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Interview Questions for Sys Admin/ Net Admin 61 Interview Questions for System Administrator / Network Administrator General

Questions Q. Please describe the technical environment of your current (or most recent) position. ? A. When describing the technical environment that you currently support, be sure to include the number of users you support, the number of IT staff, the technical infrastructure including servers, types of connections, desktop operating systems, your job duties, and your work schedule. You should be prepared to talk about each of the positions you have listed on your rsum in this way. Also be prepared with a follow-up statement of your most significant accomplishment. Q. How do you keep your technical knowledge and skills current? A. Keeping your skills current demonstrates initiative and a desire to perform at high standards. Be prepared with a list of resources including professional groups.? Q. Please describe your greatest technical challenge and how you overcame it.? A. Ah, an opportunity for a story. Great examples to draw on: how you taught yourself a new operating system, the installation of a complex system, integration of multiple systems, building of an e-commerce web site. Q. What are some of the tools you use to make your job easier? A. All network administrators have a bag of tricks. You should share some of your trade secrets as a way of demonstrating that you can be efficient in your job as a network administrator. These can include ghosting tools, troubleshooting tools, and documentation tools. Q. How do you document your network? A. One of the toughest parts of network administration is keeping track of an always changing environment. You must have basic documentation for user administration, file system planning, and address planning. Share your documentation with your interviewer. Planning Questions The interviewer will be interested in your network planning methodologies. The following questions provide insight into these skills.

Q. What are some of the things you need to take into consideration when planning an upgrade from one network operating system to another? A. This is the mother of all planning activities because it will affect so many resources. The key here is testing and backups and thats what the interviewer wants to hear. Other considerations include: Network documentation Ensuring that your hardware meets the minimum hardware requirements for the new operating system Creating a test network for testing the compatibility of applications, hardware, and drivers with the new operating system Gathering all updated drivers and patches/service packs required for upgrade compatibility Identifying workflow issues before converting Separating workstation conversions from server conversions Ensuring you have backups of data and the servers so that you can revert back Network addressing scheme Q. Describe the backup/restore policy you use most.? A. First of all, the interviewer wants to ensure that you do backups! There are different methods, but the most common backup strategy used is to perform incremental backups Monday through Thursday and a normal backup on Friday. An alternative backup strategy is to perform differential backups Monday through Thursday and a normal backup on Friday. Q. How would you ensure that your servers are secure? A. Security always begins at the physical levelit makes little difference that youve provided all the security the operating system and software can provide if someone can walk away with the box or the portable hard drive. The next step is to ensure you have the latest service packs for the operating system and applications running on the server. Installation Q. What steps do you go through as part of your server installation process? A. The interviewer wants to know whether your typical work habits are to just jump in or whether you do some planning. You obviously want to ensure that your hardware meets the minimum requirements, that you have all the right drivers for the new operating system, and whether you need a ROM upgrade for your hardware. Depending on how many installations youve done, you may have a process that you like to follow. If you do, describe it to the interviewer. Q. How do you determine which file system is best for your environment?

A. This question tests how well you plan for a variety of different environments. The key here is to take into consideration the file format support required for backward compatibility with other operating systems like NetWare or older versions of Windows NT. Youll also want to make sure theres enough disk space for drivers and files that must reside in the system partition, as well as space for a dump file if anything goes wrong. Q. Whats the first thing you should do after installing the network operating system? A. This is a test of your security skills. The first thing you should do is either change the password on the administrator account or change the name of the account itself. Q. You just installed a service pack on the e-mail, SQL, print, and file servers. You rebooted all the servers, and now the service pack installation is complete. Whats the final step for the evening? A. The interviewer wants to make sure that testing is an integral part of your routine whenever you install software or make updates to systems. You may also want to review the Event Viewer logs and look for any errors that have been registered. Its a good idea to also examine the administrative interfaces for SQL and the e-mail server to satisfy yourself that no anomalies have appeared there. Configuration Ninety percent of your day is spent configuring network services, whether its installing applications, creating users, or adding printers. Q. What methods are available for configuring a WINS server for use by various Microsoft computers? A. This question demonstrates to the interviewer that you are familiar with the various methods for configuring routing using WINS. You can either configure the WINS server manually or by way of a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server. Q. A user has left the company and you need to create a new user with the same rights and permissions. What are some of the ways to create the new user? A. By asking you to describe multiple ways of getting the job done, the interviewer can assess your experience level with the operating system. Some of the correct answers to this question include the following: You could copy an existing users account to create a new account. However, the rights and permissions for the new, copied account will be based purely on its group memberships, not permissions granted strictly to the original account itself.

Using Active Directory, you could use the CSVDE.exe program to create a new account with specific group memberships; however, this program is usually intended for bulk creation of accounts in your domain. You could create the new account from scratch, assigning group permissions or individual rights manually. Q. What are some of the alternative ways for mapping a drive letter to a file server if you wish to connect to one of the servers shared folders? A. This question tests your experience by asking for alternate methods of getting the job done. In addition to mapped drives you can use a Universal Naming Convention path: \\servername\ sharename. You can also browse the Network Neighborhood. Q. You shared a printer from your NT server. What could you do to ensure that the printer is easily accessible to your Windows 98 clients? A. You may have to support older clients on your network. This question tests your experience with older technology. In this case, you should load the Windows 98 printer drivers on the share point. Q. How large can I make a file allocation table partition using the NT operating system? A. This question tests your familiarity with system capabilities and limitations. The maximum FAT partition size is 4 gigabytes. Q. Is it necessary for an NT client computer to use the servers name in that UNC path? A. There are typically multiple ways of accomplishing the same task. Thank goodness, because you sometimes need them while troubleshooting. Using very basic questions, the interviewer can assess your real knowledge and experience with various operating systems. In this case, you can also use the servers TCP/IP address. Q. We are creating a web site on our NT server using Internet Information Server 4.0. We expect users to log on anonymously. How many client access licenses must we purchase to allow up to 100 simultaneous connections to our web site? A. This is a trick question to see if you understand the concept of user licensed connections. Anonymous logons on IIS 4.0 do not require client access licenses. Troubleshooting Q. A user contacts you and reports that their Windows 2000 workstation is having trouble connecting to the Web. You run the ipconfig command on the computer and you find that the computer is not referencing the correct primary DNS server. What must you do to remedy this?

A. Using this question, the interviewer can assess your routing troubleshooting skills, an essential part of network administration. In this case, you would want to check the primary DNS setting in the IP configuration of the computer. If ipconfig shows a setting for the default DNS server other than what you want, this means the computers IP configuration is incorrect. Therefore, the Windows 2000 client computer needs to be reconfigured. Q. Users are complaining of slow performance when they run server-based applications. The server has the following specifications: > Compaq 1600 > 800 MHz Pentium 3 > 256MB of RAM > 18GB EIDE hard drive > 10/100 NIC > Connected to a Cisco switch The performance monitor shows the following: Memory Pages/Sec: 5 Physical Disk % Disk Time: 20 percent Processor % Processor Time: 90 percent What is the best way to improve the systems performance? A. This question tests your knowledge of server optimization. In this case, the recommendation should be to upgrade the processor. Microsoft recommends you do so if the CPU utilization averages over 70 to 75 percent. Q. A user is having trouble sharing a folder from their NT Workstation. What is a likely cause? A. The interviewer is testing your basic knowledge of rights. In order to share a folder you must be logged on as an administrator, server operator (in a domain), or power user (in a workgroup). Q. Youve shared a folder and set the share permissions to Everyone = Full Control. However, none of the users can save information in the folder. Whats the likely cause? A. This is another question that tests your knowledge of permissions. The likely cause is that someone has set the NTFS permissions in a more restrictive manner than the share permissions. Between those two categories of permissions, the more restrictive of the two always applies to users accessing the folder over the network. Q. What is the most likely cause for the failure of a user to connect to an NT remote access server?

A. Supporting remote users may be a big part of your job. Its important to understand the proper configuration and troubleshooting of the NT RAS. In this case, the user must be granted the RAS dial-in permission. Q. A remote user in Montana, who is not technical and is scared to death of computers, calls for help. The user logged in to your network via the terminal server. You determine that the solution to the users problem requires an edit of a hidden read-only file, deleting a system file in the winnt\system32 folder, and creating a simple batch file on the users computer. What tools would you use to resolve this problem? A. This question tests your ability for remote troubleshooting. An administrator can edit these files on the users computer by connecting to it over the network via the Computer Management console in Windows 2000. Using this console, you can access the administrative shares (C$, D$, and so on) that represent the partitions on the users computer. From there, you can edit or create any files necessary to repair the problem. Windows NT Networking Questions Windows NT is still the most popular operating system around. You should be comfortable with this environment to be able to respond to the following questions that an interviewer may ask you. Q. Why is Windows Internet Name Server needed in a Windows NT domain? A. An important part of network administration is setting up the server and clients so they can find one another. WINS is necessary to achieve NetBIOS name resolution. Your desktop clients can then log on to the domain, and the domain controllers can authenticate to one another. Q. What is the normal replication interval between the primary domain controller and the backup domain controller? A. The PDC waits five minutes after a change in the domain database before pulsing, or notifying, the BDCs. Q. How can you synchronize a BDC immediately? A. Within the server manager, select the BDCs account, choose the Computer menu, and select Synchronize With Primary Domain Controller. Q. Users change their passwords in the NT domain every 30 days. Our primary domain controller is in New York, but we have users in our California office. When a California user changes their password, will they be able to use the new password immediately, or must they wait for replication to occur to a backup domain controller in California?

