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7 Equivalence in Translation
Translation equivalence is defined as a measure of semantic similarity between ST and TT.If we compare a number of TTs with their STs we shall discover that the degree of semantic similarity between the two texts involved in the translating process may vary. In other words the equivalence between ST and TT may be based on the reproduction of different parts of the ST contents. Accordingly, several types of translation equivalence can be distinguished. Let us first of all single out translations in which the degree of semantic similarity with ST seems to be the lowest. This type of equivalence can be illustrated by the following examples (cited from the published translations): * Maybe there is some chemistry between us that doesnt mix Este ceva la mijloc/ce nu merge. * A rolling stone gathers no moss. - Piatra ce se rostogolete nimic (nu) dobndete. It comprises the information which must be preserved by all means even though the greater part of the contents of the original is lost in the translation. In plain English, the translation does not convey either what the original text is about, or what is said in it or how it is said, but only what it is said for, i.e. what the Source meant, what the aim of the message is. This part of the contents which contains information about the general intent of the message, its orientation towards a certain communicative effect can be called the purport of communication. Thus we can deduce that in the first type of equivalence it is only the purport of communication that is retained in translation.

The second group of translations can be illustrated by the following examples:

He answered the telephone. - El a luat receptorul. You see one bear, you have seen them all- noaptea toate pisicile sunt negre.

In (2) the incomparable language units in the original and in the translation describe, in fact, the same action, refer to identical reality, as a telephone call cannot be answered unless one picks up the receiver. Both texts give different information about the same, or, as one sometimes says, they express the same idea using different words. It is the type of equivalence that can be well explained in terms of the situational theory. We may presume that such phrases describe identical situations but each is presented in a different way. Since in each of the two texts the situation is described in a different way, the common feature is not the method of description but the reference to the situation, the possibility of identifying the situation, no matter how it is described in the text. The information which characterized the second type of equivalence can, therefore, be designated as identification of the situation. In the next group of translations the part of the contents which is to be retained is still larger. This type of equivalence can be exemplified as follows:
London saw a cold winter last year.-A fost o iarn grea pentru Londra

n anul trecut.
You are not serious? Glumeti ?? Faci glume?

The translation contains the same general notions as the original. This means that the translation is a semantic paraphrase of the original, preserving its basic semes and allowing their free reshuffle in the sentence. The common semes are easily discovered in the comparative analysis of the translations of this group. Consider the first of the examples cited. Both in the translation and in the original the situation is described as a cause-effect event with a different pattern of identical semes. The use of the identical notions in the two texts means that the basic structure of the messages they convey remains intact. Here it indicates what is said in the original, i.e. what aspect of the described situation is mentioned in the communication. We can now say that the third type of equivalence exemplified by the translations of the third group, implies retention in the translation of the three parts of the original contents which we have conventionally designated as the purport of communication, the identification of the situation and the method of its description. The fourth group of translations can be illustrated by the following samples:
I dont see that I need to convince you-Nu e nevoie s te conving was standing with his arms crossed and his bare head bent- El

sttea cu minele ncruuciate i cu capul plecat. In such translations the syntactic structures can be regarded as derived from those in the original through direct or backward transformations. This includes cases when the translation makes use of similar or parallel structures. Equivalence imply the retention of the linguistic meaning, i.e. the information fixed in the substantial or structural elements of language as

their plane of content. The translation conveys something of the how-it-issaid in the original. The fourth type of equivalence presupposes retention in the translation of the four meaningful components of the original: the purport of communication, the identification of the situation, the method of its description, and the invariant meaning of the syntactic structures. The fifth group of translations can be discovered when we analyse their relationships with the respective originals. Here we find the maximum possible semantic similarity between texts in different languages. These translations try to retain the meaning of all the words used in the original text. There is considerable semantic proximity of the correlated words in the two sentences:
I saw him at the theatre.- L-am vzut la teatru. The house was sold for 10 thousand dollars.- Casa s-a vndut cu

10 000 de dolari. Here we can observe the equivalence of semes which make up the meaning of correlated words in the original text and the translation; parallelism of syntactic structures implying the maximum invariance of their meanings; the similarity of the notional categories which determine the method of describing the situation; the identity of the situations; the identical functional aim of the utterance or the purport of communication.

