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# ESA 344 Propulsion Systems Semester II, 2011/2012 Academic Year Homework 2

## 1. Briefly answer the following:

i.

Describe how a rotary engine functions. Explain how it is different from a radial reciprocating engine.

ii.

Draw and label a P V diagram of an ideal, four-stroke Diesel engine. Briefly describe the cycle.

iii.

## Explain the advantage that a supercharger gives an engine.

2. An airplane flies at 95 knots (176 kph) at an altitude where the intake manifold pressure (IMP) and temperature (IMT) are 82.4 kPa and 2C, respectively. It is powered by a single, four-stroke, horizontally-opposed piston aero engine which is throttled at 2,700 rpm (nshaft). The engine is equipped with four cylinders that have a stroke (s) of 9.84 cm, bore (b) of 13 cm, and achieve a pressure ratio (P3/P2 ) of 15.25. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is 0.0775 g/(Ws). The propulsive efficiency (p) is 0.8 and the mechanical efficiency (mech) is

0.68. The air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) of the Avgas/air mixture is 15.1 (by mass) and the chemical energy released in 1 kg of this Avgas fuel (LHV or heat of combustion) is 4.354107 J. Assume that the engine operates in a 4-stroke Otto cycle and = 1.4, Cp = 1,008 J/(kgK) and R= 287 J/(kgK) for air.

## i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Calculate the cylinder compression ratio (V2/V3). Calculate the available power (A) of the engine. Calculate the shaft brake power (B). Determine the fuel mass flow rate (fuel). Determine the thermal efficiency (th) of the engine. Determine the thrust (FN) produced by the engine.

3. An ultralight aircraft flying at 60km/hr at an altitude of 300 m is powered by a two-cylinder, horizontally-opposed piston aero engine that produces a shaft brakepower (B) of 30 kW (40 h.p.). The propeller has a rotation diameter (d) of 1.68 m and produces 1.6 kN of thrust (FN) at a throttle setting (nshaft) of 6,500 rpm. The propeller is driven directly from the shaft.

## i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Determine the propulsive efficiency (p). Calculate the torque produced by the engine (). Calculate the torque (C) and power (CW) coefficients. Calculate the thrust coefficient (CF). Determine the advance ration (J).

4. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flying at 115 km/hr at an altitude of 3 km is powered by a two-stroke spark ignition engine. The engine produces a shaft brake power (B) of 11 kW, that spins a 0.6 m diameter propeller. The propulsive (or propeller) efficiency (p) is 0.88. i. ii. Determine the thrust (FN) produced by the engine. Estimate the downwash velocity (Ve) behind the propeller.