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CHARACTERISTIC OF COMMUNICATION Communication is the process by which information is passed between individuals.

It is a system of passing information, idea, messages, feelings etc between two or more people through previously agreed language, code, sign or symbol. Asemah (2011) emphasize that for there to be a meaningful communication between or among persons or groups, there has to be an agreed language, code, symbols or signs that is comprehended by all the actors particularly, between the sender and the receiver of the message. For communication to take place there must be shared meaning. It should be noted that communication does not have a beginning and surely does not have an end. As a result of feedback there is interchangeability of role between the source and the receiver. Every form of communication is aimed at influencing the receiver. Communication has been identified as (the process of) meaningful interaction with people in such a manner that the idea/thought is same and getting the feedback also. Communication is commonly defined as “the exchange of thoughts, ideas, feelings, information, opinions and knowledge”. It also involves mutuality of understanding (http://m.articles.com/self-i...).

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complaint system. suggestion system etc (See Non Verbal Communication 1. Lectures. touch. 1) instructions. memos. audio and visual media meetings. telephonic communication. information sharing. Fig. reports.verbal code. is another non. (Radio. Oral Communication: this is information spoken by mouth the use of speech. 2 . public address system (speech).Definition of Communication Communication is a meaningful interaction. informal rumour mill (grape vine). gestures. TV). 2. eye contact. some of the examples of oral communication are: Face to face communication. conference – interchange of views. Body Language – this includes facial expression. Verbal Communication 1. a link force. it is fundamental requisite of life. Some of the examples are: orders. information bulletin. letters. 2. cultural affairs. Written Communication: this is communication by means of written symbols (either printed or handwritten). postures. Forms/Types of Communication A. policy manuals. understanding. Para Language – this is the way we say something rather than what w say.

2) Sign Language – this is language which. Managing Teacher & Director e. Mother and child SOCIAL PUBLIC (12ft (4fts – infinity) e. (See Fig.c.g.g.t. 3 . 3) Communicati on Verba l Non Verbal Oral Written Body languag e Para languag e Space & Time Language Sign Langua ge FIG.. 1 Source: www. uses visually transmitted sign patterns.3.g.c.. 4. brother.c.g. It communicates status. family members FIG.universityparadise. Space & Time Language PERSONAL (18inches – 4feet) e. 12fts) e. instead of conveyed sound patterns. 2 INTIMATE (18inches) e.. Leaders. Space and Time Language: this includes surroundings (design and language). friends. sister.universityparadise. Source: student www.. (See Fig.

c. which may be to inform..universityparadise. Communication involves mutuality of understanding between sender and receiver. 5. verbal and non-verbal Elements of Communication Communication as a system means that it works through interrelated set of elements. entertain etc. Stimulus: This is the impulse that triggers off the communication exchange. Communication process happens between or among two or more parties (sender and receiver). It is a two way process. We can also call it the reason one has for communicating.. educate. Importance Characteristics of Communication 1. 4. There are two types of communication i. Communication involves exchange of ideas. feelings. and knowledge. We can identify about seven elements that are involved in communication process. thought. It takes place at the ideation stage of communication. information. 2.Sign Language VISUAL Painting. 3 AUDIO Fire Alarm Source: www. Red Light FIG. 4 .e. 3. They are: 1.

The channel then is the pathway. Medium could be regarded as the form adopted by the sender of the message to get it to the receiver. knowledge or experience etc. He is the one triggered by the stimulus and from him begins the communication activity. All the source/sender effort to communicate is to inform or affect the attitude of the receiver. A feedback is 5 . Channel provides a link that enables the source and the receiver to communicate.g. understood. the channel of radio. Feedback guides the source in communication process and helps him to know when to alter or modify his message if not properly received. encoder or sender. Receiver: This is the person to whom the message is sent. 4. received. a distinction is made between the two. information. sound. touch. 3. Medium/Channel: Medium and channel are generally used interchangeably. He is the target audience or the recipient of the message. As the encoder. 5. telephone etc. interpreted and acted upon. 6. route or conduit through which the message travels between the source and the receiver e. that the source/sender wants to share. He could be referred to as the initiator. Message: This could be the idea. It could be oral or written form. he packages the message in a way that it can be communicated and as the sender when he passes across the message by himself. Communication is incomplete without feedback. It may also be seen in term of the five physical senses.sight.2. That is why communication must be receiver-centred. It confirms that the message is well received and understood. television. newspaper. Feedback: This is the response or reaction of the receiver to the message sent. Source: This is the person who begins the communication process. But here. taste and smell-through which messages can be sent. thought. He is the initiator because he begins the communication process. opinion. feelings.

