: the potential energy of mass, which has an amount of E=mc2 . Universal law of gravitation: a law expressing the force of gravity (Fg) between two objects given by the formula - glossary G-14 for formula Gravitational constant: the experimentally measured constant G that appears in the law of universal gravitation. Bound orbits: orbits on which an object travels repeatedly around another object; bound orbits are elliptical in shape. Unbound orbits: orbits on which an object comes in toward a large body only once, never to return; unbound orbits may be parabolic or hyperbolic in shape. Newtons version of Keplers third law: this generalization of Keplers third law can be used to calculate the masses of orbiting objects from measurements of orbital period and distance. (equation in glossary G9) Orbital energy: the sum of an orbital objects kinetic and gravitational potential energies. Gravitational encounter: occurs when two (or more) objects pass near enough so that each can feel the effects of the others gravity and can therefore exchange energy. Escape velocity: the speed necessary for an object to completely escape the gravity of a large body such as a moon, planet, or star. Tidal force: a force that is caused when the gravity pulling on one side of an object is larger than that on the other side, causing the object to stretch. Synchronous rotation: describes the rotation of an object that always shows the same face to an object that is orbiting because its rotation period and orbital period are equal. Notes from class (chapter 4)

9 What is mass? The sum of all the matter (molecules and atoms) in an object is called mass; the number of molecules and atoms in an object is a HUGE number e.g. person = 10 to the exponent of 28 molecules and atoms Instead of counting the molecules and atoms, use a simple number (kilograms) to represent mass

What is weight? Weight is the force of gravity on the mass of an object; confusion because we often use the same unit (kg) for both mass and weight. Example an astronauts mass is the same on Earth and Moon, but the astronauts weight is different because the force is different (same mass, different weights)

Newtons law of gravity Gravity is a universal force between all objects having mass; force of gravity depends on both masses. The force of gravity also depends on the separation between the two objects. Greater separation --- weaker force; weakens as 1/(separation)2 (squared) = inverse square Universal law of gravitation see textbook for equation

Gravity Mass is always positive, gravity cannot cancel out. Gravity never stops even at the largest distances. Newtons derivative equation based on Keplers equation very important equation in astro observing p and a derive M1 and M2 M2 small, like tiny moon, we can ignore it and learn the value of M1

Tides and orbits Result as Earth and Moon rotate more slowly, they must move apart; predicted separation rate = a few cm/yr; measured separation rate = a few cm/yr Distance = speed of light x roundtrip time/2 (laser shone at mirror placed on the Moon to determine how far the Moon is moving away from Earth each year) As the Moon gets farther away, its angular size will be smaller than a degree The Moon will eventually become too small to block the Sun no more total solar eclipses

Forms of Energy (1) Energy of motion: kinetic energy e.g. falling object, orbiting moon or planet, heat (motion of molecules) 0C water freezes and 100 C water boils; 0K(elvin) = everything freezes = -273C (2) Energy of radiation: (3) Stored energy = potential energy e.g. Suns radiation makes plants grow energy of radiation is stored; another form of stored energy is gravitational potential energy work is done to lift an object up, kinetic energy released when the object is dropped

10 Conservation of Energy Total energy (sum of all forms) is conserved Energy can shift between various forms e.g. total energy = kinetic and potential energy; kinetic energy (arrow connected to both) Conserving total energy

Escape Velocity and Earths Atmosphere Earths gravity holds us on the ground e.g. jumping kinetic energy converted to gravitational energy; falling back to the ground gravitational potential into kinetic energy With enough speed (kinetic energy) it is possible to escape from Earths gravity Earths atmosphere is warmed by sunlight to about 20 C = 273 + 20 = 300 K (Variations in escape velocity) - A planets distance from Sun determines its temperature atmospheres ability to evaporate A planets mass and radius determines the strength of its gravity A planets mass affects it escape speed A planets radius affects escape speed e.g. Moons gravity cannot hold an atmosphere Chapter 5 Light: The Cosmic Messenger Visible light: the light our eyes can see, ranging in wavelength from about 400 to 700 nm. Electromagnetic spectrum: the complete spectrum of light, including radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet light, X rays, and gamma rays. Electromagnetic radiation: another name for light of all types, from radio waves through gamma rays. Wavelength: the distance between adjacent peaks (or troughs) of a wave. Frequency: describes the rate at which peaks of a wave pass by a point; measured in units of 1/s, often called cycles per second or herz. Electromagnetic wave: a synonym for light which consists of waves of electric and magnetic fields. Speed light: the speed at which light travels, which is about 300 000 km/s. Photons: an individual particle of light, characterized by a wavelength and a frequency. Infrared light: light with wavelengths that fall in the portion of electromagnetic spectrum between radio waves and visible light. Radio waves: light with very long wavelengths (and low frequencies) longer than those of infrared light. Microwaves: light with wavelengths in the range of micrometers to millimetres. Microwaves are generally considered to be a subset of the radio wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet light: light with wavelengths that fall in the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X rays.

11 Gamma rays: light with very short wavelengths (high frequencies) shorter than those X rays. Elements: a substance made from individual atoms of a particular atomic number. Atom: consist of a nucleus made from protons and neutrons in an atom. Protons: particles found in atomic nuclei with positive electrical charge, built from three quarks. Neutrons: particles with no electrical charge found in atomic nuclei, built from three quarks. Electrons: fundamental particles with negative electric charge; the distribution of electrons in an atom gives the atom its size. Nucleus: the compact center of an atom made from protons and neutrons. Electrical charge: a fundamental property of matter that is described by its amount and as either positive or negative; more technically, it is a measure of how a particle responds to the electromagnetic force. Atomic number: the numbers of protons in an atom. Atomic mass number: the combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom. Isotopes: each different isotope of an element has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. Emission (of light): the process by which matter emits energy in the form of light. Absorption (of light): the process by which matter absorbs radiative energy. Transmission (of light): the process by which light passes through matter without being absorbed. Reflection (of light): the process by which matter changes the direction of light. Scattered light: light that is reflected into random directions. Continuous spectrum: what a rainbow spanning a broad range of wavelengths without interruption is referred to as. Emission line spectrum: a spectrum that contains emission lines Intensity (of light): a measure of the amount of energy coming from light of a specific wavelength in the spectrum of an object. ions: atoms with a positive or negative electrical charge. Thermal radiation: the spectrum of radiation produced by an opaque object that depends only on the objects temperature; sometimes called blackbody radiation. Doppler effect: the effect that shifts the wavelengths of spectral features in objects that are moving toward or away from the observer.

12 Blueshift: a Doppler shift in which spectral features are shifted to shorter wavelengths, caused when an object is moving toward the observer. Redshift: a Doppler shift in which spectral features are shifted to longer wavelengths, caused when an object is moving away from the observer. Rest wavelengths: the wavelength of a spectral feature in the absence of any Doppler shift or gravitational redshift. Light collecting area (of a telescope): the area of the primary mirror or lens that collects light in a telescope. Angular resolution (of a telescope): the smallest angular separation that two pointlike objects can have and still be seen as distinct points of light (rather than as a single point of light). Refracting telescope: a telescope that uses lenses to focus light. Reflecting telescope: a telescope that uses mirrors to focus light. Light pollution: human-made light that hinders astronomical observations. Turbulence: rapid and random motion. Adaptive optics: a technique in which telescope mirrors flex rapidly to compensate for the bending of starlight caused by atmospheric turbulence. Interferometry: a telescopic technique in which two or more telescopes are used in tandem to produce much better angular resolution than the telescopes could achieve individually.

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