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Sales Force Management Final Term Chapter # Personnel Management in Selling Field

Topic: 1 Sales Force Management: Sales force management is a specialized type of personnel management. Whether personnel management focuses upon sales, production or office workers, the same set of problems needs considering, but each problem varies in nature and importance. The salespersons job provides limited opportunity for face-to-face contact and supervision, so sales personnel often are referred to as account administrators or territory managers.

Topic: 2 Activities Involved in Sales Force Management: The steps involved in sales force management are the same as those in general personnel management. 1. Job Analysis: Job analysis means determining the job objectives, the components of duties and responsibilities, performance criteria and reporting relationships. 2. Job Description: The out of job analysis is the written job description that is used in deriving the necessary qualifications of the employees. 3. Job Specifications: Job specification depicts minimum skills educational qualifications and experiences 1. Job Evaluation: Job evaluation is a systematic procedure for finding the relative worth of a job. 2. Recruitment: Qualified job applicants must be found and this requires decisions on recruiting sources and methods. 3. Selection: From the supply of applicants, those meeting the job specifications are selected. 4. Training and Supervision: After hiring applicants, the company must arrange initial training and continue throughout their entire career with the company. 5. Compensation and Motivational Programs: Compensation plans are designed to provide appropriate levels and methods of compensation. The salesperson is motivated to plan and make proper use of working time. 6. Performance Evaluation: Controlling sales personnel requires analysis of selling records and evaluations of sales performance.

Topic: 3 Economics of Effective Sales Force Management: There are economics in effective sales force management. Assume that company X has ten salespersons and each makes five calls per day, a total of fifty calls per day. Assume further that four calls out of five results in sales and that the average sale amounts to $500. If through more effective management, each salesperson increases the number of calls to six per day, the companys daily total becomes sixty and more sales per day are made (8 $500) $4000.

Topic: 4 Rate of Sales Personnel Turnover: The rate of sales personnel turnover is a measure of the quality of sales force management. This is the ratio of separation per 100 salespeople. For example, a company employing a sales force of 250 persons and having twenty separations during the year has rate of turnover of percent. Number of separations 100 Rate of personnel turnover = Average total sales force

Topic: 5 Causes of Turnover of Sales Personnel: Caused by Actions Controllable by Company Caused by Actions Not Controllable by Company 1. Poor recruiting 2. Importer selection and assignment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Training deficiencies Inadequate supervision and motivation Breakdown in communications Unsatisfactory performance customers and competitors Discharged for cause e.g. dishonesty Cutbacks in personnel Transfer to another department

10. Promotion to a higher position 1. Recruitment 2. Death

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Illness or physical disability Personal and marital difficulties Dislike for the jobtravel, working condition Military duty Better position

Topic: 6 Involvement of Sales Executives in Sales Force Management: Sales force management is a concern of sales executives at all organizational levels. To start with, sales supervisors, the level of administrators directly above the salespeople, devote the bulk of their energies to managing the sales force. Others spend less time on managing salespersons activities but are concerned. Besides, middle level sales executives such as regional sales managers, serve in line capacities managing lower sales executives who in turn manage the sales force. Furthermore, at the top of the organization structure, the chief sales executives has general responsibilities not only for managing subordinate sales executives and through them for managing the sales personnel but also for the management of other sales and marketing activities.

Topic: 7 Job Analysis: Job analysis means assembling and analyzing factual information on specific job. It provides the data required for preparing written job descriptions which are used to derive job specifications. Sales job analysis requires systematic collection and study of information on particular sales jobs such as territorial salesperson. It answers such questions as: To whom does this person report? Who reportes to this person? What products does this person sell? To whom does this person sell? What information should this person gather? What reports should this person make and to whom?

Finally, job analysis involves the job description and job specification which provide factual foundations for making decisions on hiring, transfers, promotion, training and dismissals.

Topic: 8 Sales Job Descriptions: The key output of sales job analysis is the job description. A sales job description is an organized factual statement covering: the reporting relationships of particular job the job objectives duties and responsibilities job performance criteria.

