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How we may restructure our energy system to attain the target of 80% energy supplies by Indigenous Resources up to 2020. You may also refer the roadmap taken by other nations to utilize the resources efficiently. Justify your arguments with international references
Abstract: Now a day, Pakistan has short fall of electricity of about 6000 MEGAWATTS [1]. This huge deficiency results in load shedding, which has caused a great threat to Pakistans economy. The industries could not run for the required time and cannot produce the items. Due to which the industries are shifting from Pakistan. Today energy mix of Pakistan depends upon about 30% oil [2] which is imported an amount of 12.583 billion dollars. About 48% [2] energy is used from the Natural Gas, but resources of Natural Gas are depleting and the demand is increasing day by day and short fall of gas of about 224 MMCFT [1]. So it means that indigenous resources have to be used to fulfill the energy needs. This essay represents some of the indigenous resources which could be used to fulfill the energy demand. Introduction: Energy is hottest field on which world is researching. World want to have secure and sufficient energy. Developed countries have sustainable energy plans to fulfill today needs and the needs of coming generations. They have made the policies to rely on their own resources. It has not only given them energy security but also it is the symbol of socio-economic development. Sufficient and cheap energy is very necessary for the human development. Unfortunately, in Pakistan energy has been a neglected sector. In 1960s Pakistan used to produce 70% of its primary energy from Hydro power but now Pakistan produces only 12.3% from it [3]. 35% of the electricity from the oil is not only very expensive but also is exported form the foreign countries which gives lack of energy security, which means Pakistan has to rely on other countries for its energy needs which gives poor impact on its development and political position. 80% of the world energy depends on fossil fuels. But fossil fuels are already on decline. So world is shifting to renewable energy which is sustainable and efficient means of energy. Pakistan has to shift on conventional and unconventional renewable energy resources for secure energy future otherwise development will be a day dreaming. Pakistan has 185 billion tons of coal reserves at Thar which need to be exploited to fulfill the energy needs. This coal can contribute in greater percentage in energy mix of Pakistan. Renewable energy resources of Pakistan: Pakistan has a great potential of renewable energy resources which could meet its energy demand. The best thing about renewable energy resources is that they are indigenous resources, which provides sustainability and security. Pakistan is one of the richest countries in the world which has potential for all kinds of renewable resources whether it is Hydro, or solar or wind or biomass. All we need is determination and right policies in right direction to exploit these resources. Renewable energy resources which could be exploited in Pakistan include:

1. Hydro power: Hydro power is the cheapest and mature renewable energy resources. Pakistan has potential to produce 41,722MW (about 42GW) from hydro power but it produces only 6.5 GW. In Pakistan most of the energy is supplies by thermal power plants. Thermal power plants require constant supply of fuel which makes it very expensive. Price of oil has increased about 150% in last decade. On the other hand, hydro power produces a unit of electricity for about 0.3 PKR. In many countries hydro power is the main energy resource. Like Norway produces 99% of its electricity from hydro power, Brazil produces 92%, Iceland 83%, Canada 70% and Austria about 67% [4]. Some of the hydro power projects, according to vision of WAPDA, include Bunji (7100MW), Dasu (4000MW), Thakot (2800MW), Patan (2800MW), Yulbo (3000MW) and many small projects which would produce about 37770 MW by 2020 [5]. 2. Solar energy: Solar energy is one of the important renewable sources. Important aspect of solar energy is that it does not vary on the large scale with seasonal changes. Luckily Pakistan is located in the region where annual global irradiance is about 1900-2200 kWh/m2 [3]. The sun shines for about 300 days in a year. Solar energy can directly be used for electricity generation from Photo Voltaic Cells.it can also be used for heating the water. Solar water heating is very immerging technology because domestically 15-25% energy is used for water heating and in industries this percentage increases up to 65%. Thus solar water heating can save the energy and water can be heated by free solar energy. Similarly crop drying by solar energy can save energy in agriculture sector and in food industries. 3. Wind energy: Wind energy is a growing trend worldwide. United States produces 16.8 GW from wind power, China 6.1 GW and Germany 22.3 GW. Pakistan has also a great potential of wind energy especially in southern coasts of Sindh and Baluchistan. In these regions wind can speed up to 78m/s in certain corridors. According to plans Pakistan will produce 7.9 GW in 2020. 4. Biomass: Pakistan is an agricultural country. Animal waste and wood is commonly used to provide energy in rural areas. It is necessary to use these resources in right way to produce biogas and ethanol so that pressure on natural gas and petroleum can be decreased. Thar Coal reserves in Pakistan: Pakistan has coal reserves of about 185 billion tones [6]. These are 4th largest reserves of the world. But unfortunately in Thar coal is of poor quality and mining is difficult. In Pakistan coal contributes to about only 6% whereas China uses coal for 78% of its power generation, India 68% and Germany 40%. Pakistan can fulfill about 30-40% of its energy needs from Thar coal.


Current Situation [1]:

Proposed Energy Mix for 2020 [7]:

If we rely on our own resources for energy we will have sufficient energy, energy security, energy efficiency and it will be affordable. This will result in sovereign position in the world when we will not rely on other countries.

References: 1. PEPCO Pakistan www.pepco.gov.pk > Daily Power Situations 2. Planning Commission www.pc.gov.pk/psr > Pakistan Integrated Energy Model (PakIEM) Model Design Report. 3. Asif M. Sustainable energy options for Pakistan. In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser 4. Renewable energy, Godfrey Boyle, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 978-0199261789; 2004 5. Water and Power Development Authority WAPDA www.wapda.gov.pk > Future projects 6. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources www.mpnr.gov.pk > Fossil Fuels Review 7. Tasting times for Pakistan energy sector by: Munawar B. Ahmad