Noise: Noise is interference that keeps a message from being understood or accurately interpreted. tiredness etc IV. Physiological Noise: Results from interference from the body in form of body discomforts.positive when it shows that the message has been well received and understood and it could be negative when it shows that the intended effect has not been achieved. feeling of hunger. vehicular sounds. etc. sounds from workmen’s tools etc. emotional stress or disability. misspelling. 7. II. Psychological Noise: This comes from within as a result of poor mental attitude. And it could also be phonological manifested in incorrect pronunciation. Physical Noise: This comes from the environment and keeps the message from being heard or understood. Noise may be in different form: I. It may be semantic as in the wrong use of words or use of unfamiliar words. and faulty sentence structure. It may be from loud conversations. III. It may be a grammatical noise manifested in form of defects in the use of rules of grammar of a language. side-talks at meetings. depression. It is a potent barrier to effective communication. NATURES OF COMMUNICATION 6 . Linguistic Noise: This is from the source’s inability to use the language of communication accurately and appropriately.

Affective nature of communication – here our emotional responses (subjective evaluation) affect the way we communicate with other. According to Folarin( ) any observed effect may be accidental. Participants are able to understand each other (or one another) because of the shared codes of verbal and non-verbal – this is possible because of what Melvin De Fluer (1958) called “Significant symbol”. Transactional nature – during communication process both the source and the receiver constantly have impact on each other through symbolic behavior. Participants are obliged to adapt to these changes and effect. Communication is dynamic. Personal nature of communication – this mean that meaning attached to a message exists in the participant and notion the non-verbal symbols that is employed in communicating. iii. Any change in one of the element of communication process automatically brings about a change in the other elements and in the whole process.Michael Burgoon and Michael Ruffner (1978:8-13) posited that communication has the following natures. i. v. Consumatory purpose of communication – this is simply to provide satisfaction to the communicator without any intention to influence others or control the environment. Instrumental nature of communication: Here communication is seen as a tool to control our environment and to affect or influence other people. 7 . Taking a cursory look at communication Bert Bradley (1984:7-8) also draws attention to the following six characteristics of communication: 1. ii. not static: It involves changes and effects as the elements interact. iv.

This is saying that the placement of elements of communication is a product of the situation. Significance of Communication Asemah (2011) gave six significance of communication as follows. It is non-sequential – elements of communication process are not rigidly patterned. At conception stage of a baby. Throughout the stages of life the child interact with others and when he or she eventually dies at old age the corpse equally communicate something. It is continous: This is no beginning and no end to communication in a persons life. 4. 8 . At birth the baby announce (communicate) his or her arrival by cry.2. it is a linear or circular manner. the protruding belly communicates what is on the way. It is unrepeatable – an already given communication act cannot be recreated. It is complex: communication occurs at many levels and reflects many influences It is irreversible: The process of communication cannot be turned back e. that people want to quickly interred because of perceived danger of keeping it around for more than necessary period which might cause health hazard. 3. “Man cannot not communicate”. what has been said cannot be unsaid. A message once sent and received produces effects on later messages. 6.g. 5.

• Stimulation: This is the point at which the source sees the need to communicate. difficult for human beings to relate with one another. The Process of Communication Communication is a process because it is dynamic. 4. continuous and cyclical. 3. Communication serves as a means through which human beings establish relationship. 9 . workers can be oriented in business. develop and communicate with the people in our society. Interaction will be impossible without communication. 5.1. 6. This may be a feeling. With communication relationship with one and another is possible. But we may try to identify how the process begins. Communication helps us in meeting our needs through our interaction with others. companies etc so as to make them know about their business and to create perceptions. neither is there a rigid sequence of interaction. opinion. There is no recognizable beginning and end. He receives stimulus that triggers him to communicate. With communication. • Encoding: The source processes the message he want to communicate into a form that will be understandable to the receivers. • Reception: The receiver gets the message that is sent from the source. experiment etc. Communication serves as a means of social interaction. It will be absolutely 2. on-going. recursive. With communication we can know. Communication is the live wire of every nation. • Transmission: The message is passed across to the receiver through a chosen medium or channel.

understood and interpreted by the receiver. The basic operations of intrapersonal communication are to convert raw data from environment to information. in form of feedback. 1. to interpreter and give meaning to that information 10 .• Decoding: The message is processed. • Response: This the reaction of the receiver to the message received. Intra-personal Communication: This is essentially a neuro-physiological activity which involves some mental interviews for the purposes of information processing and decision making. The Osgood model of communication presented below shows that communication is both a system and process. Contexts of Communication Contexts here mean the different levels at which communication occurs. It can also be referred to as the kinds of communication that are available.

