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# Development of the Strut-andTie Method for Appendix A of pp the Building Code (ACI 318-08)

## Strut and Tie Modeling

Members or regions of members may be designed by idealizing the concrete and reinforcement as an assembly of axially loaded members, interconnected at nodes, to form a truss capable of carrying loads across a region or member.

## Steps to Build Strut & Tie Model

Isolate member or D(disturbed) - region Compute forces or distribution of stresses on boundary Represent stress distributions as forces Select a truss model to transmit these forces across the member or D-region

2h

## Concept of D-Regions (geometric discontinuities)

h1 h1 h2

h2

Basic Requirements
Model approximates stress flow Define component dimensions and strengths Define and factors Analyze nodes and anchorage Select reinforcement details

## How to Select the Correct Strut-and-Tie Model

Some researchers suggest using a finite element model to determine stress trajectories, then selecting a STM to model the stress flow. Generally a STM that minimizes the Generally, required amount or reinforcement is close to an ideal model.

## Required Definitions for Code

Geometric rules to follow when creating a strut-and-tie model. Component strengths for determining members sizes and final geometry of the model model.

## Other Codes with Rules for Use of Strut-and-Tie Models

AASHTO LRFD Specification Canadian Code for Design of Concrete Structures (CSA Standard, 2004) FIP R Recommendations (1996) f d ti for Practical Design of Structural Concrete

## Strength of Compression Struts (what to consider)

Longitudinal cracking due to transverse tension strain Transverse tension forces Sustained loads Reinforcement grid crossing strut Confinement by concrete or steel

## Effective Compressive Strength of Struts

Fns Fu
= 0.75
Fns = f cu Ac Ac = min. cross-sectional area of strut f cu = 0 85 s f c 0.85

## AASHTO and CSA Evaluation of Effective Concrete Strength

s f c =
f c 0.85 f c 0.8 + 1701

Trans. tension strain, 1 = (s + 0.002) cot2s s = angle between strut and tie (steel) s = strain in steel tie

## FIP Recommendations for s in Cracked Struts

0.80 - struts with longitudinal cracking (splitting), but crossed by minimum reinforcement grid 0.75 - struts crossed by normal width cracks 0.60 - struts crossed by wide cracks

## ACI Recommended s Values for Struts

1.0 prismatic shape (constant width) over its length, length similar to a flexural compression zone in a B-region 0.75 inclined (bottle-shaped) strut crossed by minimum reinforcement grid 0.60 inclined bottle-shaped strut not crossed by minimum reinforcement grid; where accounts for lightweight concrete 0.40 struts in flexural tension zones

A

Sect. A-A

## Minimum Reinforcement Grid (fc 6000 psi)

2 1 2 1 Strut centerline

A si sin i 0.003 b si

(A 4)

## Min. Reinf. Grid in other Codes

AASHTO 0.003 EW CSA 0.002 EW FIP 0.001 EF, EW

## Modification for Higher Strength Concrete

For concrete strengths above 6000 psi (41 MPa), must calculate required amount of transverse reinforcement crossing strut. This procedure can result in a significant difference when compared to requirements of ACI Eq. (A-4).

## Modification for Higher Strength Concrete

Assumed Slope = 2 longitudinal/1 transverse

## Required t R i d transverse tie capacity = 50% of strut strength

Tie Dimensions
Full width (out or plane) of member Width (in plane) of tie is function of effective compression strength of concrete in nodes where tie is anchored Spread reinforcement throughout tie dimensions

## Tie - Dimensions and Strength

Asfy

Strength of Ties
Strength = As fy, where = 0.75* Anchorage of ties at nodes is a major concern
*A constant value of = 0.75 is to be used for sizing the strut-and-tie model, but the use of = 0.75 to also select the reinforcement may need further examination within the appropriate Code subcommittee.

Anchorage Check

## Nodal Zone Shape and Dimensions

Width of compression face is same as width of strut connecting to nodal zone (smaller allowable strength governs) Height (width of face perpendicular to tie force) of nodal zone is equal to tie force divided by effective compressive strength of the concrete in the node

## Effective Strength of Nodal Zones

Function of type of members connected to the node Possible combinations are CCC, CCT and CTT S Strength can b enhanced b addition h be h d by ddi i of confinement reinforcement

## Examples of CCT and CTT Nodes

Strength of Nodes
Fnn Fu
= 0 75 0.75
Fnn = f cu An
A n = area of node face to force Fu

f cu = 0.85 n f c

## Recommended n Values (Nodes)

1.0 - CCC node 0 8 - CCT node 0.8 0.6 - CTT node

## Use of STM in the ACI Code

Appears in Appendix A in 318 08 Code. 318-08 Code However, Is listed as alternate procedure in several sections of the code (e.g. corbels, short shear walls). Currently required for shear strength design of deep beams.