A. You must have a firm grasp of replication. In this case, waiting for a replication will not be necessary. If a BDC doesnt recognize a users password, it will automatically appeal to the PDC to establish its validity. Q. Ive created logon scripts for my users on the primary domain controller. Ive correctly mapped them in the properties of my users accounts. Some run, some do not. What should I check next? A. The scripts should be replicated to all of your backup domain controllers. The domain controller that validates the logon is the one that runs the script. Q. Is it possible to create a domain account from an NT member server? A. Yes. By using User Manager for Domains, you can create the account from the member server. The account will actually be created on the primary domain controller, however. Q. Someone just dropped a safe on our primary domain controller. What should we do next? A. You should promote one of your backup domain controllers to become the primary domain controller. Q. After the promotion, what happens if we bring the old PDC back online? A. When the old PDC gets back online, its Netlogon service will fail. You can resolve this through Server Manager by first demoting it to a backup domain controller and then promoting it to a primary domain controller. Q. One of your users logs on to the domain from his NT Workstation. Due to a network failure the following day, he is unable to contact a domain controller when he tries to log on. Can the user log on with his domain account? A. Yes. He will be able to log on with locally cached credentials. Q. Someone deleted the account of one of my backup domain controllers in Server Manager. When the BDC boots up, it is unable to authenticate to the primary domain controller, and its Netlogon service fails. What can I do? A. Either restore the account from a backup or reinstall the backup domain controller from scratch. Q. How can I promote one of my member servers to become a backup domain controller? A. You cant. You must reinstall the entire operating system as a domain controller (either a backup or primary domain controller). Q. Does it matter which of my domain controllers I upgrade to Windows 2000 first?

A. Yes. You must upgrade the primary domain controller to Windows 2000 before any of the backup domain controllers. Q. What about the member servers and workstations? Must I upgrade them in any particular order? A. No. member servers and workstations can be upgraded in any order. Active Directory In order to manage an Active Directory Services environment, you must be comfortable with planning, security and permissions, authentication, and synchronization. The following questions may be asked by the interviewer to assess your experience with performing these functions. Q. What rights must your logged-in account have when creating a Windows 2000 forest? A. You must understand rights and permissions thoroughly. In this instance, the account must have administrative rights on the Windows 2000 server used to create the new forest. Q. What rights must your account have when adding a domain to an existing forest? A. In this case, you must be a member of the Enterprise Administrators group. Q. My account has the proper rights, but when I try to create a new domain I get an error message stating that the Domain Naming Master cannot be contacted. What does this mean? A. An experienced network administrator will be able to readily troubleshoot for problems such as this one. This scenario can mean network connectivity issues or a failed Domain Naming Master, which is the domain controller for the forest root domain. Q. Why is Domain Name System (DNS) so important to an Active Directory forest? A. As a network administrator you must understand name resolution. DNS is critical to your forest because it possesses all of the service (SRV) records. These records indicate the TCP/IP address and port necessary to locate a specific service offered by a server. Q. Does the DNS server have to be a Windows 2000 server? A. This is a trick question. DNS is independent of Windows 2000 and so the answer is no. To support Active Directory, the DNS server must support two BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) version standards: 4.9.6 (SRV records) and 8.1.2 (dynamic updates).

Q. What rights does a user need in order to create computer accounts in an Active Directory domain? A. By default, a user only needs to be recognized as a member of the Authenticated Users group to add workstations to a domain. This permission is established in the Default Domain Controllers policy, and permits users to create up to ten accounts. Q. Is it possible to have entirely separate domain name spaces within the same forest? A. When it comes to Active Directory, you must have a thorough understanding of forest limitations. In this case, you can have multiple domain name spaces within the same forest. Q. Do clocks synchronize automatically between Windows 2000 computers? A. This question tests your understanding of Active Directory synchronization. Clocks do synchronize only within a domain. The Primary Domain Controller Emulator handles this task for you. But there is no server that automatically synchronizes clocks between your separate domains. Q. To create Group Policy objects in a domain, what group must you be a member of? A. You must be a member of the Group Policy Creator Owners group in your domain to create these objects. Q. Is it possible to prevent the application of a Group Policy to a user account within one of our organizational units? A. To prevent the application of a Group Policy to a user, you would deny the Read and Apply Group Policy permissions to the user in that organizational unit. Q. Is it possible to schedule replication between two domain controllers in Active Directory? A. This question assesses your knowledge of configuration options for domain controllers within Active Directory. In this case, place the domain controllers in different sites. Then set the schedule on the Site Link object that connects the sites. Q. My Windows 98 users cannot search for published objects in our Active Directory domain. How do I add this capability to their computers? A. Add the DSClient utility to their computers from the Windows 2000 Server CD. Q. What are some of the ways of propagating permissions set on an Active Directory object to lower-level child objects?

A. Administering security is a big part of an administrators job. One way to accomplish this task is the following: On the Security tab of the parent object, click the Advanced button. Using the special permissions list, be sure to select Apply ontoThis object and all child objects. Another method is to use the Delegation of Control Wizard. Q. An organization is running a web site using Internet Information Server 5.0 on a Windows 2000 Server. The site allows both Anonymous and Integrated Windows authentication. When our domain users connect to the site, which authentication method is used? A. Understanding authentication modes is a critical part to troubleshooting and effectively securing resources. In this case, they will authenticate as the Anonymous account. An exception to this would be seen if the Anonymous account lacked permissions to a particular resource on the web site, in which case Integrated Windows authentication would be attempted. Q. How can I move the Active Directory database and log files to a different drive on the domain controller? A. This can be accomplished by rebooting the domain controller using Directory Services Restore Mode and running the ntdsutil tool. Q. An administrator accidentally deleted an entire organizational unit containing 200 users from our domain. How can you recover the organizational unit? A. Everyone has these types of situations. You must know how to recover from these mistakes. In this case, rebooting a domain controller using Directory Services Restore Mode and conducting an authoritative restore of the OU from a backup will solve the problem. Q. We demoted our Primary Domain Controller Emulator to become a member server in our domain. What do we need to do to transfer the PDC Emulator role to another domain controller? A. This question tests how well you understand how the PDC Emulator works. In this situation, the role was automatically transferred when the former PDC Emulator was demoted. 1. Describe how the DHCP lease is obtained. A. Its a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request, (b) IP offer, IP selection and (d) acknowledgement. 2. I cant seem to access the Internet, dont have any access to the corporate network and on ipconfig my address is 169.254.*.*. What happened? A. The 169.254.*.* netmask is assigned to Windows machines running 98/2000/XP if the DHCP server is not available. The name for the technology

is APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing). 3. Weve installed a new Windows-based DHCP server, however, the users do not seem to be getting DHCP leases off of it why.? A. The server must be authorized first with the Active Directory. 4. How can you force the client to give up the dhcp lease if you have access to the client PC? A. ipconfig /release 5. What authentication options do Windows 2000 Servers have for remote clients? A. PAP, SPAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and EAP. 6. What are the networking protocol options for the Windows clients if for some reason you do not want to use TCP/IP? A. NWLink (Novell), NetBEUI, AppleTalk (Apple). 7. What is data link layer in the OSI reference model responsible for? A. Data link layer is located above the physical layer, but below the network layer. Taking raw data bits and packaging them into frames. The network layer will be responsible for addressing the frames, while the physical layer is responsible for retrieving and sending raw data bits. 8. What is binding order? A. The order by which the network protocols are used for client-server communications. The most frequently used protocols should be at the top. 9. How do cryptography-based keys ensure the validity of data transferred across the network? A. Each IP packet is assigned a checksum, so if the checksums do not match on both receiving and transmitting ends, the data was modified or corrupted. 10. Should we deploy IPSEC-based security or certificate-based security? A. They are really two different technologies. IPSec secures the TCP/IP communication and protects the integrity of the packets. Certificate-based security ensures the validity of authenticated clients and servers. 11. What is LMHOSTS file? A. Its a file stored on a host machine that is used to resolve NetBIOS to specific IP addresses. 12. Whats the difference between forward lookup and reverse lookup in DNS?

A. Forward lookup is name-to-IP address, the reverse lookup is IP addressto-name.

General Questions =============== 10. Pretend Im a manager, and explain DNS to me.
Windows is increasingly tied to domain name resolution, and the bigger your company gets, the thornier DNS problems become. If they can verbalize how end users computers make DNS requests and how forwarders work, and then if they can toss in Active Directory, theyve solved some enterprise problems.

Starting with a generic open-ended question like that tests a candidates communication skills, too. Bonus points for making a tough concept seem easy.

9. Whats a Windows profile? When would you delete one, and what gets deleted?
If youre looking for someone to do desktop support, they should have at least a vague idea of where the users data can be stored. Bonus points if they can explain where common application settings are stored, what the Registry is, and how roaming profiles work.

8. When an end user says a file went missing, what do you do?
End users delete files all the time, but before you recover it from backup, first do a search on the drive to make sure they didnt drag & drop it to another folder. (Normally I dont give interview answers here, but that ones an exception.) Then, after they explain that, Id ask them to cover things like VSS snapshots, end user recovery in Explorer and how to restore from their favorite backup program.

7. How do you recover one SQL Server database or one Exchange mailbox?
Different backup systems have different ways of dealing with this, so I may not be able to vet their exact answer if I havent used the same backup system theyre using. However, I can do a pretty good job of sniffing out when someone doesnt understand the complexities involved. If they shrug and just say I click restore and its done, then theyre bluffing.

For example, when restoring an Exchange mailbox, do you really want to pave over every email the user has received since the last backup? Or does the user just need one or two important emails pulled out of the archive?

