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Development of the Strut-andTie Method for Appendix A of pp the Building Code (ACI 318-08)

James K. Wight Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Michigan

Strut and Tie Modeling


Members or regions of members may be designed by idealizing the concrete and reinforcement as an assembly of axially loaded members, interconnected at nodes, to form a truss capable of carrying loads across a region or member.

Components of Strut and Tie Models

Steps to Build Strut & Tie Model


Isolate member or D(disturbed) - region Compute forces or distribution of stresses on boundary Represent stress distributions as forces Select a truss model to transmit these forces across the member or D-region

Concept of D-Regions (force discontinuities)

2h

Concept of D-Regions (geometric discontinuities)

h1 h1 h2

h2

Basic Requirements
Model approximates stress flow Define component dimensions and strengths Define and factors Analyze nodes and anchorage Select reinforcement details

Modeling Stress Flow

Modeling Stress Flow in D-Regions (Dapped Beam)

How to Select the Correct Strut-and-Tie Model


Some researchers suggest using a finite element model to determine stress trajectories, then selecting a STM to model the stress flow. Generally a STM that minimizes the Generally, required amount or reinforcement is close to an ideal model.

Required Definitions for Code


Geometric rules to follow when creating a strut-and-tie model. Component strengths for determining members sizes and final geometry of the model model.

Other Codes with Rules for Use of Strut-and-Tie Models


AASHTO LRFD Specification Canadian Code for Design of Concrete Structures (CSA Standard, 2004) FIP R Recommendations (1996) f d ti for Practical Design of Structural Concrete

Strength of Compression Struts (what to consider)


Longitudinal cracking due to transverse tension strain Transverse tension forces Sustained loads Reinforcement grid crossing strut Confinement by concrete or steel

Lateral Expansion of Strut (bottle-shaped strut)

Effective Compressive Strength of Struts


Fns Fu
= 0.75
Fns = f cu Ac Ac = min. cross-sectional area of strut f cu = 0 85 s f c 0.85

AASHTO and CSA Evaluation of Effective Concrete Strength


s f c =
f c 0.85 f c 0.8 + 1701

Trans. tension strain, 1 = (s + 0.002) cot2s s = angle between strut and tie (steel) s = strain in steel tie

FIP Recommendations for s in Cracked Struts


0.80 - struts with longitudinal cracking (splitting), but crossed by minimum reinforcement grid 0.75 - struts crossed by normal width cracks 0.60 - struts crossed by wide cracks

ACI Recommended s Values for Struts


1.0 prismatic shape (constant width) over its length, length similar to a flexural compression zone in a B-region 0.75 inclined (bottle-shaped) strut crossed by minimum reinforcement grid 0.60 inclined bottle-shaped strut not crossed by minimum reinforcement grid; where accounts for lightweight concrete 0.40 struts in flexural tension zones

Struts in a Flexural Tension Zone


A

Sect. A-A

Minimum Reinforcement Grid (fc 6000 psi)


2 1 2 1 Strut centerline

A si sin i 0.003 b si

(A 4)

Reinforcement Grid (only horizontal bars)

Min. Reinf. Grid in other Codes


AASHTO 0.003 EW CSA 0.002 EW FIP 0.001 EF, EW

Modification for Higher Strength Concrete


For concrete strengths above 6000 psi (41 MPa), must calculate required amount of transverse reinforcement crossing strut. This procedure can result in a significant difference when compared to requirements of ACI Eq. (A-4).

Modification for Higher Strength Concrete


Assumed Slope = 2 longitudinal/1 transverse

Required t R i d transverse tie capacity = 50% of strut strength

Tie Dimensions
Full width (out or plane) of member Width (in plane) of tie is function of effective compression strength of concrete in nodes where tie is anchored Spread reinforcement throughout tie dimensions

Tie - Dimensions and Strength

Asfy

Strength of Ties
Strength = As fy, where = 0.75* Anchorage of ties at nodes is a major concern
*A constant value of = 0.75 is to be used for sizing the strut-and-tie model, but the use of = 0.75 to also select the reinforcement may need further examination within the appropriate Code subcommittee.

Anchorage Check

Definition of Extended Nodal Zone

Nodal Zone Shape and Dimensions


Width of compression face is same as width of strut connecting to nodal zone (smaller allowable strength governs) Height (width of face perpendicular to tie force) of nodal zone is equal to tie force divided by effective compressive strength of the concrete in the node

Node Shape and Size

Effective Strength of Nodal Zones


Function of type of members connected to the node Possible combinations are CCC, CCT and CTT S Strength can b enhanced b addition h be h d by ddi i of confinement reinforcement

Examples of CCC and CCT Nodes

Examples of CCT and CTT Nodes

Examples of CCT and CTT Nodes

Strength of Nodes
Fnn Fu
= 0 75 0.75
Fnn = f cu An
A n = area of node face to force Fu

f cu = 0.85 n f c

Recommended n Values (Nodes)


1.0 - CCC node 0 8 - CCT node 0.8 0.6 - CTT node

Use of STM in the ACI Code


Appears in Appendix A in 318 08 Code. 318-08 Code However, Is listed as alternate procedure in several sections of the code (e.g. corbels, short shear walls). Currently required for shear strength design of deep beams.

