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- AntennaBasicsMods1&2
- Micro Strip Patch Antenna
- Microstrip Antenna
- Antenna Em Modeling Matlab
- Report on Fractal Antennas.
- Section 3 - Antennas
- SLIMSITE-DDU-18-65-V08-Rx
- Image Theory EM Fields Of Horizontal Dipole Antennas In Presence of Conducting Half-Space
- DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MULTIBAND CHAUCER FRACTAL PATCH ANTENNA LOADED WITH DUMBBELL
- NOVEL PLANAR INVERTED CONE RING MONOPOLE ANTENNA FOR UWB APPLICATIONS
- B.tech Project Guidelines and Schedule
- Antenna Wave Propagation
- Bancroft-Fundamential-dimension-limits-antennas
- A New Triple Band Circularly Polarized Square Slot Antenna Design With Crooked t and F-shape Strips for Wireless Applications
- Improved Impedance Bandwidth
- Enhanced gain dielectric resonator antenna based on combination of higher order modes
- wire antenna
- Exp3
- 6 Reflections.pdf
- npx414m-e2_specifications.pdf

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Antennas are a very important component of communication systems. By definition, an antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an electromagnetic wave in free space. Antennas demonstrate a property known as reciprocity, which means that an antenna will maintain the same characteristics regardless if it is transmitting or receiving. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently over a relatively narrow frequency band. An antenna must be tuned to the same frequency band of the radio system to which it is connected; otherwise the reception and the transmission will be impaired. When a signal is fed into an antenna, the antenna will emit radiation distributed in space in a certain way. A graphical representation of the relative distribution of the radiated power in space is called a radiation pattern [1]. Microstrip antennas are attractive due to their light weight, conformability and low cost. These antennas can be integrated with printed strip-line feed networks and active devices. This is a relatively new area of antenna engineering. The radiation properties of micro strip structures have been known since the mid 1950s. The application of this type of antennas started in early 1970s when conformal antennas were required for missiles. Rectangular and circular micro strip resonant patches have been used extensively in a variety of array configurations. A major contributing factor for recent advances of microstrip antennas is the current revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization brought about by developments in large scale integration. As conventional antennas are often bulky and costly part of an electronic system, micro strip antennas based on photolithographic technology are seen as an engineering breakthrough.

However, one of main disadvantages of micro-strip antenna is their narrow band width. It is well known that the multilayer structure is useful method to improve these problems. The researchers have investigated their basic characteristics and extensive efforts have also been developed to design of electromagnetically coupled two layer microstrip stacked antenna stacked square patch antenna for Bluetooth application and analysis of stacked rectangular microstrip antenna . Microstrip patch antenna elements with a single feed are used in many popular for various radar and communication system such as synthetics aperture radar (SAR), dual-band, multiband, mobile communication system and Global Positing Systems (GPS) . It may be mentioned that the bandwidth can also be improved by stacking a parasitic patch on the fed patch . By using two stacked patches with the wall at edges between the two patches, one can obtained enhance impedance bandwidth.

In its most fundamental form, a Microstrip Patch antenna consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the other side as shown in Figure 1.1. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric substrate.

For a rectangular patch, the length L of the patch is usually 0.3333o< L < 0.5 o, where o is the free-space wavelength. The patch is selected to be very thin such that t << o (where t is the patch thickness). The height h of the dielectric substrate is usually 0.003 o h 0.05 o. The dielectric constant of the substrate (r) is typically in the range 2.2 r 12. Microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the patch edge and the ground plane. For good antenna performance, a thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency, larger bandwidth and better radiation. However, such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size. In order to design a compact microstrip patch antenna, substrates with higher dielectric constants must be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. Hence a trade-off must be realized between the antenna dimensions and antenna performance.

Microstrip patch antennas are increasing in popularity for use in wireless applications due to their low-profile structure. Therefore they are extremely compatible for embedded antennas in handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones, pagers etc.The telemetry and communication antennas on missiles need to be thin and conformal and are often in the form of microstrip patch antennas. Another area where they have been used successfully is in Satellite communication. Some of their principal advantages are given below: Light weight and low volume. Low profile planar configuration which can be easily made conformal to host surface. Low fabrication cost, hence can be manufactured in large quantities. Supports both, linear as well as circular polarization. Can be easily integrated with microwave integrated circuits (MICs).

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Capable of dual and triple frequency operations. Mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces. Microstrip patch antennas suffer from more drawbacks as compared to conventional antennas. Some of their major disadvantages discussed are given below: Narrow bandwidth Low efficiency Low Gain Extraneous radiation from feeds and junctions Poor end fire radiator except tapered slot antennas Low power handling capacity. Surface wave excitation Microstrip patch antennas have a very high antenna quality factor (Q). It represents the losses associated with the antenna where a large Q leads to narrow bandwidth and low efficiency. Q can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate. But as the thickness increases, an increasing fraction of the total power delivered by the source goes into a surface wave. This surface wave contribution can be counted as an unwanted power loss since it is ultimately scattered at the dielectric bends and causes degradation of the antenna characteristics. Other problems such as lower gain and lower power handling capacity can be overcome by using an array configuration for the elements.