you are the only senderreceiver. Each participant functions as a sender-receiver.and to use such meaning. Public Communication: Here the (sender receiver) speaker sends a message (the speech) to an audience. you discard certain ideals and replace them with others. Group Communication This form of communication occurs among a small number of people for the purpose of solving problem. unstructured setting. In other words. 3. Because interpersonal communication is cantered in the self. Messages are also more structure in small groups because the group is meeting for a specific purpose. using the some channels as in interpersonal or small-group communication. their messages consist of both verbal and non-verbal symbols and the channels used mostly are sight and sound. which processes what you are thinking and feeling. 2. and there is also a good deal of opportunity for feedback. There is also feedback because you talk to yourself. It uses the same channels as are used in interpersonal communication. It also offers the greatest opportunity for feedback. The communication process in group communication is more complex than in interpersonal communication because the group members are made up of several sender-receivers. The speaker usually delivers a highly structured message. The message is made up of your thoughts and feelings and the channel is your brain. It also occurs in a more formal setting than in interpersonal communication. it is communication that occurs within you. there are more chances for confusion. though it may include more than two. The channels here are 11 . It occurs mostly between two people. 4. The group must be small enough so that each member has a chance to interact with all the other members. Interpersonal Communication: Is occurs when you communicate on a one-to one basis usually in an informal. As a result.

such as slides or the computer programme Power Point might be used. Mass Communication: Mass Communication is a means of disseminating information or message to large. The setting is also formal. 12 . Opportunity for verbal feedback is limited in most public communication. 5. It is the sending of message through a mass medium to a large number of people.more exaggerated than in interpersonal communication. anonymous. The voice is louder and the gestures are more expansive because the audience is bigger. Additional visual channels. and scattered heterogeneous masses of receivers which may be far removed from the message sources through the use of sophisticated equipment.

he may find it difficult to understand the message. In such cases.Your emotions could be a barrier to communication if you are engrossed in your emotions for some reason. our psychological frame of mind depends on our beliefs.Physical Barriers .Inability to converse in a language that is known by both the sender and receiver is the greatest barrier to effective communication.One of the major barriers of communication in a workplace is the physical barrier. goals and values. Stress . resentfulness and fear. Other distractions that could cause a physical barrier in an organization are the environment. Lack of Subject Knowledge . we fail to realize the essence of communication. you tend to have trouble listening to others or understanding the message conveyed to you. experiences. Physical barriers in an organization include large working areas that are physically separated from others. leading to communication distortion.If a person who sends a message lacks subject knowledge then he may not be able to convey his message clearly. and this could lead to a barrier to effective communication. anger. When a person uses inappropriate words while conversing or writing. At the time of stress. 13 . it could lead to misunderstanding between the sender and a receiver. When a person is under immense stress. Emotions . The receiver could misunderstand his message. background noise Language . A few of the emotional interferences include hostility. Thus.One of the major communication barriers faced by employees in most of the organization is stress.

The study would document the communication its types and forms not leaving alone it nature.METHODOLOGY The methodology adopted in this work will be Historical. models of communication. researchers and stakeholders in communication industries. The work will equally look into different communication scholars available from the beginning to the present moment. Books. The paper relied majorly on completed works of scholars. magazines. articles. its characteristics. 14 . journals would be consulted to give comprehensive study on media theories.

The understanding recognizes that all communication messages is a human construction which is dynamic. As we move deeply into ever. forms. CONCLUSION Having delved into communication genesis.evolving communication revolution. concept and feelings from one person to another. This information. emotions norms. its nature and significant. and people change. emotions norms. ideas. In this study we have looked at the essence of communication.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION SUMMARY We have taken holistic approach in looking at communication. we need an understanding of communication process and nature to guide our actions and decisions in message design and communication effort. types. who Wilbur Schramm described as the Sender. Communication is seen as the transmission of information. not leaving out noise. This dynamism can be readily seen in the 15 . concept and feelings so transmitted is a product of internal or external stimulus which prompts the originator of the message. ideas. Efforts has been made to looked at all the elements in communication process. nature and other elements and characteristics we will like to conclude that communication is central to human existence and therefore can never be ignored. which happen to be a determinant of the success and failure of any given communication process. technology. always changing as society.

transformation of our understanding of the process of communication itself. the communicator and the relationship between the source and receiver need to understand this change that determines the success and failure of any communication activities. 16 . New communication technologies have changed traditional notions of mass audience.

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..c.com/Q/chera. 18 .http://wiki.universityparadise. www.answers..