Example: ACI Concrete International Magazine, May 2003


640 k (includes member weight) 20 in. in All member widths = 20 in.

60 in.

dv

16 in. 428 k

16 in.

53 in.

107 in.

212 k

Beam Dimensions and Initial Truss Model


640 k
20 in. in

All member widths = 20 in.

60 in.

dv

16 in.

16 in.

428 k

53 in.

107 in.

212 k

Check Max. Allowable Shear Force


Max. Max shear force = 428 k
Max. All. Shear Force = 10 f c bw d

Vn (max) = 0.75 10

4000 20 54 = 512 k (o.k.) 1000

Assumed that d 0.9h

Splitting of Node 2
428 k 212 k 3 2 dv = ? 212 k

1 = 42.2o

2 = ?
50.2 in. 10 in.

2
50.2 in.

49.7 in. 428 k

Establish Truss Geometry: Start with left portion of the beam


Assumes heights of Nodes 1 & 2 = 15 in. Thus, dv = 60 in. 2(7.5 in.) = 45 in. (1140 mm) From geometry: tan 1 = (45in./49.7in.), And thus 1 = 42.2 deg.

Initial Truss Geometry


428 k 212 k 3 dv = 45 in. 212 k 2

1 = 42.2o

2 = ?
50.2 in. 10 in.

2
50.2 in.

49.7 in. 428 k

Establish Equilibrium at Node 1


F12 F14 Fy = 428 - F12sin 1 = 0 F12 = 637 k Fx = F14 F12cos 1 = 0 F14 = 472 k

428 k

Geometry and dimensions of Node 1 and Strut 1-2

w14
1

b1

Establish/Check Dimensions at Node 1


fcu(1) = (0.85) n fc' = 0.750.850.804
= 2.04 ksi
Rl 428 = = 1.34 ksi (o.k.) bw l b1 20 16

f (base) =

w14 =

F14 472 = = 11.6 12 in. bw f cu (1) 20 0.75 2.72

Establish/Check Width and Strength of Strut 1-2


w12 = w14 cos (1 ) + l b1 sin (1 ) w12 = 8.89 + 10.8 = 19.7 in.
f cu (1-2) = 0.85 s f c = 0.85 0.75 4 = 2.55 ksi

Fns (1-2) = f cu (1-2) w12 bw Fns (1-2) = 0.75 2.55 19.6 20 = 757 k 637 k (o.k.)

Modified Truss Geometry and Member Forces


Thus, height of Node 1 = 12 in. Because Node 2 is a CCC node, assume it has a total height of 10 in. Then, Then dv = 60 (12 + 10)/2 = 49 in in. Reestablish truss geometry and member forces!

Final truss geometry and member forces


428 k 212 k 217 k 2 212 k 3 dv = 49 in. 212 k

1 = 44.6o

434 k

2 = 44.3o

4 217 k 2 50.2 in.

49.7 in. 428 k 10 in.

50.2 in.

Select Reinforcement for Tie 1-4


As (reqd .) = q ) F14 434 = = 9.64 in.2 f y 0 75 60 0.75

Select 13 No. 8 bars, As = 10.3 in.2

3 in. 3 in. 3 in. 20 in.

Check Anchorage at Node 1

a = 6 in./tan 1 a = 6.09 in.


Tie 1-4 1 6in. Critical section b1 = 16in. a

Total anchorage Length 22.1 in.

Check Anchorage at Node 1


l dh = 0.02 e f y db = 0.02 1 60, 000 1.0 in. 1 4000

f c

l dh = 19.0 in. (> 8d b and > 6 in.)


Although dh is less than 22 in., this would be a tight fit if only 90 hooks were used. In-plane 180 hooks could be y p used for some bars to partially relieve this rebar detailing problem. The use of mechanical anchorage devices could also be considered.

Minimum Reinforcement Crossing Strut 1-2


2 1 2 1 Strut centerline

A si sin i 0.003 b si

Minimum Reinforcement Crossing Strut 1-2 for s = 0.75


This reinforcement is to control the growth and width of cracks crossing the strut. Because this is a deep beam, I recommend that you also satisfy ACI Code Sections 11.7.4 and 11.7.5. Also because this is a deep flexural member Also, member, the minimum skin reinforcement requirements of ACI Code Section 10.6.7 must be satisfied.

Final design in left span


2 #4 per layer

3 in.

6 at 8 in. Four #4 legs

13 #8

3 at 3 in. 20 in.

Comments on right half of truss


428 k 212 k 217 k 2 212 k 3 dv = 49 in. 212 k

1 = 44.6o

434 k

2 = 44.3o

4 217 k 2 50.2 in.

49.7 in. 428 k 10 in.

50.2 in.

Analysis of fan-shaped struts 2-4 and 3-5, and tie 3-4


60in. 2 3
25o

22in.

49in.
25o

4 22in. six stirrups at s = 10 in. 104 in.

Final design of longitudinal and transverse steel


Section A

5 at 10 in. 2 in.

15 at 6 in. 2 in.

Gracias Preguntas?