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World War One Timeline Lillian Eng Block D Sam Hughes Minister of Militia in charge of C anadas armament industry

created the Shell C ommittee to oversee the manufacturing of shells; by 1917 C anada was supplying of shells used by British forces took advantage of his position to award patronage to his profiteer friends more concerned about money: created shells that exploded before being fired, rifles that jammed frequently, soles made of compressed cardboard that fell apart in the rain Robert Borden Prime Minister of C anada introduced the War Measures Act Trench Warfare & No Mans Land strategy utilized in WWI: opposing armed forces attack, counterattack, + defend from a system of trenches dug into the ground; enemy trenches were often a few meters away Allies trenches stretched from English C hannel to Swiss border No Mans Land: area between trenches full of corpses, barbed wire, mud; had to be crossed in order to enter enemy trenches; soldiers in No Mans Land were easy targets Attrition Webster: the act of weakening or exhausting by constant harassment, abuse, or attack WWI was about who could outlast + outfight; side with more resources/reserves would win trench combat: countries involved threw away hundreds of lives to gain minimal yardage (to enter new trench) Victory Bonds C anadian govt sold bonds to citizens, corporations, organizations to raise funds to pay for war bonds were a load to govt that could be redeemed w/ interest after 5, 10, or 20 yrs The Schlieffen Plan 1914 - 1818 Germany did not want to fight a war on two fronts (France to the west, Russia to the east), so they developed the Schlieffen plan the plan: quickly invade Belgium, then France to capture Paris; once accomplished, Germany would focus on Russia plan failed due to exhausting pace; Germany forced to fight a war on two fronts Germans pushed back to N. France where they dug a defensive line of trenches; Allies dug their own = static war (both sides unable to advance, not willing to retreat) Treaty of Versailles 1919 the treaty that ended WWI; eventually set out the terms of peace agreement Germany had to accept responsibility for causing war Germany had to pay war reparations ($30 billion) Europes map redrawn: reduced Germanys territory + divided it into 2 parts - Poland would have sea corridor restricted German army to 100k men; not allowed U-boats or air force Western Front series of trenches that ran 700 km from Belgian coast Swiss Border C anadians fought on western front Armistice Nov. 11, 1918 truce finally signed in railway car in France; war ended @ 11 am

2nd Battle of Ypres Apr. 22, 1915 Belgian city located in Flanders Germans used C l2 even though using it for military purposes was outlawed by int. agreement (1907) C l2 blinded, burned, killed soldiers + destroyed lungs (suffocated/choked to death); left huge gaps in army lines neither side gained much advantage in Flanders fields despite devastated troops (6k C anadians killed, wounded, or captured) Battle of the Somme July 1916 British + French forces under General Douglas Haig launched attack along line of low ridges near Somme River, France Haig used strategies that worked in prev. wars, but not in trench wars waves of troops ordered to march across open fields were gunned down by Germans in 30 mins. ~85 % of Royal Newfoundland Regiment (700 men, incld. all officers) killed or wounded ended in Nov. 1 mil + casualties - almost equal #s on both sides - but Haig claimed victory; ~24k C anadian casualties Halifax Explosion Dec. 6, 1917 Mon Blanc - French vessel - carrying 2500 t + of dynamite was accidentally hit by another ship the powerful explosion devastated much of Halifaxs harbour and the city 10k injured, 2k - 3k killed in the explosion or following fires 100 Day C ampaign 1918 during final months of war, C anadas offensive forces were among the most successful Allied forces C anadian troops under General C urrie broke through German lines + won important battles at Aras, C ambrai, + Valenciennes C entral Powers collapsed 1 by 1; German Kaiser abdicated and fled to Holland

Battle of Vimy Ridge 1917 strategic site (central part of German defense) in France held by Germans since 1914; thought to be impregnable 1914 - 15: 3 French attacks failed; 1916: British attacks failed Late 1916, C anadian troops under Julian Byng chosen to lead new assault Byng developed strategies and thoroughly trained troops in West: C anadian troops bombarded German positions for 1 month + sappers (army engineers) constructed tunnels to move troops secretly to forward positions. Apr. 9, Easter Monday, troops moved into position all battle objectives met and fulfilled quickly despite high costs, but C anadians gained more ground, taken more prisoners, captured more artillery than any previous British offensive in entire war Battle of Passchendaele 1917 General C urie (1st C anadian to command) took over troops for Byng; was a disciplined leader + open to new strategies, but still took orders from Haig, who wanted C urrie + C EF to retake Passchendaele Ridge in Belgium although the ridge had little strategic value, Haig was determined to retake it despite C uries hesitation (casualties would be too high) Haigs earlier assault on the ridge left massive craters in the ground quagmire because of rain; some soldiers + horses drowned in them Allies won, but victory cost 15k C anadian lives + ~500k lives from both sides

War Measures Act 1914 PM introduced act: C anadian govt was allowed to do anything for the security, defense, peace, order + welfare of C anada govt allowed to intervene directly in countrys economy, control transportation, manufacturing, trade, agriculture production, strip C anadians of civil liberties, censor mail, suspend habeas corpus (no right to challenge incarceration before judge; police could detain without laying charges) anyone suspected of being threat to govt could be imprisoned, deported, or both immigrants (esp. recent 1s from German + Austro-Hungarian Empire) treated very harshly hard to carry special identity cards + report regularly to registration officers; some held in internment camps divided C anadian views, event in history where prejudice was used Military Service Act 1917 Borden introduced act: enlistment was compulsory; at 1st exempted disabled, clergies, those with essential jobs or special skills, those who didnt believe war on religious grounds very controversial + emotional divided C anada + left lasting scars French saw act as means of forcing them to fight in a war they didnt feel was theirs (bitter French-English relations; French-C anadians didnt feel connection to Britain or France); Henri Bourassa thought C anada had already helped enough (money, lives) for a war that wasnt theirs; farmers wanted sons + workers for help, some workers expected to work harder without better reward Billy Bishop from Owen Sound, Ont; started cavalry officer, transferred to Royal Flying C orps (1916) C anadas top ace w/ 72 kills; 1st C anadian awarded the Victoria C ross (bravery medal) went on speaking tours, advertised victory bonds, promoted war b/c of his status didnt support the killing nor the war; wondered if he could be called human Russian Revolution 1918 Russias C zar, Nicholas, forced to abdicated in Mar. 1917; provisional govt formed Russians suffered greatly; could not afford to keep fighting Oct. 1917: revolutionaries (Bolsheviks) overthrew provisional govt, promised war-weary public peace + bread signed peace treaty with Germany Germany now only has to fight a war on one front (Western front) Lusitania 1917 1915: German U-Boat sank Lusitania, a British passenger liner, killing ~1200 (some C anadians + Americans) US, angered by sinking of neutral ships + passenger liners, declared war on Germany League of Nations 1919 Borden fought to have C anada become a member of newly formed League of Nations C anada became more autonomous: seen as a more independent nation, 1st official contact w/ foreign govts