6. If you get hired and you can pick any laptop, what do you get?
I wanna see em get all excited. I wanna see em giddy with glee at the thought of picking out their own shiny new hardware. The more excited they get, the more I know systems administration is a way of life for them, not just a hobby.

5. Whats the first software youd install?

Hardcore sysadmins have their own favorite tools they like to use. Listen with an open mind, too the more sysadmins you interview, the more cool tools youll discover. If they mention a tool you havent used before, drill into it. Find out why they use it and how it saves them time. If its a tool theyre passionate enough to mention, then they can probably describe some underlying concepts and technologies involved, and itll give you more confidence that they know what theyre doing.

4. What do the letters PST mean to you?

I want to know if theyve experienced the pains (both technical and legal) involved with these files. How do they back up PST files if the end user leaves their laptop online all the time? Are there any size concerns with PST files? Is there a good way to use PSTs?

3. Whats PowerShell, and how do you feel about it?

I dont necessarily need PowerShell experience (although its a big plus for Windows sysadmins) but I want to know that theyre at least vaguely aware of the concept and what it means. Bonus points if they can relate scripting to the *nix world, and if they bring up Windows Core.

2. Are you involved with any local user groups?

Be it Windows or just a hardware hacker group, I love candidates who love communities. I like seeing someone get so involved in what they do that they seek out other people who share similar interests.

1. What do you want to do next?

Windows Administrator L1 Interview Question ========================================= 1. What is the different between Workgroup and Domain? A. Domain Server has Centralized Control Where else Workgroup has no Centralized Control Domain Network has higher level of security when compared to Workgroup. Domain Network Implementation and Maintained cost is very less when compared to that of workgroup.

Time constrain is very less when compared to that of a Workgroup. Administrator has overall control on the network where else workgroup has no control. 2. How will you assign Local Administrator rights for domain user? Navigate to Local User and Groups add the domain users to administrators group in the local system. 3. How will you restrict user logon timing in domain? Navigate to Active Directory Users and Computers, User Properties -> Account tab --> logon times and restrict the user logon timing as needed. 4. What is the purpose of sysvol? The sysvol folder stores the server's copy of the domain's public files. The contents such as group policy, users, and groups of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. The sysvol folder must be located on an NTFS volume. 5. What is OU? Explain its Uses. Organization Unit is set of active directory object within a domain. It is used to design an organization structure, Restrict users visibility and to delegate control. 6. Explain different edition of windows 2003 Server? Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition: - is aimed towards small to medium sized businesses. Standard Edition supports file and printer sharing, offers secure Internet connectivity, and allows centralized desktop application deployment. Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition: - is aimed towards medium to large businesses. It is a full-function server operating system that supports up to eight processors and provides enterprise-class features and support for up to 32 GB of memory.

Windows Server 2003, Web Edition: - is mainly for building and hosting Web applications, Web pages, and XML Web Services. Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition: - is the flagship of the Windows Server line and designed for immense infrastructures demanding high security and reliability.

7. What is DNS Server? Domain Name System is used to resolve domain host names to IP Address and also used to resolve IP Address to Domain host Names. It has two zones. Forward and Reverse Lookup Zones. Forward Lookup Zone resolve Domain host names to IP address. Reverse Lookup Zone is used to resolve IP address to Domain host Names. Some records associate with DNS are: A Record binds host Name with IP Address PTR Record binds IP Address to host Name 8. Why DNS server is required for Active Directory? The key reason for integrating DNS with AD is that client server communication takes place with Domain Name. Network needs IP address to reach the destination; In order to resolve Domain host Names to IP Address we need DNS Server. If DNS Server is not configured properly the network becomes slow and messy. 9. What is the Purpose of A and PTR Record? A Record OR Host Record is used to bind a host Name with IP Address. PTR Record is used to bind an IP Address with host Name. 10. What is the purpose of DHCP Server?

DHCP Server is used to assign IP address automatically to all the clients computers. It is useful in large enterprise network, where we may not able track the IP address and also used to avoid IP conflict. 11. Explain about Scope in DHCP Server? Scope is collective information of assigning IP address for clients. It contains information like IP Address Range, Exclusion Range, Lease Period, Reservation, Router IP Address, DNS Address, etc. Based on the scope configuration DHCP allocates IP address to its entire client. 12. Explain about Group Scopes? 13. How will you backup DNS Server? Backup the directory %System Root%\System32\DNS. 14. How will backup DHCP Server? First Method: Backup the directory in the %System Root%\System32\DHCP folder. Alternate method: Open DHCP Console select server to backup and restore DHCP database. 15. Explain APIPA. A Windows-based computer that is configured to use DHCP can automatically assign itself an Internet Protocol (IP) address if a DHCP server is not available or does not exist. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved for Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA). 16. Explain about AD Database. Windows 2003 Active Directory data store, the actual database file, is %System Root%\NTDS\NTDS.DIT. AD Database will have all the information such as User Accounts, Groups, Computer Information, Domain Controller information, Group Policy, Organization Unit, etc. 17. Explain about Group Policy. Group policies are used by administrators to configure and control user environment settings. Group Policy Objects (GPOs) are used to configure group policies which are applied to sites, domains, and organizational units (OUs) .There is a maximum of 1000 applicable group policies.

18. What is the default time for group policy refresh interval time? The default refresh interval for policies is 90 minutes. The default refresh interval for domain controllers is 5 minutes. Group policy object's group policy refresh intervals may be changed in the group policy object. 19. Explain Hidden Share. Hidden or administrative shares are share names with a dollar sign ($) appended to their names. Administrative shares are usually created automatically for the root of each drive letter. They do not display in the network browse list. 20. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Requests are on UDP port 68, Server replies on UDP 67. 21. How do I configure a client machine to use a specific IP Address? By reserving an IP Address using client machine MAC or Physical address. 22. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. AD Integrated Zones allow Secure Dynamic Updates. I.e. there will not be any duplicate or unwanted records. Since all the information are validated in active directory. By creating AD- integrated zone you can also trace hacker and spammer by creating reverse zone. AD integrated zones are stored as part of the active directory and support domain-wide or forest-wide replication through application partitions in AD.

23. How do you backup & Restore AD?

Using Windows NTBackup Utility. In Backup select systemstate will include active directory backup. Restore the Same using NTBackup Utility. 24. How do you change the DS Restore admin password? Using NTDSUTIL tool. 25. How can you forcibly remove AD from a server? Using the command dcpromo /forceremoval 26. What will be the problem if DNS Server fails? If your DNS server fails, No Client will able to reach the Domain Controller, which will create authentication and Control Issues. 27. How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine? The Group Policy Object Editor and the Software Restriction Policies extension of Group Policy Object Editor are used to restrict running certain applications on a machine. For Windows XP computers that are not participating in a domain, you can use the Local Security Settings snap-in to access Software Restriction Policies. 28. What can you do to promote a server to DC? Using the command dcpromo 29. How will map a folder through AD? Specify the network share path (UNC) in the active directory users home directory. 30. Explain Quotas. Disk Quota is a feature or service of NTFS which helps to restrict or manage the disk usage from the normal user. It can be implemented per user user per volume basis.By default it is disabled. Administrative privilege is required to perform the task. In 2003server we can control only drive but in 2008server we can establish quota in folder level. 31. Explain Backup Methodology.

The different types of backup methodologies are:

Normal Backup:-This is default backup in which all files are backed up even if it was backed up before.

Incremental Backup:-In this type of backup only the files that havent been backed up are taken care of or backed up.

Differential Backup:-This backup is similar to incremental backup because it does not take backup of those files backed up by normal backup but different from incremental because it will take backup of differentially backed up files at next time of differential backup.

System Backup:-This type of backup takes backup of files namely, Boot file, COM+Class Registry, Registry. But in server it takes backup of ADS.

ASR Backup:-This type of backup takes backup of entire boot partition including OS and user data. This should be the last troubleshooting method to recover an os from disaster. 32. Explain how to publish printer through AD. Navigate to Active Directory Users and Computers, Create new printer and add the printer i.e. the printer share name (UNC) Path. Automatically the printer will be published in Active Directory. 33. Explain the functionality of FTP Server? File Transfer Protocol is used transfer large volume of files and huge number of files simultaneous between different geographic locations. 34. Specify the Port Number for AD, DNS, DHCP, HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3 & FTP AD - 389 DNS - 53

DHCP - 67,68 HTTP - 80 HTTPS - 443 SMTP - 25 POP3 - 110 FTP - 21,22 35. Explain Virtual Directory in IIS? A virtual server can have one home directory and any number of other publishing directories. These other publishing directories are referred to as virtual directories. 36. What is Exclusion Range in DHCP Server? Exclusion Range is used to hold a range IP addresses. Those IP Address can be used or may not be used in the network, but DHCP server does not assign those IP to its client. 37. Explain SOA Record. Start Of Authority (SOA) Records indicate that Name Server is authoritative server for the domain. 38. What command is used to clear DNS cache in client PC? Ipconfig /flushdns 39. Explain Secure Dynamic Updates in DNS Server. Only when installing active directory and DNS in the same server (AD Integrated Zones) we can select Secure Dynamic Updates. Then all the records will automatically be updated in DNS. Since all the information is validated in active directory there will not be any duplicate or unwanted records. 40. Explain FRS in detail.