A sales description tells to whom the sales jobholder reports, what has to be done, how it is done and why and in addition, describes the standards against which performance is measured.

Topic: 9 Procedure for Sales Job analysis and Preparation of Written Job Descriptions: Procedures for sales job analysis and preparation of written job descriptions vary from company to company, but four main steps are identifiable in procedures used in wellmanaged companies: 1. Assemble factual information about the job: Clarify reporting relationships by questioning salespersons Prepare a questionnaire for sales personnel Write down responsibilities and duties of salespersons Survey customers 1. Analyze the information gathered: Tabulate the information received. Reconcile differences revealed by such viewpoints as job objectives & duties.

Classify the duties and major responsibilities such as sales, service, promotion duties. 1. Write the job description: Put the reporting relationships in writing.

Add the concise statement of job objectives Insert the detailed information on duties and responsibilities Develop a written statement of job performance measures. 1. As required, repeat the process: As required, repeat the first three steps when changes in markets, customers requirements, products, competition, the economic climate and so forth require a review of job objectives, job duties and responsibilities and performance measures.

Topic: 10 Preparation of Sales job Specifications: Preparing a complete and accurate sales job description is simple compared to preparing a complete and accurate sales job specification. The duties and responsibilities portion of the job description is focused upon to determine the qualifications that an individual needs to perform the job satisfactorily. This set of qualifications is called the Job specifications. Section Duties and Responsibilities Sales Make regular calls Sell the line; demonstrate Handle questions and objectives Estimate customers potential needs Emphasis quality Get the order Service Install the product or display Report product weakness and complaints Handle adjustment, returns and allowances Handle special orders

Establish priorities Analyze local condition for customers Territory Management Arrange route for best coverage Balance effort with customer against the potential volume Maintain sales portfolios Sales Promotion Develop new prospects and accounts Distribute home office literature and catalogues Train personnel of wholesalers and jobbers Present survey reports Executive Each night make a daily work for the next day. Organize field activity Prepare and submit special reports Investigate lost sales Attend sales meeting Build a prospect list Collect credit information Good will Counsel customers on their problems Maintain loyalty Attend local sales meetings.

Fig: Checklist for Compiling Duties and Responsibilities Section of a Sales Job Description Chapter # Recruiting Sales Personnel Topic: 11 Organization for Recruiting and Selection: The organization for recruiting and selection of sales personnel varies from company to company. Company size, executives personalities and departmental structure all influence the organization used. Where the sales manager has personnel staff assistant, recruiting and selection usually is handled entirely within the sales department. Companies with small sales force sometimes assign sole responsibility for recruiting and selection of sales personnel to the company personnel manager but this is unusual. It is more common for the personnel department to handle certain but not all, aspect of recruiting and preliminary screening and for the sales department to handle other aspects of recruiting and screening and to make the hiring decisions. Placement of responsibility for recruitment and selection of sales personnel in concern with regional or district sales offices also varies. These functions tend to be centralized at the home office when the firm requires high-caliber sales personnel such as those needed to do technical selling. However decentralized recruitment and selection result in reduce interviewing costs and time and facilitate the hiring of local applicants for sales work. Topic: 12 Sources of Sales Force Recruitment: 1. 1. Sources within the Company: 2. Company Sales Personnel: Many individuals apply for sales jobs because they know company sales personnel and salespeoples recommendations may constitute an excellent source. However some salespeople are not discriminating in their recommendations and their recommendations need careful appraisal. Salespeople are particularly valuable source of recommendations when jobs must be filled in remote territories. 3. Company Executives: Recommendations of the sales manager, the president and other company executives are an important source. Sales executives personal contacts may yield top-caliber people because of their understanding of the needed qualifications. Experience is the way to evaluate each executives worth as a source of recruits. 4. Internal Transfers: Two additional internal sources are other departments and the non selling section of the sales department. Transfers are good prospects for sales positions whenever product knowledge makes up a substantial portion of sales training, since it may be possible to accelerate field assignments. 5. 2. Sources Outside the Company: 6. Direct Unsolicited Applications: All companies receive unsolicited walk-in and write-in applications for sales positions. Some sales managers favor immediate