For an efficient transfer of energy, the impedance of the radio, of the antenna and of the transmission cable connecting them must be the same. Transceivers and their

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transmission lines are typically designed for 50ohms impedance. If the antenna has impedance different from 50 then there is a mismatch and an impedance matching circuit is required [1].An antenna's impedance relates the voltage to the current at the input to the antenna. An antenna with a real input impedance (zero imaginary part) is said to be resonant. An antenna's impedance will vary with frequency.

The return loss is another way of expressing mismatch. It is a logarithmic ratio measured in dB that compares the power reflected by the antenna to the power that is fed into the antenna from the transmission line. The relationship between SWR and return loss is the following:

1.4.3 Bandwidth

The bandwidth of an antenna refers to the range of frequencies over which the antenna can operate correctly. The antenna's bandwidth is the number of Hz for which the antenna will

exhibit an SWR less than 2:1. The bandwidth can also be described in terms of percentage of the center frequency of the band., is the highest frequency in the band, is the lowest frequency in the band, and is the center frequency in the band. In this way, bandwidth is constant relative to frequency. If bandwidth was expressed in absolute units of frequency, it would be different depending upon the center frequency. Different types of antennas have different bandwidth limitations.

Directivity is the ability of an antenna to focus energy in a particular direction when transmitting, or to receive energy better from a particular direction when receiving. In a static situation, it is possible to use the antenna directivity to concentrate the radiation beam in the wanted direction. However in a dynamic system where the transceiver is not fixed, the antenna should radiate equally in all directions, and this is known as an omni-directional antenna.

Where is radiation intensity and is power radiated. Gain is not a quantity which can be defined in terms of a physical quantity such as the Watt or the Ohm, but it is a dimensionless ratio.

Gain is given in reference to a standard antenna. The two most common reference antennas are the isotropic antenna and the resonant half-wave dipole antenna. The isotropic antenna radiates equally well in all directions. Real isotropic antennas do not exist, but they provide useful and simple theoretical antenna patterns with which to compare real antennas. Any real antenna will radiate more energy in some directions than in others. Since it cannot create energy, the total power radiated is the same as an isotropic antenna, so in other directions it must radiate less energy. The gain of an antenna in a given direction is the amount of energy radiated in that direction compared to the energy an isotropic antenna would radiate in the same direction when driven with the same input power. Usually we are only interested in the maximum gain, which is the gain in the direction in which the antenna is radiating

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most of the power. An antenna gain of compared to an isotropic antenna would be written as 3dBi.

An antenna's beam width is usually understood to mean the half-power beam width. The peak radiation intensity is found and then the points on either side of the peak which represent half the power of the peak intensity are located. The angular distance between the half power points is defined as the beam width. Half the power expressed in decibels is 3db,so the half power beam width is sometimes referred to as the beam width. Both horizontal and vertical beam widths are usually considered. Assuming that most of the radiated power is not divided into sidelobes, then the directive gain is inversely proportional to the beam width: as the beam width decreases, the directive gain increases.

The radiation or antenna pattern describes the relative strength of the radiated field in various directions from the antenna, at a constant distance. The radiation pattern is a reception pattern as well, since it also describes the receiving properties of the antenna. The radiation pattern is three-dimensional, but usually the measured radiation patterns are a two dimensional slice of the three-dimensional pattern, in the horizontal or vertical planes. These pattern measurements are presented in either a rectangular or a polar format. Figure 1.1 shows a rectangular plot presentation of a typical element Yagi.

No antenna is able to radiate all the energy in one preferred direction. Some is inevitably radiated in other directions. The peaks are referred to as sidelobes, commonly specified in dB down from the main lobe.

1.4.8 Nulls

In an antenna radiation pattern, a null is a zone in which the effective radiated power is at a minimum. A null often has a narrow directivity angle compared to that of the main beam. Thus, the null is useful for several purposes, such as suppression of interfering signals in a given direction.

1.4.9 Polarization

Polarization is defined as the orientation of the electric field of an electromagnetic wave. Polarization is in general described by an ellipse. Two special cases of elliptical polarization are linear polarization and circular polarization. The initial polarization of a radio wave is determined by the antenna. With linear polarization the electric field vector stays in the same plane all the time. Vertically polarized

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radiation is somewhat less affected by reflections over the transmission path. Omni directional antennas always have vertical polarization. With horizontal polarization, such reflections cause variations in received signal strength. Horizontal antennas are less likely to pick up man-made interference, which ordinarily is vertically polarized. In circular polarization the electric field vector appears to be rotating with circular motion about the direction of propagation, making one full turn for each RF cycle. This rotation may be right hand or left hand. Choice of polarization is one of the design choices available to the RF system designer.