File Replication Service is a Microsoft service which replicates folders stored in sysvol shared folders on domain controllers and distributed file system shared folders. This service is a part of Microsofts active directory service. 41. Explain the protocol involved in ADC replication. Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is the protocol used in ADC replication. 42. Explain the difference between Patches and Service pack. Patches are fixes, updates or enhancements for a particular program whereas service packs include a collection of all. 43. What is WSUS? WSUS is Windows Software Update Services. It is server provided by Microsoft free of cost to manage patches for windows environment centralized. 44. How client server communication takes place in WSUS server? Using Web Server or Web Services 45. What is the difference between Dynamic Disk and Basic Disk? Basic Disk: Basic Disk uses a partition table to manage all partitions on the disk, and it is supported by DOS and all Windows versions. A disk with installed OS would be default initialized to a basic one. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partition, and all logical partitions are contained in extended partition. Dynamic Disk: Dynamic Disk is supported in Windows 2000 and later operating system. Dynamic disks do not use a partition table to track all partitions, but use a hidden database (LDM) to track information about dynamic volumes or dynamic partitions on the disk. With dynamic disks you can create volumes that span multiple disks such as spanned and striped volumes, and can also create fault-tolerant volumes such as mirrored volumes and RAID 5 volumes. Compared to a Basic Disk, Dynamic Disk offers greater flexibility. 46. What is maximum Size of file system NTFS and FAT32?

NTFS - 16TB FAT32 - 4GB 47. What is hosts files? The hosts file is a computer file used in an operating system to map hostnames to IP addresses. The hosts file is a plain-text file and is traditionally named hosts. 48. What is lmhosts files? The lmhosts files are a computer file used in an operating system to map NetBIOS name. It is equivalent that of WINS. 49. Explain About Global Catalog. Global catalog contains a complete replica of all objects in Active Directory for its Host domain, and contains a partial replica of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest. 50. Name some OU design considerations. It is used to design an organization structure, Restrict users visibility and to delegate control. 51. Name a few benefits of using GPMC. GPMC is used to customize group policys. It is easy to maintain different OU policy effectively. Provide option to take backup and restore group policy. 52. You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper, My Documents, Start menu, printers etc.) on the computers in one department. How would you do that? Configure Group Policy based on OU.

53. By default, if the host name is not found in the cache or local hosts file, what is the first step the client takes to resolve the FQDN name into an IP address? Create a record in DNS Server 54. You are administering a network connected to the Internet. Your users complain that everything is slow. Preliminary research of the problem indicates that it takes a considerable amount of time to resolve names of resources on the Internet. What is the most likely reason for this? DNS Issues 55. Describe how the DHCP lease is obtained. Its a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request, (b) IP offer, (c) IP selection and (d) acknowledgement. 56. I cant seem to access the Internet, dont have any access to the corporate network and on ipconfig my address is 169.254.*.*. What happened? The 169.254.*.* netmask is assigned to Windows machines running 98/2000/XP if the DHCP server is not available. The name for the technology is APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing). 57. Weve installed a new Windows-based DHCP server, however, the users do not seem to be getting DHCP leases off of it. The server must be authorized first with the Active Directory. 58. How do you configure mandatory profiles? Rename ntuser.dat to ntuser.man 59. What is Page File and Virtual Memory? Page File Is Storage Space For The Virtual Memory, Page File Uses Hard Disk Space As a Memory To Provide Memory Allocation... 60. What is the difference between DNS in Windows 2000 & Windows 2003 Server?

We can rename or move the domain name without rebuilding in windows 2003 server, but in windows 2000 server, we can't do that. 61. Where are group policies stored? %SystemRoot%System32\Group Policy 62. What are GPT and GPC? Group policy template and group policy container. 63. Where is GPT stored? %System Root%\SYSVOL\sysvol\domain name\Policies\GUID 64. You change the group policies, and now the computer and user settings are in conflict. Which one has the highest priority? The computer settings take priority. 65. What hidden shares do exist on Windows Server 2003 installation? Admin$, Drive$, IPC$, NETLOGON, print$ and SYSVOL.

Network Administrator Interview Questions ============================================== 1. To monitor ipx traffic on a network, what command would you use? Show ipx traffic 2. What command would you use to find out the names of Novell servers on a network? show ipx servers 3. "arpa" is used by the Cisco IOS for which encapsulation types? Ethernet_II

4. To prevent Service Advertisements (SAPs) from flooding a network, Cisco routers do not forward them. How are services advertised to other networks? Each router builds its own SAP table and forwards that every 60 seconds. 5. Which type of Ethernet framing is used for TCP/IP and AppleTalk? Ethernet SNAP 6. Which type of Ethernet framing is used for TCP/IP and DECnet? Ethernet II 7. Which NetWare protocol works on layer 3--network layerof the OSI model? IPX 8. Which NetWare protocol provides link-state routing? NLSP 9. What is the Cisco name for the encapsulation type used on a serial interface? HDLC 10. IGRP uses flash updates, poison reverse updates, holddown times, and split horizon. How often does it broadcast its routing table updates? 90 seconds 11. When using RIP, routing updates are broadcast every ____ seconds. 30 12. A default route is analogous to? Default gateway 13. What does the command "IP name-server" accomplish?

It sets the domain name lookup to be a local broadcast. 14. How would you configure one host name that points to two IP addresses? IP host jacob 15. Which IP Address Class can have 64,000 subnets with 64,000 hosts per subnet? Class B 16. There are two processes to pair MAC address with IP addresses. Which process finds an IP address from a MAC address? RARP 17. Where would network testing be included in an IP packet? IP Options field 18. What field tells the Internet layer how to handle an IP packet? Type of Service 19. What is the UDP datagram format? Source Port - 16 bits, Destination Port - 16 bits, Length - 16 Bits, Checksum - 16 bits, Data 20. What is the function of DDR on Cisco routers? DDR is dial-on-demand routing. It provides routing for low volume and periodic traffic. It initiates a call to a remote site when there is traffic to transmit. 21. When using access lists, what does a Cisco router check first? The first thing checked is to see if the packet is routable or bridgeable. If it is not, the packet will be dropped. 22. What do the following statements in an extended access list accomplish? access-list 101 deny TCP eq 21

access-list 101 deny TCP eq 20 access-list 101 permit TCP This will block ftp traffic since ftp uses ports 20 and 21. 23. Which protocol for PPP LCP (Link Control Protocol) performs a challenge handshake? CHAP 24. Which form of PPP error detection on Cisco routers monitors data dropped on a link? The Quality protocol monitors data dropped on a link. Magic Number avoids frame looping. 25. Which protocol for PPP provides load balancing across multiple links? Multilink Protocol (MP) 26. Which OSI layer end to end communication, segmentation and reassembly? Layer 4 the Transport layer performs this function. 27. What IP command would you use to test the entire IP stack? Telnet is an application and it resides at the top of the stack it traverses down the stack and up the stack at the receiving end. 28. What is the default bandwidth of a serial connection? Default bandwidth is T1. 29. Which OSI layer handles physical address, network topology? Layer 2 the Data-Link layer performs this function. 30. Which OSI layer establishes maintains and terminates sessions between hosts? Layer 5 the Session layer performs this function. 31. Where Cisco IOS is stored?

By default the Cisco IOS is stored in flash. 32. Which layer is responsible for providing mechanisms for multiplexing upper-layer application, session establishment, and tear down of virtual circuits? The Transport layer does the following: Responsible for end-to-end integrity of data transmission. Handles multiplexing upper-layer application, session establishment and tear down of virtual circuits. Hides details of network dependent info from the higher layers by providing transparent data transfer. The 'windows' works at this level to control how much information is transferred before an acknowledgement is required. 33. What's the default CDP holdtime in seconds for Cisco routers? Cisco Discovery Protocol is a proprietary protocol to allow you to access configuration information on other routers and switches with a single command. It uses SNAP at the Data-Link Layer. By default CDP sends out a broadcast every 60 seconds and it holds this information for 180 seconds. CDP is enabled by default. Compiler: --- A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming language and turns them into machine language or "code" that a computer's processor uses. Typically, a programmer writes language statements in a language such as Pascal or C one line at a time using an editor. The file that is created contains what are called the source statements. The programmer then runs the appropriate language compiler, specifying the name of the file that contains the source statements. Loader:--In a computer operating system, a loader is a component that locates a given program (which can be an application or, in some cases, part of the operating system itself) in offline storage (such as a hard disk), loads it into main storage (in a personal computer, it's called random access memory), and gives that program control of the compute. Linker: -- Linker performs the linking of libraries with the object code to make the object code into an executable machine code. 8. What is boot processing computer? As soon as the CPU is turned on, it initializes itself and looks for ROM BIOS for the first instruction which is the Power on Self-Test (POST). This process checks the BIOS chip and then the CMOS RAM. After checking everything and detecting no power failure, it checks the hardware devices

and the storage device. Then CMOS looks through the boot sequence of drives to find the OS. The boot sequence is the sequence of drives which the CMOS scans to find OS and load it. Generally, OS is stored in C drive. If it is not found there, the next drive to scan is a drive that is the floppy drive. Hence on finding the OS, it is loaded. Its files are copied to main memory by BIOS, and from here, the Os takes the charge of boot process like loading device drivers etc. 9. What is the difference between x86 and i386 computer? X86 refers to a popular set of instructions most commonly used in processors from Intel, AMD, VIA, and others. It usually implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386 (a.k.a. i386). i386 (as eluded to above) is the common name for the Intel386 (or 80386) based PCs. It is sometimes emphasized as x86-32 (for 32-bit) and x86-64 (also called x64 - for 64-bit). 10. What are the difference between FAT32 and NTFS? NTFS : Operating System - Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003 Server and Windows Vista: Max Volume Size - 2TB Max Files on Volume - Nearly Unlimited Max File Size - Limit Only by Volume Size Max Clusters Number - Nearly Unlimited Max File Name length - Up to 255 characters Built-In Security, Recoverability, Maximum Disk Space Economy, Maximum Fault Tolerance. FAT32: Operating System - DOS v7 and higher, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000 & Windows XP: Max Volume Size - 32GB for all OS. 2 TB for some OS. Max Files on Volume 4194304. Max File Size - 4GB minus 2 Bytes. Max Clusters Number 4177918. Max File Name Length - Up to 255 characters. No Built-In Security, No Recoverability, Average Disk Space Economy , Minimal Fault Tolerance. 11. What is NV RAM?