hiring of applicants who take the initiative in seeking sales jobs, the reasoning being that this indicates selling aggressiveness. 7. Employee Agencies: Sales managers traditionally regard employment agencies as unpromising sources. Many use agencies only when after exhausting other sources. 8. Salespeople making Call on the Company: The purchasing director is in contact with sales personnel from other companies and is in a position to evaluate their onthe-job performance. 9. Employees of Customer: Some companies regard their customer as a recruiting source. Customers recommend people in their organizations who have reached the maximum potential of their existing jobs. Such transfer may have a favorable effect upon morale in the customers organization. 10. Sales Executives Clubs: Many sales executives clubs operate placement services. Salespeople seeking new positions submit personal data sheets that are duplicated and forwarded to members. At club meetings, sales executives have opportunities for informal discussion and exchange of placement information. 11. Sales Force of noncompeting Companies: Individuals currently employed as salespersons for noncompeting companies are often attractive recruiting prospects. Such people have selling experience, some of a readily transferable and for those who have worked for companies in related industries. 12. Sales force of Competing Companies: Because of their experience in selling similar products to similar markets, personnel recruitment form competitors sales forces may require only minimal training. However competing sales forces are costly sources. 13. Educational Institution: This source includes colleges and universities, community colleges, vocational-technical institutions, business colleges, high schools and night schools. Colleges and universities are important sources of sales and management trainees and competition is keen for their graduates. 14. Older persons: Many people in this age group have years of selling experience and the maturity that is valuable in most selling situations. Topic: 13 The Recruiting Effort: The sales personnel recruiting effort differs from one country to another, mainly as to the sources of recruits and recruiting methods and stem from managements sizeup of the appropriate combination of selling styles. Different selling styles call for individuals with varying qualifications as to type and amount of education, other training and experience. 1. Trade Selling: If trade selling is the basic style, the management seeks individuals with minimal or general education and little or no experience. 2. Missionary Selling: If missionary selling is the basic style, management looks for higher-caliber individuals with specialized educations (as science or pharmacy, if the job involves calling on physicians or hospitals) or equivalent qualifications perhaps gained through experience in a similar job with another company. 3. Technical Selling: If technical selling is the basic style, management looks for even individuals with scientific or engineering educations and or backgrounds.

4. New Business Selling: If the selling job also involves new business selling, management looks for individuals with the required abilities to apply this selling style. The scope of the recruiting effort is influenced by the number of recruits desired which are: 1. 1. Personal Recruiting: 2. College Recruiting: Personal recruiting is used for recruiting graduates of educational institutions. Campus interviewing is often planned as a companywide affair, because this avoids much duplication of effort. Representatives of different departments do the interviewing and the personnel department plans and coordinates the drive. 3. Recruiting Direct to Consumer Sales Personnel: One situation where personal recruiting sees widespread use it in the direct-to-consumer selling industry, crowded with companies that have a difficult time recruiting sales personnel. The type of selling, unattractive to many people and the uncertainty of caring result in high sales force turnover rates. 4. Recruiting Consultants: In many cities, independent firms operate4 as specialists in recruiting sales personnel for client firms. These consultants maintain contacts with diverse local organizations and have files identifying possible candidates for sales jobs. Companies using recruiting consultants generally provide the appropriate job description and job specifications. 5. Indirect Recruiting: City newspapers carry numerous advertisements publicizing openings for sales personnel. Such advertisements appear both in classified sections and as display advertising. So great is the number of prospective job candidates reached by a single advertisement that companies often try to reduce the volume of applications. 6. Recruiting Brochures: Some companies distribute brochures outlining sales career opportunities to applicants answering recruiting advertisement as well as those contacted through such centers of influence as career counselors in educational institutions. Effective brochures are written from the viewpoint of the prospective sales recruit. Besides describing the company and its history, the brochure details the qualifications required for sales jobs and the salespersons duties, responsibilities and advancement opportunities.