In order to transfer maximum power between a transmit and a receive antenna, both antennas must have the same spatial orientation, the same polarization sense and the same axial ratio. When the antennas are not aligned or do not have the same polarization, there will be a reduction in power transfer between the two antennas. This reduction in power transfer will reduce the overall system efficiency and performance. When the transmit and receive antennas are both linearly polarized, physical antenna misalignment will result in a polarization mismatch loss which can be determined using the following formula:

where is the misalignment angle between the two antennas. For we have a loss of for we have, for we have and for we have an infinite loss. The actual mismatch loss between a circularly polarized antenna and a linearly polarized antenna will vary depending upon the axial ratio of the circularly polarized antenna. If polarizations are coincident no attenuation occurs due to coupling mismatch between field and antenna, while if they are not, then the communication can't even take place.

1.5Feed Techniques

Microstrip patch antennas can be fed by a variety of methods. These methods can be classified into two categories: contacting and non-contacting. In the contacting method, the RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a microstrip line. In the non-contacting scheme, electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the microstrip line and the radiating patch

1.5.1Coaxial Feed

The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding microstrip patch antennas. As seen from Figure 1.3, the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch, while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane.

Figure 1.3 Probe feed microstrip patch antennas The main advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any desired location inside the patch in order to match with its input impedance. This feed method is easy to fabricate and has low spurious radiation. However, a major disadvantage is that it provides narrow bandwidth and is difficult to model since a hole has to be drilled in the substrate and the connector protrudes outside the ground plane, thus not making it completely planar for thick substrates (h > 0.02o). Also,

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for thicker substrates, the increased probe length makes the input impedance more inductive, leading to matching problems. It is seen above that for a thick dielectric substrate, which provides broad bandwidth, the microstrip line feed and the coaxial feed suffer from numerous disadvantages. 1.5.2Transformer Feed The microstrip antenna can be matched to transmission line of characteristic impedance Z0 using a quarter wavelength transmission line of characteristic impedance Z1.

Fig1.4: Patch antenna with quarter wave matching section. The goal is to match the input impedance (Zin) to the transmission line (Z0).If the impedance of the antenna is Za, the input impedance viewed from the beginning of the quarter wavelength line becomes

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This input impedance Zin can be altered by Z1, so that Zin=Zo and the antenna is impedance matched.The parameter Z1 can be altered by changing the width of the quarter wavelengths strip.The wider the wavelength strip,the lower the Z0 is for that line.

The preferred models for the analysis of microstrip patch antennas are the transmission line model, cavity model, and full wave model (which include primarily integral equations/Moment Method). The transmission line model is the simplest of all and it gives good physical insight but it is less accurate. The cavity model is more accurate and gives good physical insight but is complex in nature. The full wave models are extremely accurate, versatile and can treat single elements, finite and infinite arrays, stacked elements, arbitrary shaped elements and coupling. These give less insight as compared to the two models mentioned above and are far more complex in nature. Transmission model is most widely used and discussed below.

This model represents the microstrip antenna by two slots of width W and height h, separated by a transmission line of length L. The microstrip is essentially a nonhomogeneous line of two dielectrics, typically the substrate and air.

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Hence, as seen from Figure 3.6, most of the electric field lines reside in the substrate and parts of some lines in air. As a result, this transmission line cannot support pure transverse-electromagnetic (TEM) mode of transmission, since the phase velocities would be different in the air and the substrate. Instead, the dominant mode of propagation would be the quasi-TEM mode. Hence, an effective dielectric constant (reff) must be obtained in order to account for the fringing and the wave propagation in the line. The value of reff is slightly less then r because the fringing fields around the periphery of the patch are not confined in the dielectric substrate but are also spread in the air as shown in Figure 3.8 above. The expression for reff is given by as:

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r = Dielectric constant of substrate h = Height of dielectric substrate W = Width of the patch Consider Figure1.6 below, which shows a rectangular microstrip patch antenna of length L, width W resting on a substrate of height h. The co-ordinate axis is selected such that the length is along the x direction, width is along the y direction and the height is along the z direction.

In order to operate in the fundamental TM10 mode, the length of the patch must be slightly less than /2 where is the wavelength in the dielectric medium and is equal to o/reff where o is the free space wavelength. The TM10 mode implies that the field varies one /2 cycle along the length, and there is no variation along the width of the patch. In the Figure 2.10 shown below, the microstrip patch antenna is represented by two slots, separated by a transmission line of length L and open circuited at both the ends. Along the width of the patch, the voltage is maximum and current is minimum due to the open ends. The fields at the edges can be resolved into normal and tangential components with respect to the ground plan.

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It is seen from Figure4.9 that the normal components of the electric field at the two edges along the width are in opposite directions and thus out of phase since the patch is /2 long and hence they cancel each other in the broadside direction. The tangential components (seen in Figure 4.8), which are in phase, means that the resulting fields combine to give maximum radiated field normal to the surface of the structure. Hence the edges along the width can be represented as two radiating slots, which are /2 apart and excited in phase and radiating in the half space above the ground plane. The fringing fields along the width can be modeled as radiating slots and electrically the patch of the microstrip antenna looks greater than its physical dimensions. The dimensions of the patch along its length have now been extended on each end by a distance L, which is given empirically as:

eq(2)

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eq(3)

eq(4)

1.7Modern Antennas

There has been an ever growing demand, in both the military as well as the commercial sectors, for antenna design that possesses the following highly desirable attributes: Compact size Low profile Conformal Multi- band or broadband

To increase the gain and impedance bandwidth of a simple patch antenna can be done using a parasitic patch. For obtaining an antenna for frequency hopping pattern and multiple bands along with low profile we use fractals. These provide much higher gain and bandwidth than simple technique like stacking. Fractal antenna and its concept are discussed further in detail in next chapter.