Non volatile read write memory also called flash memory, it is also known as shadow RAM. 12. What is called scratch pad of computer? Cache memory is scratch pad of computer. 13. What is the difference between RAM and ROM? RAM: Read/Write memory, it performs at High speed, Volatile memory. ROM: Read only memory, it performs at Low speed, Non-volatile memory. 14. What is cache memory? Cache memory is a small high speed memory. It is used for temporary storage of data& information between the main memory and the CPU. The cache memory is only in RAM. 15. What is the difference between primary& secondary storage device? Primary storage: Capacity is Limited, volatile memory. Secondary storage: Capacity is larger, Non-volatile memory. 16. Which processor structure is pipelined? All X86 processor have pipelined structure. 17. What are the differences between Windows XP, 2000 professionals and Windows server 2003? Windows XP, Windows 2000 is a client operating system .where as Windows server 2003 is server operating system. Windows XP and 2000 is 32 bit while server is 64 bit. 18. What is virtual memory? Virtual Memory is a way of extending a computers memory by using a disk file to simulate adds memory space. The OS keeps track of these adds memory addresses on the hard disk called pages, and the operation in bringing in pages is called page fault. 19. What is a real time system? A real time system is a computer system that updates the information at the same rate it receives it. It is of two types,

hard real time system and a soft real time system. 20. What is stack? Stack is a portion of RAM used for saving the content of Program Counter and general purpose registers. 21. Can ROM be used as stack? ROM cannot be used as stack because it is not possible to write to ROM. 22. What is a compiler? Compiler is used to translate the high-level language program into machine code at a time. It doesnt require special instruction to store in a memory, it stores automatically. The Execution time is less compared to Interpreter. 23. What is interrupt? Interrupt is a signal send by external device to the processor so as to request the processor to perform a particular work. 24. Difference between static and dynamic RAM? Static RAM: No refreshing, 6 to 8 MOS transistors are required to form one memory cell, Information stored as voltage level in a flip flop. Dynamic RAM: Refreshed periodically, 3 to 4 transistors are required to form one memory cell; Information is stored as a charge in the gate to substrate capacitance. 25. What is the full form of SATA hard disk? Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (is a computer bus primarily designed for transfer of data between a computer and mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives. The main advantages over the older parallel ATA interface are faster. 26. What is difference between TCP protocol& UDP protocol? TCP stands for Transmission control protocol and it is a connection oriented protocol. The sender will get acknowledged after receiving the packets successively, by the receiver. No other packets were send till the acknowledgement from the receiver.

UDP connection less protocol. UDP transmits packets and does not check whether the receiver received or not. 27. What is the requirement of DNS? Each and every system on the network has its individual and unique IP address but we cannot remember the IP address of all, so we have assigned a particular name to each I address, which is known as domain name. 28. What is the difference between domain & workgroup? Domain consists of server. Domain means a logical group of network. Domain is a centralized security and administration. Workgroup means there is no act as sever on the network. All the systems on network are equal. 29. How do you configure Proxy Server in Windows? To configure proxy server in windows first install the 2 LAN cards one for internet connection and another one for sharing internet connection to clients pc. now first configure Internet connection and then give the IP to 2nd LAN card for ex. 30. How to change in domain name? This article describes how to change a computer's Domain Name System (DNS) server or servers from the command line, either locally or remotely. This operation requires you to use the Regfind.exe tool from either the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource. 31. What is Private IP? Give an example? The addresses which can't be routed through public (internet) are private IP addresses and it is schema of saving public Address ex.: in class A range is10.0.0.0 to 32. What is the subnet mask of this network? Subnet Mask: No. of IP addresses assigned in that subnet: 2^9 -2=510 Subnet ID: Broadcast ID: ...

33. Why WINS server is required? Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is an older network service (a protocol) that takes computer names as input and returns the numeric IP address of the computer with that name or vice versa. WINS was designed to replace the LMHOSTS file functionality. 34. What is SSL? It's a secure socket layer. The Https. 35. What is the role of network administrator? Here is a very short list of basic tasks for which a network administrator may be responsible: Setting up and configuring network hardware and software Installation and configuring network media and connections Connecting user nodes and peripherals of all. 36. What is the advantage and disadvantage of local area networks? LAN Advantages: Workstations can share peripheral devices like printers. This is cheaper than buying a printer for every workstations. Workstations do not necessarily need their own hard disk or CD-ROM drives which make them cheaper to buy than stand-alone. 37. What is a Microprocessor? Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor is single- chip devices. 38. Give examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor? 8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486. 39. Why 8085 processor is called an 8 bit processor? Because 8085 processor has 8 bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Review). Similarly 8086 processor has 16 bit ALU. 40. What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor?

The processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32 bits. 41. Define HCMOS? High-density n- type Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon field effect transistor. 42. What does microprocessor speed depend on? The processing speed depends on DATA BUS WIDTH. 43. Is the address bus unidirectional? The address bus is unidirectional because the address information is always given by the Micro Processor to address a memory location of an input / output devices. 44. Is the data bus is Bi-directional? The data bus is Bi-directional because the same bus is used for transfer of data between Micro Processor and memory or input / output devices in both the direction. 45. What is the disadvantage of microprocessor? It has limitations on the size of data. Most Microprocessor does not support floating-point operations. 46. What is the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller? In Microprocessor more op-codes, few bit handling instructions. But in Microcontroller: fewer op-codes, more bit handling Instructions, and also it is defined as a device that includes micro processor, memory, & input / output signal lines on a single chip. 47. What is meant by LATCH? Latch is a D- type flip-flop used as a temporary storage device controlled by a timing signal, which can store 0 or 1. The primary function of a Latch is data storage. It is used in output devices such as LED, to hold the data for display. 48. Why does microprocessor contain ROM chips?

Microprocessor contain ROM chip because it contain instructions to execute data. 49. What is TCP/IP? Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP. 50. How does the browser know to go to a certain IP address when you enter a domain like google.com? It searches through local DNS cache, if nothing is there; it queries the ISPs DNS server. 51. What are * and? When using them for wildcards in Windows? * Any characters, arbitrary among? Single character. 52. How many logical drives is it possible to fit onto a physical disk? Maximum of 24 logical drives. The extended partition can only have 23 logical drives. 53. Whats the maximum hard drive size for FAT16-based Windows system? 2GB 54. What are the speed and device maximum specs for Firewire? IEEE 1394 (Firewire) supports the maximum of 63 connected devices with speeds up to 400 Mbps. 55. Whats the difference between L1 and L2 cache? Level 1 cache is internal to the chip, L2 is external. L1 (level 1) cache - L1 cache stores information for use by the processor. L1 cache is extremely quick but also expensive. Most processors have an L1 cache divided into space for data and space for instructions. L2 (level 2) cache - L2 cache is the next step down from L1 cache. Most processors today have L2 cache,

which increases cache performance. Most desktop processors have an L2 Cache of about 256KB, but some high-end processors can have as much as 16MB. 56. Name the processor lines of two major manufacturers? High-end: Intel - Pentium (II, III, 4), AMD - Athlon. Low-end: Intel - Celeron, AMD - Duron. 64-bit: Intel - Itanium 2, AMD - Opteron. 57. Where does CPU Enhanced mode originate from? 80386 was the first 32-bit processor, and since the company had to backward-support the 8086. All the modern Intel-based processors run in the Enhanced mode, capable of switching between Real mode (just like the real 8086) and protected mode, which is the current mode of operation. 58. Where does the Real mode on the CPU come from? The original 8086, which only had 1 MB of memory. This megabyte is split into low memory for IRQ tables, application memory and high memory. 59. How do you clear CMOS password? Since CMOS is a special chip with its own battery, the best way to clear out a CMOS chip is to disconnect it from its power supply. 60. What are the basic expansion card types? ISA and PCI, ISA can be used only on XT, AT and ATX boards. The industry now considers ISA obsolete. According to me Ext2 file system is like windows fat16 type file system. Little information in fat16. It is the linux partition type. And vfat is related to windows file system. When we list the hard drive in the linux if there is already a windows o/s then it shows them Vfat. 61. Which transistor is used in each cell of EPROM? Floating gate Avalanche Injection MOS (FAMOS) transistor is used in each cell of EPROM. 62. What is the difference between original & chipset motherboard? Chipset: A chip set is a group of integrated circuits (microchips) that can be used together to serve a single function and are therefore manufactured

and sold as a unit. The most common chipset reference is the input/output control chips of a motherboard. Motherboard: The "heart" of your PC -- it handles system resources (IRQ lines, DMA channels, I/O locations), as well as core components like the CPU, and all system memory. It accepts expansion devices such as sound and network cards, and modems.