Chapter # Planning, Executing & Evaluating Sales Training Programs

Topic: 14 Building Sales Training Programs: Sales training is the effort an employer puts forth to provide salespeople job-related culture, skills, knowledge and attitudes that should result in improved performance in the selling environments.

There are several type of sales training programs. The most comprehensive and longest is the training program for newly recruitment sales personnel. More intensive and shorter programs on specialized topics as well as periodic refresher courses (collectively known as continuing sales training) are presented for experienced sales personnel.

In addition, many companies offer sales training programs for the sales personnel of their distributors and dealers. Some programs are designed to develop individuals as sales trainers (full or part time) or as junior-level sales executives (district or branch sales managers) Each type of program serves a different purpose and its content reflects that purpose.

Building a sales training program requires five major decisions. the specific training aims must be defined, content decided, training methods selected, arrangement made for execution and procedures set up to evaluate the results. Some sales training refers to these decisions are the A-C-M-E-E decisions- Aim, Content, Methods, Execution and Evaluation.

Topic: 15 Defining Sales Training Objectives: Specific aim (the A in A-C-M-E-E) definition begins with a review of general aims and that means currently employed to attain them. The following factors that the management considers as it seeks to identify training needs for: 1. Identifying Initial Training Needs: Determining the need for and specific aims of an initial sales training program requires analysis of three main factors such as 2. Job Specifications: The qualifications needed to perform the job are detailed in the job specifications. Few people posses all these qualifications at the time of hiring. The set of job specifications needs scrutinizing for clues to the pints on which new personnel are most likely to need training. Other qualifications related to job performance need considering: How should salespeople apportion their time? Which duties require the greatest proportion of time? Which are neglected and why? Which selling approaches are most effective? 1. Trainees Background and Experience: Each individual enters an initial sales training program with a unique educational background and experience record. The

gap between the qualifications in the job specifications and those a trainee already has represents the nature and amount of needed training. Time and money are saved by putting all recruits through identical programs. 2. Sales-related Marketing Policies: To determine initial sales training needs, salesrelated marketing policies must be analyzed. Differences in products and markets mean differences in selling practices and polices which in turn, pint to needed differences in training programs. Again differences in promotion, price, marketing channel and physical distribution all have implications for initial sales training. 3. Identifying Continuing Training Needs: Determining the specific aims for a continuing program requires identification of specific training needs of experienced sales personnel. Basic changes in products and markets give rise to needs for training as do changes in company sales-related marketing policies, procedures and organization.

Topic: 16 Deciding Training Content: The content (the C in A-C-M-E-E) of a sales training program whether an initial or continuing program, derives from the specific aims that management, after analyzing its training needs, formulate. Every sales training program should devote some time to each of four main areas: 1. Product Data: Some product training is basic to any initial sales training program. Companies with technical products devote more than half their programs to product training. But in many situations, especially with standardized products sold routinely, new sales personnel require only minimal product training. In all cases new salespeople must know enough about products products uses application to serve customers characteristics of competitors products strengths and weaknesses of competitors products 1. Sales Technique: Most sales personnel need instruction in sales techniques. Some sales managers believe, however, that careful selection of sales personnel and product training are sufficient to ensure effective selling. They believe, in other words, that if an individual has an attractive personality, good appearance and voice and reasonable intelligence and knows the product, he or she will sell it easily. But the predominant view is that in new sales personnel need basic instruction in how to sell. 2. Markets: The new salesperson must know who the customers are their locations, the particular products in which they are interested, their buying habits and motives,

and their financial condition. In other words, the salesperson needs to know not only who buys what but, more important, why and how they buy. 3. Company Information: Certain items of company information are essential to the salesperson on the job others not absolutely essential contribute to overall effectiveness. The training program should include coverage of all sales-related marketing policies and reasoning behind them. The sales person must know company pricing policy product services spear parts and repair credit extension customer relations