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Several fractal geometries have been explored for antennas with special characteristics, in the context of both antenna elements and spatial distribution functions for elements in antenna arrays. The fractal geometry has been behind an enormous change in the way scientists and engineers perceive, and subsequently model, the world in which we live [9]. Many of the ideas within fractal geometry have been in existence for a long time; however, it took the arrival of the computer, with its capacity to accurately and quickly carry out large repetitive calculations, to provide the tool necessary for the in-depth exploration of these subject areas. The word fractal was coined by Benoit Mandelbrot, sometimes referred to as the father of fractal geometry, who said, I coined fractal from the Latin adjective fractus. The corresponding Latin verb frangere means to break to create irregular fragments.

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A fractal is by definition a set for which the Hausdorff dimension strictly exceeds the topological dimension, which he later retracted and replaced with: A fractal is a shape made of parts similar to the whole in some way. But here are five properties that most fractals have: Fractals have details on arbitrarily small scales. Fractals are usually defined by simple recursive processes. Fractals are too irregular to be described in traditional geometric language. Fractals have some sort of self-similarity. Fractals have fractal dimension.

The exact structure of regular fractals is repeated within each small fraction of the whole (i.e., they are exactly self-similar). There is, however, another group of fractals, known as random fractals, which contain random or statistical elements. These fractals are not exactly self-similar, but rather statistically self-similar. Each small part of a random fractal has the same statistical properties as the whole. Random fractals are particularly useful in describing the properties of many natural objects and processes.

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A simple way to generate a fractal with an element of randomness is to add some probabilistic element to the construction process of a regular fractal. While such random fractals do not have the self-similarity of their nonrandom counterparts, their non uniform appearance is often rather closer to natural phenomena such as coastlines, topographical surfaces, or cloud boundaries. A random fractal worthy of the name should display randomness at all scales, so it is appropriate to introduce a random element at each stage of the construction. By relating the size of the random variations to the scale, we can arrange for the fractal to be statistically self-similar in the sense that enlargements of small parts have the same statistical distribution as the whole set. This compares with (nonrandom) self-similar sets where enlargements of small parts are identical to the whole.

The original inspiration for the development of fractal geometry came largely from an in-depth study of the patterns of nature. For instance, fractals have been successfully used to model such complex natural objects as galaxies, cloud boundaries, mountain ranges, coastlines, snowflakes, trees, leaves, ferns, and much more.

Figure 2.2: (a) a fern leaf looks almost identical to the entire fern (b), a tree branch looks similar to the entire tree

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Mandelbrot realized that it is very often impossible to describe nature using only Euclidean geometry that is in terms of straight lines, circles, cubes, and so forth. He proposed that fractals and fractal geometry could be used to describe real objects, such as trees, lightning, river meanders, and coastlines, to name but a few [10]. Many more examples could be introduced to prove the fractal nature of universe. Therefore, there is a need for a geometry that handles these complex situations better than Euclidean geometry.

There is some terminology that should be established to understand fractals and how they can be applied to practical applications [11]. From the scale of human perception, a cloud does seem to be infinitely complex in larger and smaller scales. The resulting geometry after truncating the complexity is called a prefractal [12]. A prefractal drops the intricacies that are not distinguishable in the particular applications. In Figure 1.5, the fifth iteration is indistinguishable from the Cantor set obtained at higher iterations. This problem occurs due to the limit of the finite detail our eyes (or the printer we use to plot the image) can resolve. Thus, to illustrate the set, it is sufficient to repeat the

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generation process only by the number of steps necessary to fool the eye, and not an infinite number of times. This is true for all illustrations of fractal objects. However, make no mistake, only after an infinite number of iterations do we obtain the Cantor set. For a finite number of iterations the object produced is merely a collection of line segments with finite measurable length. These objects formed en route to the fractal object are termed prefractals.

With fast growing development of wireless communication systems there has been an increasing need for more compact and portable communications systems. There is a need to evolve small sized, high-performance and low cost antenna designs which are capable of adjusting frequency of operation for integration of multiple wireless technologies and decrease in overall size. However when the size of the classical antenna (designed using Euclidean geometry) is made much smaller than the operating wavelength it becomes highly inefficient because radiation efficiency and impedance bandwidth decrease with the size of the antennas because these effects are accompanied by high currents in the conductors, high ohmic losses and large values of energy stored in the antenna near field. An antenna is said to be small when it can be enclosed into a radian sphere, i.e. a sphere with Radius a, where a = /2, where. Due to the variations of the current inside, the radian sphere the field outside the radian sphere can be described as a set of orthogonal spherical vector waves. Here is described according to the stored electric energy, magnetic energy, Frequency and average radiated power as:

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An infinitesimally small antenna radiates only a or spherical mode that depends on the electric size of the antenna given by , where is the wave number at resonance and is the radius of the smallest sphere that encloses the antenna. In general the of an antenna is inversely proportional to its bandwidth thus implying narrow bandwidth for antennas with high values of. Narrow bandwidth antennas are not usually preferred because of the difficulty of matching. Achieving a low antenna basically depends on how efficiently it uses the available volume inside the radian sphere. Thus the high currents in the conductors, high ohmic losses, large values of the stored energy is the antenna near field and high values make the performance of small antennas inefficient.