Desktop Administrator Interview Question ========================================== 1. What is the difference between Windows XP & Windows 7? Windows Defender, Parental Control, Windows Touch and Tap instead of point and Click, Multiple Active Firewall. 2. One Fine Morning System is not booting up. Explain what would be the problem. 2x2 or 2x4 Power Connector Not Plugged In Processor Issues Memory Issues Monitor Issues Power Supply and Chassis Issues Cable Issues Electrical Short or Overload Defective Components

3. System No Display. What the steps are to Diagnoses the problem? Check the monitor is switched on and the power indicator LED of the monitor is glowing. Check the monitor power connection. Adjust the contrast/brightness knob of the monitor to maximum. Check whether the monitor is connected properly to the video adapter of the system. If your system has add-on video adapter, switch off the system and remove the power. Check whether the CPU, memory are connected properly to the motherboard. 4. System is power on, but beep sound occurs. What would be the problem? One long beep: Memory problem One long and two short beeps: Video error One long and three short beeps: Video error Continuous beeps: Video/memory problem Other beeps: Check the motherboard manual 5. Different and NTFS and FAT32. NTFS Allows access local to w2k w2k3 XP win NT4 with SP4 & later may get access for some file. Maximum size of partition is 2 Terabytes & more. Maximum File size is up to 16TB. File & folder Encryption is possible only in NTFS. FAT 32 Fat 32 Allows access to win 95 98 win millennium win2k xp on local partition.

Maximum size of partition is up to 2 TB. Maximum File size is up to 4 GB. File & folder Encryption is not possible. 6. How will you convert FAT32 to NTFS? To convert a volume to NTFS from the command prompt Open Command Prompt. In the command prompt window, type convert drive_letter: /fs:ntfs For example, typing convert D: /fs:ntfs would format drive D: with the ntfs format. 7. What are primary Partition, Extended Partition and Logical Partition? A primary partition contains one file system. The first partition (C:) must be a primary partition.. An extended partition is a primary partition which contains secondary partition(s). A hard disk may contain only one extended partition. Extended partition that is sub divided into many drives is called as Logical partition. 8. In a computer how many primary partition can be held. Four Primary partitions can be done. 9. Difference between Microsoft outlook and Outlook Express. Microsoft Outlook: Files will be saved in .PST Format. Have some Additional Features like Address Book, Contacts, and Remainders. Not a free product have to purchase it.

Outlook Express: Files will be saved in .DBX Format. Dont have any additional features. Free product that comes along with the OS Installation. 10. What is Virus? Vital Information Resource under Seige.It is an executable Program which Performs Malicious activities in the system. 11. What is Antivirus? An Antivirus Is Software that protects the system from Virus Attack. 12. What is the difference between Delete and Quarantine in Action methodology for Virus Scanning? Delete will delete all the virus infected files and Quarantine create a copy from an infected file and produce a new one. 13. What are the procedures for cleaning an infected virus system? Unplug the system from the Network if it is in a Network & Scan the System with the Updated Antivirus. 14. What is SMTP Protocol? What is the port Number used by SMTP? Simple Mail Transfer Protocol which performs all outgoing Mail. The port number is 25. 15. What is POP3 Protocol? What is the port Number used by POP3? Post Office Protocol which performs all incoming mails. The Port number is 110. 16. Tell me the procedure for Backup and Restore Mail in Outlook Express. Go to C:\Documents & Setting\User Profile\Application Data\Local Settings\Identities\Outlook Express & Copy the .DBX files and Save it in another location as a Backup. Copy the files from the location that was saved as a Backup & Go to the same path & Paste it.

17. Tell me the Procedure for Backup and Restore Mail in Microsoft Office Outlook? Go to C:\Documents & Setting\User Profile\Application Data\Local Settings\Microsoft \Outlook Express & Copy the .PST files and Save it in another location as a Backup. Copy the files from the location that was saved as a Backup & Go to the same path & Paste it. 18. How will you repair a PST File? Using scanpst.exe. 19. How to set Password for PST Files? Select Go | Folder List from the menu. Click on the root item of the desired PST file with the right mouse button. If you want to protect only certain email folders with a password, you can move them to a newly created PST file and assign a password only for that file. Select Properties for... from the menu. Click Advanced.... Now click Change Password.... Enter the desired password under both New password: and Verify password: If a password had already been set for the PST file, enter that phrase under Old password: If you assign a password to a previously unprotected PST file, leave the Old password: field blank. To remove the password from a PST file, enter it under Old password: and leave both New password: and Verify password: blank. Click OK. Click OK again.

Now click Cancel. 20. How to set store a mail copy in Server for 30 days while configuring mail in Microsoft outlook? Go to Outlook 2007's Tools, Account Settings, and With the Account Settings dialog open, select the account and click Change, then click More Settings. Look on the Advanced tab.. 21. How to set Rules in Microsoft outlook in order to organize mailbox? Open Microsoft Outlook. Click Tools. Click Rules Wizard. Click the New button and run through the wizard.. 22. Explain about Junk Mail option in outlook. Low. This level is designed to catch only the most obvious junk e-mail messages. You can make the filter more aggressive, but if you do it may catch legitimate messages sometimes. Any message that is caught by the Junk E-mail Filter is moved to a special Junk E-mail folder. You should review messages in the Junk E-mail folder from time to time to make sure that they are not legitimate messages that you want to see. 23. Explain about Registry? This is a database used by Microsoft Windows to store configuration information about the softwares installed on a computer. This information includes things like the desktop background, program settings, and file extension associations. 24. How to backup and Restore Registry? Import and Export from regedit. 25. When system booting NTLDR file Missing Error. What would be the solution? Boot the System from the OS cd and Select Repair Option 26. When XP is booting up system gets restart automatically. What would be the solution?

May be RAM problem so replace it. Virus would have affected. May be problem with Switch Mode Power Supply. 27. Explain about Windows Firewall? Firewall Restricts the System from Unwanted Traffic. 28. Difference between Administrators and Power Users? Members of the Administrator group have total control over the computer and everything on it. The user named Administrator is the default account within this group The Power User class can perform any task except for those reserved for Administrators. They are allowed to carry out functions that will not directly affect the operating system or risk security. 29. What is Service Pack? Is it needed to be installed in all the system? A service pack (in short SP) is a collection of updates, fixes and/or enhancements to a software program delivered in the form of a single installable package. Yes it should be installed in all the systems. 30. What is Device Drivers? Why it is needed? A device driver is a program that controls a particular type of device that is attached to your computer. There are device drivers for printers, displays, CD-ROM readers, diskette drives, and so on 31. Explain about Local Printer and Network Printer? A network printer is shared by more than one computer using the IP Address that is assigned to the printer. A local printer is directly connected to one computer & shared using sharing & security 32. Explain detail how to install a Network Printer? To install the printer using an IP address, go to Start>Control Panel>Printers and Faxes and then click the Add Printer icon. Next, click Create a new port, then select Standard TCP/IP Port from the drop-down menu. You will then be asked to enter an IP address. Enter the IP address of the print server and click Next. You will be asked to select the printer

manufacturer and the model from the list. If you do not see your printer listed, insert the disk that came with the printer and click Have Disk. If you do not know the IP address of the printer, you can sometime select Browse for printer in the beginning of the process. If the networked printer is attached to another computer is being shared, you will need to enter the name of the computer followed by the share name of the printer. For example: \\computername\printername. 33. How does virus get loaded into computer? Through Exe Files, Pen drive, CD, E-mail, Internet Etc... 34. What is Boot Process in a computer? First is the POST, this stands for Power On Self-Test, for the computer. This process tests memory as well as a number of other subsystems. You can usually monitor this as it runs each test. After that is complete the system will run POST for any device that has BIOS (Basic Input-Output System). 35. What is the difference between RAM & ROM? RAM Random Access Memory which is called as Temporary Memory.. ROM- Read Only Memory which stores the data Permanently. 36. What is Cache Memory? Cache memory is fast memory that is used to hold the most recently accessed data in slower main memory. The idea is that frequently accessed data will stay in cache, which allows the CPU to access it more quickly, which means it doesn't have to wait for the data to arrive. 37. What is the difference between Primary Storage and Secondary Storage? Usually the primary storage is a hard drive(s). Secondary is a flash drive(s), cd and so on. But nowadays, it's mostly a game of words. What is primary memory and secondary memory? The primary memory of CPU is the place where computer program and data is stored during processing. this storage unite is often called either main memory or primary memory.. There is usually two types primary memory

1. RAM


The devices of computer that store information such as software and data permanently are called secondary storage device. There are many types of secondary storage devices such as ,magneticdisk, Hard disk floppy disk , CD Rom , magnetic tape etc... 38. How to increase or set virtual memory in Window XP? Click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, and then click System. On the Advanced tab, under Performance, click Settings. On the Advanced tab, under Virtual memory, click Change. Under Drive [Volume Label], click the drive that contains the paging file that you want to change. Under Paging file size for selected drive, click to Custom size check box. You can enter the amount of memory you would like to reserve for Virtual memory by entering the initial and maximum size. Click Set 39. What are the advantages of having SATA HDD over PATA HDD? SATA HDD uses different channel for incoming and outgoing traffic. Wherelse PATA HDD uses same Channel for incoming and outgoing traffic. 40. What are Bidirectional and Unidirectional Bus? The address bus (sometimes called the memory bus) transports memory addresses which the processor wants to access in order to read or write data. It is a unidirectional bus. The data bus transfers instructions coming from or going to the processor. It is a bidirectional bus. 41. How does the browser know to go to a certain IP address when you enter a domain like google.com? Whenever an address is typed on the browser it immediately connects with the DNS. This DNS Finds the IP address related to the Domain & connects with the Server & the requested web page will be displayed. 42. Whats the difference between L1 and L2 cache?