Topic: 17 Selecting Training Methods: After deciding training contents, the planners select training methods (the M in A-C-M-E-E). There is a wide variety of methods such as: 1. The Lecture: The ancient instructional method, in use before the invention of printing, is used extensively in sales training. Trainees mainly watch and listen, although some versions of lecturing permit questions. Its main weakness is that teaching is emphasized more than learning. But a lecture can be effective, provided that the lecturer is able and enthusiastic and uses examples, demonstrations and visual aids. Compared with other training methods, the lecture is economical in terms of time required to cover a given topic. 2. The Personal Conference: The potential of this method often goes unrecognized, because many people assume that learning occurs only in structured situations. However, learning occurs in structured and unstructured, formal and informal situations. In the personal conference, the trainer and trainee jointly analyze problems such as effective use of selling time, route planning and call scheduling and handling unusual selling problems. Personal conferences are held in offices, restaurants, bars, motel rooms and elsewhere. 3. Demonstrations: The demonstration is a appropriate for conveying information on such topics as new products and selling techniques. Demonstrating a new product works and its uses is effective, much more so than lecturing on the same materials. 4. Role Playing: This method has trainees acting out parts in contrived problem situation. The role-playing session begins with the trainer describing the situation and the different personalities involved. Each plays his or her assigned role and afterward, they together with other group members and the trainer appraise each players effectiveness and suggest how the performance of each might have been improved.

5. Case Discussion: This method, originated by business educations as a partial substitute for learning by experience, is widely used in sales training. Write-ups of selling and other problems encountered on the job provide the bases for group discussion. Sometimes, the cases, particularly when they are assigned in advance then it is imperative that participants come prepared to the session. Otherwise, valuable time is wasted in rehashing the situation. 6. Impromptu Discussion: This method, sometimes called a sales seminar or buzz session, begins with the trainer, group leader, or some member of the sales force making a brief oral presentation on an everyday problem. General give-and-take discussion follows. 7. Gaming: This method, also known as simulation, somewhat resembles role playing, uses highly structured contrived situations, based on reality, in which players assume decision-making roles through successive rounds of play. Among the advantages of gaming are: participants learn easily because they involve themselves in game play players develop skill in identifying key factors influencing decisions

games lend themselves readily to demonstrations of the uses and value analytical techniques as inventory and other planning models. 1. On-the-Job Training: This method, also called the coach-and-pupil method, combines telling, showing, practicing and evaluating. The coach, sometimes a professional sales trainer but more often a seasoned salesperson, beings by describing particular selling situations, explaining various techniques and approaches that might be used effectively. 2. Programmed Learning: This method breaks down subject matter into numbered instructional units called frames, which are incorporated into a book or microfilmed for use with a teaching machine. Each frame contains an explanation of a specific point, plus a question for the trainee to use in testing his or her understanding. Trainees check answer by referring to another designated frame. 10. Correspondence Courses: This method is used in both initial and continuing sales training. In the insurance field it is used to acquaint new salespeople with industry fundamentals and to instruct in basic sales techniques. This method is also used to train noncompany sales personnel such as distributors salespersons to improve their knowledge of the manufacturers product line and selling techniques. Topic: 18 Philosophies of Training: There are two philosophies of sales training such as: 1. The Conditioned-Response Philosophy: The conditioned-response philosophy seeks to train sales personnel so that they will respond in standardized or programmed ways. 2. The Insight-Response Philosophy: The insight-response philosophy seeks to develop trainees insight and analytical skills so that they respond appropriately and

in their own individualized ways. In condition-response sales force, all individuals react in the same way to any given situation, while in an insight response sales force, each person reacts in an individualized way.

Which philosophy is appropriate? The choice depends partly upon the predominant selling style the company expects its sales personnel to apply. If the predominant selling style is either trade or missionary, the conditioned-response philosophy is a natural choice. If the predominant selling style is either technical or new business, the insight-response philosophy is a natural choice.