While Euclidean geometries are limited to points, lines, sheets, and volumes, fractals include the geometries that fall between these distinctions. Therefore, a fractal can be a line that approaches a sheet. The line can meander in such a way as to effectively almost fill the entire sheet. These space-filling properties lead to curves that are electrically very long, but fit into a compact physical space. This property can lead to the miniaturization of antenna elements. In the previous section, it was mentioned that prefractals drop the complexity in the geometry of a fractal that is not distinguishable for a particular application. For antennas, this can mean that the intricacies that are much, much smaller than a wavelength in the band of useable frequencies can be dropped out [10]. This now makes this infinitely complex structure, which could only be analyzed mathematically, but may not be possible to be manufactured. It will be shown that the band of generating iterations required to reap the benefits of miniaturization is only a few before the additional complexities become indistinguishable. There have been many interesting works that have looked at this emerging field of fractal electrodynamics.

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i=0

i=1

i=2

i=3

Fig 2..4: Generation of four iterations of Hilbert curves. The segments used to connect the geometry of the previous iteration are shown in dashed lines. Much of the pioneering work in this area has been documented in. These works include fundamentals about the mathematics as well as studies in fractal antennas and reflections from fractal surfaces. The space-filling properties of the Hilbert curve and related curves (e.g., Peano fractal) make them attractive candidates for use in the design of fractal antennas. The space-filling properties of the Hilbert curve were investigated in as an effective method for designing compact resonant antennas. The first four steps in the construction of the Hilbert curve are shown in Figure 1.6. The Hilbert curve is an example of a space-filling fractal curve that is self voiding (i.e., has no intersection points). In the antenna engineering it can be used as dipole

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(fed in the center), monopole (fed on one side) antenna, as well as meandered structure of microstrip patch antenna.

2.7 Fractals Defined by TransformationsSelf-Similar 2.7.1 Iterated Function Schemes: Fractal geometries are generated in an

iterative fashion, leading to self-similar structures. This iterative generating technique can best be conveyed pictorially, as in Figure 1.7. The starting geometry of the fractal, called the initiator, depends of final fractal shape: each of the straight segments of the starting structure is replaced with the generator, which is shown on the left of Figure 1.7.

Figure 2..5: (a) The first stages in the construction of the standard the Sierpinski fractal the fractal tree via an iterated function system (IFS) approach. The first few stages in the construction of the Sierpinski fractal are shown in Figure 1.5 (a.) The procedure for geometrically constructing this fractal begins with an equilateral triangle contained in the plane, as illustrated in stage i=0 of Figure 1.7(a). The next step in the construction process (see stage i=1) is to remove the central triangle with vertices that are located at the midpoints of the sides of the original triangle, shown in stage i=0. This process is then repeated for the three remaining triangles, as illustrated in stage i=2 of Figure 1.5 (a). The next two stages (i.e., i=3

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and 4) in the construction of the Sierpinski fractal are also shown in Figure 1.5(a). The Sierpinski-fractal fractal is generated by carrying out this iterative process an infinite number of times. It is easy to see from this definition that the Sierpinski fractal is an example of a self-similar fractal. The fractal tree, shown in Figure 1.5 (a), is similar to a real tree, in that the top of every branch splits into more branches. The planar version of the tree has the top third of every branch split into two sections. The three-dimensional version (this use of the term is only meant to imply that the structure cannot be contained in a plane) has the top third of each branch split into four segments that are each one-third in length. All the branches split with 60 between them. The length of each path remains the same, in that a path walked from the base of the tree to the tip of a branch would be the same length as the initiator. Finding the fractal dimension of these structures is not as easy as it is to find the dimension of the self-similar fractals that were previously observed. This is because the tree fractal is not necessarily self-similar. Mandelbrot suggests that depending on the constructing geometry, the shape may not truly be fractal in the entire structure. This iterative generating procedure continues for an infinite number of times. The final result is a curve or area with an infinitely intricate underlying structure that is not differentiable at any point. The iterative generation process creates a geometry that has intricate details on an ever-shrinking scale. In a fractal, no matter how closely the structure is studied, there never comes a point where the fundamental building blocks can be observed. The reason for this intricacy is that the fundamental building blocks of fractals are scaled versions of the fractal shape. This can be compared to it not being possible to see the ending reflection when standing between two mirrors. Closer inspection only reveals another mirror with an infinite number of mirrors reflected inside.