Short for Level 1 cache, a memory cache built into the microprocessor. Short for Level 2 cache, cache memory that is external to the microprocessor. In general, L2 cache memory, also called the secondary cache, resides on a separate chip from the microprocessor chip. 43. What is BIOS? How to clear password for BIOS? BIOS or Basic Input/output System is the first program accessed by the processor during start up to ensure that all the other basic programs, hard drives, ports, peripherals and the central processing unit are in good working condition. In order to clear the password for BIOS Just Remove the CMOS Battery & Insert it again after Sometime or Change the Jumper Settings. 44. What difference between original motherboard & chipset motherboard? A chipset is a group of microchips designed to work as a unit in performing one or more related functions. They are chip or chips on a motherboard containing various functions supporting the CPU. Motherboard is the "heart" of your PC -- it handles system resources (IRQ lines, DMA channels, I/O locations), as well as core components like the CPU, and all system memory. It accepts expansion devices such as sound and network cards, and modems. The main printed circuit board in a computer that carries the system buses. It is equipped with sockets to which all processors, memory modules, plug-in cards, daughterboard, or peripheral devices are connected. 45. What is the SMPS? Explain about its output voltage? Switch Mode Power Supply is an electronic power supply Unit that incorporates a switching regulator in order to provide the required output voltage 46. What is Power Good Signal? Explain its functionality. In addition to the voltages and currents that a computer needs to operate, power supplies also provide a signal called the Power-Good signal, sometimes written as Power_OK or Power Good or you can distinguish it by its gray color. Its purpose is to tell the computer all is well with the power supply and that the computer can continue to operate normally. If the Power-Good signal is not present at startup, the CPU is held in reset state. If a Power-Good signal goes down during operation the CPU will

shutdown. The Power-Good signal prevents the computer from attempting to operate on improper voltages and damaging itself. 47. What is the difference between AGP and PCI graphics cards? AGP stands for 'Accelerated Graphics Port the speed at which the AGP bus transfers data to and from the video card was too Fast. PCI stands for 'Peripheral Component Interconnect the speed at which the PCI bus transfers data to and from the video card was too Slow. 48. While Installing Windows XP File Missing Error Occurs. What would be the Problem? If you are attempting to boot from a CD-ROM and are receiving this error message it is likely that the diskette does not have all the necessary files and/or is corrupt. 49. What is Defragmentation? Why its needed? Defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation in file systems. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the disk to store the pieces of each file close together and contiguously. 50. One fine morning system is not able to login into domain. What could be the problem? May be Network problem. Password would have expired. May be some restriction policy applied. 51. In a workgroup environment how many system can access a shared folder simultaneously. 10 Systems 52. What is command to view computer name? Ipconfig /all or hostname 53. Explain Ping command in detail. Packet Internet Gopher is a simple command line network tool that you can use to verify your connectivity to a network.

54. What would the problem if system gets restarted frequently? RAM problem, Virus Attack, Dust in processor FAN. 55. What would the problem if the system gets hanged off? RAM problem, OS Corrupt, Virus Attack, Hard Disk Problem. 56. What could be the problem if hard disk gets in problem? Disk boot failure, Hard Disk not detected, Cable Problem, Blue Screen, No power supply, Bad Sectors. 57. What is msconfig? Why it is used? Microsoft System Configuration Utility is a utility to troubleshoot the Windows startup process. 58. What is Remote Desktop? Why it is used? Remote Desktop is used to take another network system remotely Remote desktop allows you to control the desktop and, indeed, the entire contents of a computer from another machine entirely. 59. How to run legacy application in windows xp? In both XP, right click on the executable of the application you wish to run. Select "Properties". Select the "Compatibility" tab on the "Properties" dialogue box. There will be a number of options. Choose "Windows 95 or 98 compatibility mode" 60. What is the command to shutdown and restart the computer? Shutdown r t 00 61. What is system restore? Why it is used? System Restore helps you restore your computer's system files to an earlier point in time. It's a way to undo system changes to your computer without affecting your personal files, such as email, documents, or photos.

Windows Administrator L2 Interview Question =========================================== 1. What is the purpose of having AD? Active directory is a directory service that identifies all resources on a network and makes that information available to users and services. The Main purpose of AD is to control and authenticate network resources. 2. Explain about sysvol folder? The sysvol folder stores the server's copy of the domain's public files. The contents such as group policy, users, and groups of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. The sysvol folder must be created on an NTFS volume. 3. Explain Functions of Active Directory? AD enables centralization in a domain environment. The Main purpose of AD is to control and authenticate network resources. 4. What is the name of AD database? AD database is NTDS.DIT 5. Explain briefly about AD Partitions? The Active Directory database is logically separated into directory partitions: Schema Partition: Only one schema partition exists per forest. The schema partition is stored on all domain controllers in a forest. The schema partition contains definitions of all objects and attributes that you can create in the directory, and the rules for creating and manipulating them. Schema information is replicated to all domain controllers in the attribute definitions. Domain Partition: Many domain partitions can exist per forest. Domain partitions are stored on each domain controller in a given domain. A domain partition contains information about users, groups, computers and organizational units. The domain partition is replicated to all domain controllers of that domain. All objects in every domain partition in a forest are stored in the global catalog with only a subset of their attribute values. Application Partition: Application partitions store information about application in Active Directory. Each application determines how it stores, categorizes, and uses application specific information. To prevent

unnecessary replication to specific application partitions, you can designate which domain controllers in a forest host specific application partitions. Unlike a domain partitions, an application partition cannot store security principal objects, such as user accounts. In addition, the data in an application partition is not stored in the global catalog. Configuration Partition: There is only one configuration partition per forest. Second on all domain controllers in a forest, the configuration partition contains information about the forest-wide active directory structure including what domains and sites exist, which domain controllers exist in each forest, and which services are available. Configuration information is replicated to all domain controllers in a forest.

6. Explain different zone involved in DNS Server? DNS has two different Zones Forward Lookup Zone and Reverse Lookup Zone. These two Zones are categorized into three zones and are as follows Primary zone: It contains the read and writable copy of the DNS Database. Secondary Zone: It acts as a backup for the primary zone and contains the read only copy of the DNS database. Stub zone: It is also read-only like a secondary zone; stub zone contains only SOA, copies of NS and A records for all name servers authoritative for the zone. 7. Explain Briefly about Stub Zone? It is also read-only like a secondary zone, so administrators can't manually add, remove, or modify resource records on it. But secondary zones contain copies of all the resource records in the corresponding zone on the master name server; stub zones contain only three kinds of resource records: A copy of the SOA record for the zone. Copies of NS records for all name servers authoritative for the zone. Copies of A records for all name servers authoritative for the zone. 8. Explain File Replication Service (FRS).

File Replication Service is a Microsoft service which replicates folders stored in sysvol shared folders on domain controllers and distributed file system shared folders. This service is a part of Microsofts Active Directory Service. 9. What is authoritative and non-authoritative restore? Non-authoritative restore: When a non-authoritative restore is performed, Active Directory is restored from backup media on the domain controller. This information is then updated during replication from the other domain controllers. The non-authoritative restore method is the default method to restore system state data to a domain controller. Authoritative restore: In an authoritative restore, Active Directory is installed to the point of the last backup job. This method is typically used to recover Active Directory objects that were deleted in error. An authoritative restore is performed by first performing a non-authoritative restore, and then running the Ntdsutil utility prior to restarting the server. You use the Ntdsutil utility to indicate those items that are authoritative. Items that are marked as authoritative are not updated when the other domain controllers replicate to the particular domain controller. 10. What is the replication protocol involved in replication from PDC and ADC? Normally Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is used to replicate data and is always used for intrasite replication since it is required to support the FRS. RPC depends on IP (internet protocol) for transport. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) may be used for replication between sites. 11. What are the benefits of AD integrated DNS? A few advantages that Active Directory-integrated zone implementations have over standard primary zone implementations are: Active Directory replication is faster, which means that the time needed to transfer zone data between zones is far less. The Active Directory replication topology is used for Active Directory replication, and for Active Directory-integrated zone replication. There is no longer a need for DNS replication when DNS and Active Directory are integrated.

Active Directory-integrated zones can enjoy the security features of Active Directory. The need to manage your Active Directory domains and DNS namespaces as separate entities is eliminated. This in turn reduces administrative overhead. When DNS and Active Directory are integrated; the Active Directoryintegrated zones are replicated, and stored on any new domain controllers automatically. Synchronization takes place automatically when new domain controllers are deployed. 12. Explain some types of DNS records? A Record: Binds an Name with an IP Address PTR Record: Binds an IP Address with an Host Name NS Record: Is name of an DNS Server MX Record: Responsible for Mail receiving mail from different MTA 13. How many tables are there in NTDS.DIT? The Active Directory ESE database, NTDS.DIT, consists of the following tables: Data table Users, groups, application-specific data, and any other data stored in the Active Directory. The data table can be thought of as having rows where each row represents an instance of an object such as a user, and columns where each column represents an attribute in the schema such as Given Name. Schema table the types of objects that can be created in the Active Directory, relationships between them, and the optional and mandatory attributes on each type of object. This table is fairly static and much smaller than the data table. Link table Contains linked attributes, which contain values referring to other objects in the Active Directory. Take the Member Of attribute on a user object. That attribute contains values that reference groups to which the user belongs. This is also far smaller than the data table. 14. What is the purpose of the command NETDOM?

NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust relationships. It is used for batch management of trusts, joining computers to domains, verifying trusts, and secure channels. 15. What is REPADMIN? This command-line tool assists administrators in diagnosing replication problems between Windows domain controllers. Administrators can use Repadmin to view the replication topology (sometimes referred to as RepsFrom and RepsTo) as seen from the perspective of each domain controller. 16. What is the purpose of the command replmon? Replmon displays information about Active Directory Replication. 17. How will take backup of registry using NTBACKUP? Using System State. 18. Explain briefly about Super Scope. Using a super scope, you can group multiple scopes as a single administrative entity. With this feature, a DHCP server can: Support DHCP clients on a single physical network segment (such as a single Ethernet LAN segment) where multiple logical IP networks are used. When more than one logical IP network is used on each physical subnet or network, such configurations are often called multinets. 19. Explain how client obtain IP address from DHCP Server? Its a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request, (b) IP offer, (c) IP selection and (d) acknowledgement. 20. Explain about SRV Record. For mapping a DNS domain name to a specified list of DNS host computers that offer a specific type of service, such as Active Directory domain controllers. 21. What are the advantages of having RAID 5? Strip set with Distributed Parity. Fault Torrance. 100% Data guarantee. 22. How client are get authenticated with Active Directory Server? Using PDC Emulator roles involved in FSMO.