Topic: 19 Organization or Execution for Sales Training: The execution step of A-C-M-E-E (the first E) requires four key organizational decisions: 1. Who Will be the Trainees? A company identifies the trainees for its sales training program. New and existing salespeople Intermediaries Sales managers 1. 2. Who Will Conduct the Training? 2. Line Sales Personnel: Initial sales training is a line function in some companies, a staff function in others. If a line function, responsibility for initial training is assigned to the top sales executive. If a staff function, responsibility for initial training is given to the personnel director and sales management has an advisory role. 3. Corporate Staff Trainers: Top sales executives usually delegate sales training performance to subordinates. Large sales organizations often have a sales training director, reporting to the top sales executive. The director conducts some training and coordinates that given on a decentralized basis by regional and district sales mangers. 4. Outside Experts: Many companies hire outside experts to conduct portions of sales training programs, generally portions relating to sales techniques. 5. 3. When Will the training Take Place? Training begins the first day It continuous throughout the career Sales meetings serve as important training methods

1. Where Will the Training Site Be? 2. Centralized Training: Training programs is held at the central office or at the manufacturing plant etc. Centralized training centers have excellent facilities and equipments as well as highly skilled people to teach. 3. Decentralized Training: It takes place at branch or regional offices as a part of sales force instruction or on-the-job training.

Topic: 20 Evaluating Sales Training Programs: The second E in (A-C-M-E-E) is evaluation step which focuses upon measuring sales training programs effectiveness. While evaluating, the company must decide what outcomes will be measures, how these outcomes will be measured, and when to measure these outcomes. These outcomes or components fall into four categories: 1. Step in the Evaluation: Determine what should be measured? Determine the information collection methods Determine the measurement methods

Analyze the date, determine the result and draw consciousness making recommendations 1. What should be Measured? Components to measure: Reactions Learning Behavior OTJ result 1. What should be the Information Collection Methods: Questionnaires Interviews Tests Observation

Company Data 1. When should be the Measurement Methods?

After only Before/ After Before/ after with control group

Topic: 21 A-C-M-E-E Approach: Fig: A-C-M-E-E Approach to sales training related to Kiplings Six Honest Serving-Men Chapter # Controlling Sales Personnel

Topic: 22 Standards of Performance: Setting standards of performance requires consideration of the nature of the selling job. In other words, sales job analysis is necessary to determine job objectives, duties and responsibilities and the like. 1. Quotas: A quota is a quantitative objective3 expressed in absolute terms and assigned to a specific marketing unit. Quotas specify desired levels of accomplishment for sales volume, gross margin, net profit, expenses, performance of nonselling activities or a combination of these and similar items. 2. Selling Expenses Ratio: Sales managers use this standard to control the relation of selling expenses to sales volume. Selling expense ratios are determined after analysis of expense conditions and sales volume potentials in each territory. An attractive feature of the selling expense ratio is that the salesperson can affect it both by controlling expense and by making sales. 3. Territorial Net Profit or Gross Margin Ratio: Target ratios of net profit or gross margin to sales for each territory focus sales personnels attention on the needs for selling a balanced line and for considering relative profitability. 4. Territorial Market Share: This standard controls market share on a territory-byterritory basis. Management sets target market share percentages for each territory and then compares company sales to industry sales in each territory. 5. Sales Coverage Effectiveness Index: This standard controls the thoroughness with which a salesperson works the assigned territory. The index consists of the ratio of the number of customers to the total prospects in a territory. 6. Call-frequency Ratio: A call-frequency ratio is calculated by dividing the number of sales calls on a particular class of customers by the number of customers in that class. Management sets different call-frequency ratios for different classes of customers.