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Having seen the geometric properties of fractal geometry, it is interesting to explain what benefits are derived when such geometry is applied to the antenna field [16]. Fractals are abstract objects that cannot be physically implemented. Nevertheless, some related geometries can be used to approach an ideal fractal that are useful in constructing antennas. Usually, these geometries are called prefractals or truncated fractals. In other cases, other geometries such as multi triangular or multilevel configurations can be used to build antennas that might approach fractal shapes and extract some of the advantages that can theoretically be obtained from the mathematical abstractions. In general, the term fractal antenna technology is used to describe those antenna engineering techniques that are based on such mathematical concepts that enable one to obtain a new generation of antennas. One can summarize the benefits of fractal technology in the following way: Self-similarity is useful in designing multi-frequency antennas, as, for instance, in the examples based on the Sierpinski fractal, and has been applied in designing of multiband arrays. Fractal dimension is useful to design electrically small antennas, such as the Hilbert, Minkowski, and Koch monopoles or loops, and fractal shaped micro strip patch antennas. Mass fractals and boundary fractals are useful in obtaining high-directivity elements, under sampled arrays, and low - sidelobes arrays.

2.9Fractal Arrays

The term fractal antenna array was originally coined by Kim and Jaggard in 1986 to denote a geometrical arrangement of antenna elements that is fractal. The main advantage of this technique is that it yields sparse arrays that possess relatively low side lobes. While this is a feature typically associated with periodic arrays, it is not so for random arrays. Another advantage of the technique is that it is also robust, which

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in turn is a feature typically associated with random arrays, but not with periodic

The classical small antennas suffer from inefficient performance. Fractal geometry provides the solution by designing compact and multiband antennas in a most efficient and sophisticated way. The general concepts of fractals can be applied to develop various antenna elements. The properties of these fractal designed antennas allows for smaller, resonant antennas that are multiband and may be optimized for gain. When antenna elements or arrays are designed with the concept of selfsimilarity for most fractals, they can achieve multiple frequency bands because different parts of the antenna are similar to each other at different scales. Application of the fractional dimension of fractal structure leads to the gain optimization of wire antenna and the self-similarity makes it possible to design antennas with very wideband performance. Fractal geometry can be employed to design self resonant small antennas in which effective reduction in the resonant frequency can be obtained. It should be noted though applying fractal geometry to reduce the size of the wire antenna a reduction in resonant frequency is obtained.

It has been found that for an antenna, to work well for all frequencies i.e. show a wideband or multiband behavior, it should be: Symmetrical: This means that the figure looks the same as its mirror image. Self-similar: This means that parts of the figure are small copies of the whole figure. These two properties are very common for fractals and thus make fractals ideal candidates for design of wideband /multiband antennas.

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Figure 2.6: Four antennas (with a wave cartoon) intended to be used for four discrete frequency bands.

Figure 2.7: One antenna intended to be used as a four-band antenna using the fractal geometry of Sierpinski fractal.

Traditionally a wideband/multiband antenna in the low frequency wireless band can only be achieved with heavily loaded wire antennas which usually imply that different antennas are needed for different frequency bands. Recent progresses in the fractal antennas suggest solution for using a single small antenna operating in several frequency bands. The self similarity properties of the fractal structures are translated into the electromagnetic behavior when used as antenna. This multiband behavior can be explained with the help of a Sierpinski triangle (fractal) antenna employing

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Sierpinski fractal geometry with a self similar structure. Figure 2.2 show a typical antenna system in which a single antenna is used for each application that is intended for each different frequency band (four bands in this figure).

One practical benefit of fractal antenna is that it is resonant antenna in a small space thereby excluding the need of attaching discrete components to achieve resonance. Usually at UHF and microwave antenna the cost for such parts for the transceivers can become more expensive than the antenna. Further the addition of parts produces reliability issues and breakage/return problems. In most of applications fractal antennas are small bendable etched circuit boards or fractal etchings on mother boards and contain no discrete components. This makes design of fractal antennas a cost effective technique.

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Chapter 3

Stacked patch antenna 3.1Introduction

A stacked antenna is of compact, low profile construction, with stacked patch elements operating at separate frequency bands. A patch element that is directly fed by a coaxial feed has its ground plane connected to a portion of the coaxial feed that is referenced to ground. The stacked patch element lacks inherent isolation of its operating band of frequencies due to the use of a common feed. Accordingly, the patch elements of a stacked patch antenna are poorly isolated, which increases the complexities of tuning and frequency band separation by adding circuit components.

3.2Brief background

In the past, a known method of feeding the radiating patch is to connect the inner conductor of the coaxial feed to the patch at a natural feed point of the patch. The natural feed point of the radiating patch is the point at which it presents apparent fifty ohm impedance when a conductor is coupled at that point. This locus of points typically is offset from the geometric center of the radiating patch. Stacked patch antennas are known in which two patch antennas are stacked on top of each other. The individual antennas in a stacked patched antenna assembly will be referred to as patch antennas or simply antennas. The top conductive pattern of a patch antenna will be termed the radiating patch of the patch antenna and the bottom conductive pattern, if included, will be termed the ground patch of the patch antenna. The entire stacked patch antenna assembly comprising multiple patch antennas will be referred to as a stacked patch antenna assembly.