23. How will verify Active Directory successful installation? Check DNS services and errors, check for domain name resolution, check for RPC, NTFRS, DNS and replication related errors 24. Group Policy file extension in Windows 2003 Server? *.adm files 25. What is Global Catalog? Global Catalog is a server which maintains the information about multiple domains with trust relationship agreement. The global catalog is a distributed data repository that contains a searchable, partial representation of every object in every domain in a multi-domain Active Directory forest. 26. What is Active Directory schema? The Active Directory schema contains formal definitions of every object class that can be created in an Active Directory forest it also contains formal definitions of every attribute that can exist in an Active Directory object. 27. What is a site? One or more well-connected highly reliable and fast TCP/IP subnets. A site allows administrator to configure active directory access and replication topology to take advantage of the physical network. 28. What is the file thats responsible for keep all Active Directory database? Schema master. 29. What is the ntds.dit file default size? 40Mb 30. Whats the difference between local, global and universal groups? Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain resources. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains.

31. I am trying to create a new universal user group. Why cant I? Universal groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003 environments. Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to Windows Server 2003 Active Directory. 32. What is LSDOU? Its group policy inheritance model, where the policies are applied to Local machines, Sites, Domains and Organizational Units. 33. What is the command used to change computer name, Make Client Member of Domain? Using the command netdom 34. Difference between SID and GUID? A security identifier (SID) is a unique value of variable length that is used to identify a security principal or security group in Windows operating systems. Well-known SIDs are a group of SIDs that identify generic users or generic groups. Their values remain constant across all operating systems. 35. Explain FSMO in Details. In a forest, there are at least five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. To update the schema of a forest, you must have access to the schema master. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. Infrastructure Master: The infrastructure master is responsible for updating references from objects in its domain to objects in other domains. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. At any

one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is a domain controller that advertises it self as the primary domain controller (PDC) to workstations, member servers, and domain controllers that are running earlier versions of Windows. 36. Which service is responsible for replicating files in SYSVOL folder? File Replication Service (FRS) 37. Can you Move FSMO roles? Yes, moving a FSMO server role is a manual process, it does not happen automatically. But what if you only have one domain controller in your domain? That is fine. If you have only one domain controller in your organization then you have one forest, one domain, and of course the one domain controller. All 5 FSMO server roles will exist on that DC. There is no rule that says you have to have one server for each FSMO server role. 38. What permissions you should have in order to transfer a FSMO role? Before you can transfer a role, you must have the appropriate permissions depending on which role you plan to transfer: Schema Master - member of the Schema Admins group Domain Naming Master - member of the Enterprise Admins group PDC Emulator - member of the Domain Admins group and/or the Enterprise Admins group RID Master - member of the Domain Admins group and/or the Enterprise Admins group Infrastructure Master - member of the Domain Admins group and/or the Enterprise Admins group 39. How to restore Group policy setting back to default? The following command would replace both the Default Domain Security Policy and Default. Domain Controller Security Policy. You can specify Domain or DC instead of both, to onlyrestore one or the other.> dcgpofix /target: Both

40. What is caching only DNS Server? When DNS is installed, and you do not add or configure any zones for the DNS server, the DNS server functions as a caching-only DNS server by default. Caching-only DNS servers do not host zones, and are not authoritative for any DNS domain. The information stored by caching-only DNS servers is the name resolution data that the server has collected through resolving name resolution queries. 41. By Default how many shares in SYSVOL folder? By default, a share with the domain name will be there under the SYSVOL folder. Under the domain name share, two folders named Policies & Scripts will be there. 42. Zone not loaded by DNS server. How you troubleshoot? Need to check Zone Transfer is enabled for all DNS Servers. Also check the required Name Server has been added in the Authoritative Name Server Tab in DNS properties. 43. What is LDAP? LDAP (lightweight directory access protocol) is an internet protocol which Email and other services is used to look up information from the server. 44. What is ADSIEDIT? ADSIEdit is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that acts as a low-level editor for Active Directory. It is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool. Network administrators can use it for common administrative tasks such as adding, deleting, and moving objects with a directory service. 45. What are application partitions? When do I use them? An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controller. Only domain controller running windows Server 2003 can host a replica of application directory partition. Using an application directory partition provides redundancy, availability or fault tolerance by replicating data to specific domain controller or any set of domain controllers anywhere in the forest. 46. How do you create a new application partition?

Use the DnsCmd command to create an application directory partition. 47. Why WINS server is required? Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is an older network service (a protocol) that takes computer names as input and returns the numeric IP address of the computer with that name or vice versa. 48. What is the purpose of the command ntdsutil? To transfer or seize FSMO Roles. 49. Explain Forest Functional Level in Windows 2003 Server. 50. Explain Domain Functional Level in Windows 2003 Server. 51. How will you extend schema database? 52. What is the purpose of adprep command? 53. Briefly explain about netlogon? 54. What are forwarders in DNS server? 55. Explain about root hints. 56. Explain types of DNS queries? 57. How you will defragment AD Database? If you create same user name or Computer name, AD through an error that the object already exists, Can you explain how AD identifies the existing object? Using RID Master roles involved in FSMO.

Windows systems administration is a cool gateway into a lot of different careers. Do they want to manage Exchange? Become a SQL Server DBA? Go into management to be the next CIO? Having a drive and a passion means theyll try to do a better job so they can keep moving up the ladder.

What is Active Directory? What is LDAP? Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a few options. Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD? What is the SYSVOL folder? Name the AD NCs and replication issues for each NC What are application partitions? When do I use them How do you create a new application partition How do you view replication properties for AD partitions and DCs? What is the Global Catalog? How do you view all the GCs in the forest? Why not make all DCs in a large forest as GCs? Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that? What are the Support Tools? Why do I need them? What is LDP? What is REPLMON? What is ADSIEDIT? What is NETDOM? What is REPADMIN? What are sites? What are they used for? What's the difference between a site link's schedule and interval? What is the KCC? What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default? What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server? What can you do to promote a server to DC if you're in a remote location with slow WAN link? How can you forcibly remove AD from a server, and what do you do later? Can I get user passwords from the AD database?

What tool would I use to try to grab security related packets from the wire? Name some OU design considerations. What is tombstone lifetime attribute? What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 DC in a Windows 2000 AD? What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 R2 DC in a Windows 2003 AD? How would you find all users that have not logged on since last month? What are the DS* commands? What's the difference between LDIFDE and CSVDE? Usage considerations? What are the FSMO roles? Who has them by default? What happens when each one fails? What FSMO placement considerations do you know of? I want to look at the RID allocation table for a DC. What do I do? What's the difference between transferring a FSMO role and seizing one? Which one should you NOT seize? Why? How do you configure a "stand-by operation master" for any of the roles? How do you backup AD? How do you restore AD? How do you change the DS Restore admin password? Why can't you restore a DC that was backed up 4 months ago? What are GPOs? What is the order in which GPOs are applied? Name a few benefits of using GPMC. What are the GPC and the GPT? Where can I find them? What are GPO links? What special things can I do to them? What can I do to prevent inheritance from above? How can I override blocking of inheritance? How can you determine what GPO was and was not applied for a user? Name a few ways to do that. A user claims he did not receive a GPO, yet his user and computer accounts are in the right OU, and everyone else there gets the GPO. What will you look for? Name a few differences in Vista GPOs Name some GPO settings in the computer and user parts. What are administrative templates? What's the difference between software publishing and assigning? Can I deploy non-MSI software with GPO? You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper, My Documents, Start menu, printers etc.) on the computers in one department. How would you do that? What is an IP address? What is a subnet mask? What is ARP? What is ARP Cache Poisoning? What is the ANDing process? What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway?

What is a subnet? What is APIPA? What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers, just the ideas behind them) What is RFC 1918? What is CIDR? You have the following Network ID: What is the IP range for your network? You have the following Network ID: You need at least 500 hosts per network. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use? You need to view at network traffic. What will you use? Name a few tools How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination? What does the ping -l 1000 -n 100 command do? What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure. What is DHCPINFORM? Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS. What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network? What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP? How do I configure a client machine to use a specific User Class? What is the BOOTP protocol used for, where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure? DNS zones describe the differences between the 4 types. DNS record types describe the most important ones. Describe the process of working with an external domain name Describe the importance of DNS to AD. Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean? What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out? What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause? What is the "in-addr.arpa" zone used for? What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. Name a few possible causes. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding?

What are the differences between Windows Clustering, Network Load Balancing and Round Robin, and scenarios for each use? How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer? How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? What is the address used for? What is WINS and when do we use it? Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS? Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it? Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS. Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few. What are router interfaces? What types can they be? In Windows 2003 routing, what are the interface filters? What is NAT? What is the real difference between NAT and PAT? How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT? What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively? What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it? What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS? What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD? What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies? What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with? How does SSL work? How does IPSec work? How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers? What types of authentication can IPSec use? What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec? How do I monitor IPSec? Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. What packet types do I see? What can you do with NETSH? How do I look at the open ports on my machine?