7. Call per Day: In consumer-product fields, where sales personnel contact large number of customers, it is desirable to set a standard for the number of calls per day. 8. Order Call Ratio: The ratio measures the effectiveness of sales personnel in securing orders. Sometimes called a batting average, it is calculated by dividing the number of orders secured by the number of calls made. 9. Average Cost Per Call: To emphasize the importance of making profitable calls, a target for average cost per call is set. It is also used to reduce the call frequency on accounts responsible for small orders. 10. Average Order Size: Average order size standards control the frequency of calls on different accounts. The usual practice is to set different standards for different sizes and classes of customers. 11. Nonselling activities: Some companies establish quantitative performance standards for such nonselling activities as obtaining dealer displays and cooperative advertising contracts, training distributors personnel and goodwill calls on distributors customers. 12. Multiple Quantitative Performance Standards: It is widespread practice to assign multiple quantitative performance standards. 13. Job Factors: Sometimes executives measure the qualitative factors formally. Job factors includes: Product knowledge Awareness of customer needs Relationship with customers Number of sales calls Quota performance Service follow-up 1. Personal Factors: It is another qualitative factor which measures the following factors: Punctuality General attitude Dress and appearance Diligence Cooperation

Accuracy Adaptability Reliability

Topic: 23 Recording Actual Performance: Sales managements task is to measure actual performance. It is necessary to define information needs, determining the information sources and collect the information. There are two basic sources of performance information: 1. Sales and Expense Records: Almost every company has a wealth of data in its internal sales and expense records, but it is useful for sales control purposes. Reclassified according to sales managements information needs, sales and expense data contribute to the determination and measurement of actual performances. 2. Reports of various sorts: Among the reports sales management has available are those from sales personnel and the lower echelons of sales management. Reports from sales personnel fall into six principal groups: 1. Progress or Call Report: Most companies have a progress or call report. It is prepared individually for each call or cumulatively, covering all calls made daily or weekly. Progress reports provide secure data of the salespersons activities. 2. Expense Report: Because most sales personnel are reimbursed for expenses and itemized expense records are required for income tax purposes, most companies have an expense report. 3. Sales Work Plan: The salesperson submits a work plan for future period , usually a week or a month. The purposes are to assist the salesperson in planning and scheduling activities and to inform management of the salespersons whereabouts. 4. New Business or Potential New Business Report: This report informs management of accounts recently obtained and prospects who may become sources of new business. It provides data for evaluating the extent and effectiveness of development work by sales personnel.

Topic: 24 Purposes of Field Sales Reports: 1. To provide data for evaluating performance 2. To help the salesperson plan the work 3. To record customers suggestions and complaints and their reactions to new products, service policies, price changes, advertising campaigns and so forth. 4. To gather information on competitors activities 5. To report changes in local business and economic conditions.

6. To log important items of territorial information for use in case sales personnel leave the company. 7. To keep the mailing list updated for promotional and catalogue materials. 8. To provide information requested by marketing research.

Topic: 25 Controlling Sales Personnel through Supervision: Management also controls sales personnel through supervision. Regardless of who does the supervising, the objective is to improve the job performances of sales personnel. The executive with supervisory responsibilities establishes working relations with sales personnel for purposes of : observing evaluating reporting on performance correcting deficiencies clarifying responsibilities and duties providing motivation informing sales personnel of changes in company policy helping to solve business and personal problems continuing sales training

How much supervision is enough? Too much is as bad as too little. It is difficult to prescribe how mush supervision is enough, but there are some conditions under which supervision is needed. Among these conditions are: Sales personnel turnover rate excessive in branch, district or other organizational unit. High turnover of accounts Increased complaints from customers Mail or phone order increasing for no known reasons Low ratio of orders to sales calls

Total number of calls very low or very high Increasing ratio of selling expenses to sales in an organizational unit

Who Should Supervise? Depending upon the company and its organization, sales personnel may be supervised by home office personnel, branch or district managers or field sales supervisors. Put another way sales supervision may be either through executives as one of their job responsibilities or through specialists whose jobs are mainly supervising. If sales force is small and experienced, sales supervision is generally through the top sales executive or an assistant.