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A stacked patch antenna assembly is suitable for the aforementioned two band GPS type application. Conventional stacked patch antenna assemblies typically have used one of two types of feed arrangements. In one arrangement, only one patch antenna is directly fed while the other is parasitically coupled to the first patch antenna. In the other type of feed arrangement, each patch antenna is directly fed. In the type of feed arrangement where each patch antenna is directly fed, each feed, which comprises a coaxial cable with an inner and an outer conductor, has the outer conductor shorted to the ground patch at some non-centered point on the patch antenna. In both of these types of feed arrangements, the amount of isolation achieved between the operating frequencies of the two (or more) patch antennas is quite limited. In the former type, in which one of the patch antennas is parasitically coupled to a directly fed patch antenna, coupling between the bands is intentionally induced. In the latter case, in which each patch antenna is directly and separately fed, coupling arises from the existence of non-zero surface currents on the radiating patch of the lower patch antenna or antennas at the point or points where the outer conductor of the coaxial feed for the upper patch antenna contacts the radiating patch of the lower patch antenna.

The demand for application of microstrip antenna in various communication systems has been increasing rapidly due to its lightweight, low cost, small size, ease of integration with other microwave components [2-5]. Microstrip antenna gained in popularity and become a major research topic in both theoretically and experimentally. However one of main disadvantages of micro-strip antenna is their narrow band width. It is well known that the multilayer structure is useful method to improve these problems. The researcher have investigated their basic characteristics and extensive efforts have also been developed to design of electromagnetically coupled two layer elliptical microstrip stacked antenna [6], stacked square patch antenna for Bluetooth application and analysis of stacked microstrip rectangular

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microstrip antenna. Several methods have been presented in the last years to improve its such as: thicker substrate reactive matching network, and stacked patches [78]. Microstrip patch antenna elements with a single feed are used in many popular for various radar and communication system such as synthetics aperture radar (SAR), dual-band, multi-band, mobile communication system and Global Positing Systems (GPS). It may be mentioned that the bandwidth can also be improved by stacking a parasitic patch on the fed patch. Therefore in this present paper, we observed on an electromagnetically stacked rectangular microstrip antenna.

3.4Parasitic patch

In general, the impedance bandwidth of a patch antenna is proportional to the antenna volume measured in wavelengths. However, by using two stacked patches with the walls at the edges between the two patches, one can obtain enhanced impedance band width. There has recently been considerable interest in the two layer probe fed patch antenna consisting of a driven patch in the bottom and a parasitic patch on a microstrip patch antenna, the antenna with high gain or wide bandwidth can be realized. These characteristics of stacked microstrip antenna depend on the distance between a fed patch and a parasitic patch.

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By stacking a parasitic patch on a microstrip patch antenna, an antenna with high gain or wide bandwidth can be realized. These characteristics of stacked microstrip antenna depend on the distance between a fed patch and a parasitic patch. When the distance is about 0.1 (operating wavelength), the stacked microstrip antenna has a wide bandwidth [8].

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4.1 Sierpinski fractal antenna

In this chapter, the procedure for designing a sierpinski fractal antenna is explained. The results are obtained from the simulations are demonstrated. The three essential parameters for the design of a sierpinski fractal antenna: Frequency of operation (fo): The resonant frequency of the antenna must be selected appropriately. The mobile systems uses the frequency range from 5 -30GHz. Hence the antenna designed must be able to operate in this frequency range. Dielectric constant of the substrate (r): The dielectric material selected for our design is RT Duroid which has a dielectric constant of 3.2. A substrate with a high dielectric constant has been selected since it reduces the dimensions of the antenna. Height of dielectric substrate (h): For the sierpinski gasket antenna to be used in Wifi, it is essential that the antenna is not bulky. Hence, the height of the dielectric substrate is selected as 0.798 mm. Hence, the essential parameters for the design are: fo = 5 GHz r = 3.2 h = 0.798 mm Step 1: Calculation of triangle side

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The following essential parameters for the design of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna with stacking: Frequency of operation (fo): The resonant frequency of the antenna must be selected appropriately. The Mobile Communication Systems uses the

frequency range from 2100-5600 MHz. Hence the antenna designed must be able to operate in this frequency range. The resonant frequency selected for my design is 2.4 GHz which belongs to C-band. Dielectric constant of the substrate (r): The dielectric material selected for our design is cellophane which has a dielectric constant of 4.4.A substrate with a high dielectric constant has been selected since it reduces the dimensions of the antenna.

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Height of dielectric substrate (h): Height selected is same as that of normal patch antenna, so that comaparisons can be made.Thus height selected is 1.588mm.

Distance between the parasitic patch and active patch(d): The antenna is made of two stacked patches, two layers and a vertical probe connected to the lower patch. The lower patch, with width W and length L is supported by a low dielectric substrate with dielectric permittivity 1 and thickness h1.The upper patch with the same width and length as lower patch is stacked at the height h2 above the lower substrate and supported by another air-filled layer with permittivity 1 and thickness h2.

