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OBJECTIVES To determine the diffusivity of the vapor of acetone. To study the effect of temperature on the diffusivity.

DISCUSSION This experiment is conducted to determine the diffusivity of the vapor of the acetone and also to study the effect of the temperature on the diffusivity based on the mass transfer theory of the molecular diffusion in gases. In order to achieve the result of this experiment, the gas dispersion apparatus is used. This apparatus came along with the vernier scale and a microscope that are used to measure and read the level of meniscus in the capillary tube which acetone contained in it. The diffusion of the vapor of acetone (volatile liquid) into another gas can be conveniently studied by confining a small sample of the liquid in a narrow vertical tube, and observing its rate of evaporation into a stream of gas passed across the top of the tube. The experiment is conducted 3 times with different temperature for each time. In the first part of the experiment, the temperature that used to run the experiment was 40 C and the diffusivity of the vapor acetone was 93.2439 mm/s. In the second part of the experiment, the temperature used to run the experiment was 43 C and the diffusivity of vapor acetone was 11.2394 mm/s. For the third part of the experiment, temperature that used in the experiment was 45 C and the diffusivity of the vapor acetone was 85.6697 mm/s. Based on the result obtained from both part, the graph of t/(L Lo) against (L Lo) is plotted. From the graph, it can be observed that the graph plotted for the temperature of 40C is a little bit steeper than the graph plotted for the temperature of 45C. Other than that, from the graph plotted, the value of slope can be obtained easily and the calculation of diffusivity of the vapor can be proceeding.

From the experiment that has been done, the diffusivity is obtained. Besides, it is shows that the value of diffusivity is affected by the temperature. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration and this is increased with increasing temperature which means when the temperature increase the diffusion will speeds up.[4] Thus, if the temperature is higher, then probably it would increase the rate of diffusion by increasing the kinetic activity of the solution. The molecules of the solution would be moving more vigorously and so naturally the chances of them moving through pores in a membrane would be much better.[5] Therefore, the molecules spread from high to low concentration more rapidly.[6]

The higher temperature used in this experiment is only 45C. As we know, the boiling point of acetone is 56.5C and if the temperature is exceeding the boiling point temperature the diffusivity will not be feasible. This is caused by the characteristics of the acetone solution which is volatile. An increase in pressure has a significant effect on the relative volatility of the component in a liquid mixture. Since an increase in the pressure requires an increases in the temperature, then an increase in temperature also effects the relative volatility.[7] Therefore, the temperature conducted in this experiment must not exceed the boiling point of the acetone because it will increase the rate of volatility of acetone. Thus, it will be harder to read the level of meniscus on the sliding vernier scale since the solution is volatile rapidly.

Since the result that is obtained for the diffusivity in second and the third part of the experiment is lower than the first part of the experiment, thus there are some of the errors occur while the experiment is carried out. One of the error that occurred is systematic error. This related with the vernier scale measurement. Besides, parallax error also occurred in this experiment while reading the vernier scale. Other than that, the reading of the meniscus of the vernier scale was not conducted within the time which is 2 minutes.

4. How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?, 1 October 2010, at

5. How temperature affects diffusion, 1 October 2010, at http://www.biologyonline.

6. Does temperature effect diffusion rate, 1 October 2010, at

7. Relative volatility, 1 October 2010, at