## Example: ACI Concrete International Magazine, May 2003

640 k (includes member weight) 20 in. in All member widths = 20 in.

60 in.

dv

16 in. 428 k

16 in.

53 in.

107 in.

212 k

640 k
20 in. in

60 in.

dv

16 in.

16 in.

428 k

53 in.

107 in.

212 k

## Check Max. Allowable Shear Force

Max. Max shear force = 428 k
Max. All. Shear Force = 10 f c bw d

Vn (max) = 0.75 10

## Assumed that d 0.9h

Splitting of Node 2
428 k 212 k 3 2 dv = ? 212 k

1 = 42.2o

2 = ?
50.2 in. 10 in.

2
50.2 in.

## 49.7 in. 428 k

Assumes heights of Nodes 1 & 2 = 15 in. Thus, dv = 60 in. 2(7.5 in.) = 45 in. (1140 mm) From geometry: tan 1 = (45in./49.7in.), And thus 1 = 42.2 deg.

## Initial Truss Geometry

428 k 212 k 3 dv = 45 in. 212 k 2

1 = 42.2o

2 = ?
50.2 in. 10 in.

2
50.2 in.

## Establish Equilibrium at Node 1

F12 F14 Fy = 428 - F12sin 1 = 0 F12 = 637 k Fx = F14 F12cos 1 = 0 F14 = 472 k

428 k

w14
1

b1

## Establish/Check Dimensions at Node 1

fcu(1) = (0.85) n fc' = 0.750.850.804
= 2.04 ksi
Rl 428 = = 1.34 ksi (o.k.) bw l b1 20 16

f (base) =

w14 =

## Establish/Check Width and Strength of Strut 1-2

w12 = w14 cos (1 ) + l b1 sin (1 ) w12 = 8.89 + 10.8 = 19.7 in.
f cu (1-2) = 0.85 s f c = 0.85 0.75 4 = 2.55 ksi

Fns (1-2) = f cu (1-2) w12 bw Fns (1-2) = 0.75 2.55 19.6 20 = 757 k 637 k (o.k.)

## Modified Truss Geometry and Member Forces

Thus, height of Node 1 = 12 in. Because Node 2 is a CCC node, assume it has a total height of 10 in. Then, Then dv = 60 (12 + 10)/2 = 49 in in. Reestablish truss geometry and member forces!

## Final truss geometry and member forces

428 k 212 k 217 k 2 212 k 3 dv = 49 in. 212 k

1 = 44.6o

434 k

2 = 44.3o

50.2 in.

## Select Reinforcement for Tie 1-4

As (reqd .) = q ) F14 434 = = 9.64 in.2 f y 0 75 60 0.75

## a = 6 in./tan 1 a = 6.09 in.

Tie 1-4 1 6in. Critical section b1 = 16in. a

## Check Anchorage at Node 1

l dh = 0.02 e f y db = 0.02 1 60, 000 1.0 in. 1 4000

f c

## l dh = 19.0 in. (> 8d b and > 6 in.)

Although dh is less than 22 in., this would be a tight fit if only 90 hooks were used. In-plane 180 hooks could be y p used for some bars to partially relieve this rebar detailing problem. The use of mechanical anchorage devices could also be considered.

## Minimum Reinforcement Crossing Strut 1-2

2 1 2 1 Strut centerline

A si sin i 0.003 b si

## Minimum Reinforcement Crossing Strut 1-2 for s = 0.75

This reinforcement is to control the growth and width of cracks crossing the strut. Because this is a deep beam, I recommend that you also satisfy ACI Code Sections 11.7.4 and 11.7.5. Also because this is a deep flexural member Also, member, the minimum skin reinforcement requirements of ACI Code Section 10.6.7 must be satisfied.

2 #4 per layer

3 in.

## 6 at 8 in. Four #4 legs

13 #8

3 at 3 in. 20 in.

## Comments on right half of truss

428 k 212 k 217 k 2 212 k 3 dv = 49 in. 212 k

1 = 44.6o

434 k

2 = 44.3o

50.2 in.

60in. 2 3
25o

22in.

49in.
25o

## Final design of longitudinal and transverse steel

Section A

5 at 10 in. 2 in.

15 at 6 in. 2 in.

Gracias Preguntas?