Hence, the essential parameters for the design are: fo = 2.4 GHz r = 4.4 h = 1.588 mm 0.05 < d < as per variations done.

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Chapter 5

5.1 Serpeinski fractal antenna Antenna parameters : r = 3.2 h = 0.798mm f = 5Ghz side (a) = 22.00mm height = 19.052mm

Iteration 0 Iteration 0 consists of a sierpinski antenna designed for a frequency of 5 Ghz Figure 5. 1 s h o w i n g i t e r a t i o n 0

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The current distribution pattern showing the movement of current on the antenna surface.

Figure 5. 2 : C u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n

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Iteration 1

The first iteration consists of a single fractal hole dug right at the centre of the antenna. The resonant frequencies obtained are :8.31 Ghz, 15.63Ghz and 17.57 Ghz.

The current distribution pattern showing the spreading of current on the antennae surface.

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Return loss showing 3 Bands with return loss less than 10dB.

Figure 5. 1 1 S-parameter plot showing resonant frequencies Smith chart showing points of resonance between capacitance and reactance.

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Iteration 2

The second iteration consists of nine independent radiating elements as shown in figure. The resonant frequencies obtained are at 13.90 Ghz, 15.0 Ghz and 19.84 Ghz.

The current distribution pattern showing the spreading of current on the antennae surface.

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The resonant frequencies obtained are: 8.31 Ghz, 15.63 Ghz and 17.57 Ghz.

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Return loss showing 3 Bands with return loss less than 10dB.

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Iteration 3

Iteration 3 consists of 27 independent radiating elements fed with truncated transformer feed as shown in figure.

The

current

distribution

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Return loss showing 2 Bands with return loss less than 10dB.

Figure 5. 2 3 S-parameter display for iteration 3 Smith chart showing points of resonance between capacitance and reactance.

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Iteration 3 (modified)

Modified iteration 3 consists of 27 independent radiating elements fed with transformer feed as shown in figure.

The

current

distribution

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The resonant frequencies obtained are: 8.31 Ghz, 15.63 Ghz and 17.57 Ghz.

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Return loss showing 4 Bands with return loss less than 10dB.

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5.2:

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5.3:

Fig 5.35 :Gain versus frequency curve, Gain is 4dBi at 2.4 GHz

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Fig 5.41: Radiation pattern.We see that there is no back lobes,hence lesser loss and thus higher gain

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FUTURE SCOPE

The antenna can be used extensively in the communication sector. Its applications are Wi-Max, 3G and 4G mobile communication applications. Due to high frequencies obtained the percentage bandwidth and the bit rate increases and thus can be used for Direct To Home service (DTH).Also, currently the antenna is being used in military by the troops for short distance communication. It can be used in Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) and Electronic Counter Counter Measure (ECCM).It can also be used in Wireless Local Loop (WLL) in telephony sector. Satellite communication can also be improved by using the multiple frequencies. However attenuation increases at high frequencies but with better system designing these disadvantages can be overcome. This antenna is suitable for applications in ICMS, DECT, UMTS, Bluetooth and WLAN systems. Because of linear phase and good impedance match, with some further optimization and manufacturing aspect, this antenna can serve in UWB and wireless USB applications.

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REFERENCES

[1]J. R. James, P. S. Hall, and C. Wood, Microstrip antenna theory and design IEE Electromagnetic Wave, Series 12 London, U. K. Peter Peregrinus, 1981. [2]K. C. Gupta, Recent advance in microstrip antenna, Microwave Journal, No. 27, pp. 5067, 1984. [3]S. A. Long and M. D. Walton, A dual-frequency circulardisc antenna, IEEE Transactions on Antenna and Propagation USA, AP-27, pp. 270273, 1979. [4]A. B. Nandgaonkar and S. B. Deosarkar, Broadband stacked patch antenna for bluetooth applications, Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Application, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 15, 2009. [5]I. K. Moussa and D. A. E. Mohamed and I. badran, Analysis of stacked rectangular microstrip antenna, 24th National Radio Science Conference, March 1315, pp. 1 10, 2007. [6]W. Chen, K. F. Lee, and R. O. Lee, Input impedance of coaxially fed rectangular microstrip antenna on electrically thick substrate, Microwave optical Technology Letters, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 387390, 1993. [7] R. Yamaguchi, Effect of Dimension of Conducting Box on Radiation Pattern of a Monopole Antenna for Portable Telephone, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium Digest, pp. 669-672, 1992. [8] McLean, J. S., A Re-Examination of the Fundamental Limits on the Radiation Q of Electrically Small Antennas,IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 44, pp. 672-676, May 1996.

[9] H. Morishita, Y. Kim, and K. Fujimoto, Design Concept of Antennas for Small Mobile Terminals and the Future Perspective, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 30-43, October 2002. [10]K. L. Wong, Planar Antennas for Wireless Communications, Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, 2003. . [11]K.J. Falconer, Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Chinchester, New York, 1990.

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[12] K. Sato, Characteristics of a Planar Inverted-F Antenna on a Rectangular Conducting Body,Electronics and Communications in Japan, vol. 72, no. 10, pp. 4351, 1989.

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