2.4 Ways of translation of literary texts from English into

Translation of fiction is very difficult, but due to work of translators we can study works of ancient philosophers, fables, myths and legends of ancient civilizations, heritage of the European culture, and also works of modern writers. Reading the works translated into Romanian, the reader perceives it as if it is initially have been written in Romanian, thanks to laborious and a hard work of translator which used all its talents for the translation of what the author initially bethought. As a rule, literary translation is performed only by the best experts in the field of linguistics which are capable to adapt all the coloring from one language to another, and thus, without having lost art value of the work of literature. To reflect in fine fashion an event in work of literature, the translator should be well familiar with culture and country history, its mentality and the period which is described in a work of literature. Without such knowledge translator cannot get message of authors idea across to the reader. Except knowledge of a foreign language, the translator should know the native language in perfection and to be the master of an epistolary genre. Often translations are performed by different writers and though, they are not freely speak foreign language, their translations turn out competent, beautiful and easy-to-read. Specific complexity for literary translation is carried by the settled expressions, proverbs, phraseological units and idiomatic turns. In its works writers often use such technique, and without its knowledge translation is almost impossible. Many cases when literary translation lost true value of

the written are known. It occurred that the translator approached to translation word-to-word. The most known mistakes while translating are the following expressions:

John the Baptist (Ion Botezatorul) - translated as John Baptist Saint Virgin (Sfinta Maria) - "Sacred Virginia" or "Sacred Virgin"

Literary Point of View and Linguistic Point of View If one wants to reproduce the original style satisfactorily, one must keep two points in mind before undertaking the translation. First, the translator must have a macroscopic point of view, namely, a view of the whole, and should always remember that what he is working at is a literary work written by somebody else and try his utmost to turn his translation into a work of art which is in conformity with the thought, feelings, and style of the original. Thus, the translation will be as moving and vivid as the original work and the reader may be aesthetically entertained as well. Second, he must have a microscopic point of view, namely, the linguistic point of view. In the process of translating, all the paragraphs, sentences and words should be attentively studied so that the best expressions may be chosen to satisfy the needs of reproducing the thought, feelings, and style of the original. From this point of view, style is formed by the coordination of paragraphs, sentences and words. Therefore, even if some individual sentences or words were not satisfactorily rendered, they would not affect the style of the work as a whole.

Style can never go without language. Paragraphs, sentences and words are absolutely essential to style. Paragraphs, sentences and words for the basis of style. Sentences are made up of words, paragraphs of sentences, and a entire work of paragraphs. The excellence of a work is due to its flawless paragraphs, of a paragraph to its faultless sentences, and of a sentence to appropriate choice of words. This has long been the goal writers pursue and translators should make the utmost effort to make translations correspond to the original in style, so that a resemblance in spirit may be achieved. At the same time, the translator should render the words, sentences, and paragraphs so that a resemblance in form may be achieved. Paragraphing refers to chapters and natural paragraphs in a novel, prose, verse or a play. All these must be translated in their original order. Sentence order and sentence patterns should be kept as much as possible. Sometimes we have to make some change in sentence patterns in accordance with the different usage of the target language. Only when we have rendered the sentence patterns flexibly where necessary can we have satisfied the minimum requirement of clear expression of meaning and smooth use of language in translation. Wording here means choice of words and rhetorical devices. Every word must be weighed carefully and every figure of speech dealt with seriously. Proper words in proper places define a style. The quality of a translation has nothing to do with the original work or with the original writer; rather, it depends on the theoretical knowledge and practical skill of the translator. It is because translation is not only a science,

a science with its own peculiar laws and methods, but also an artan art of reproduction and re-creation. The thought, feeling and style will be reproduced provided the paragraphs, sentences and words in the original or source language are faithfully, flexibly and satisfactorily transferred to the target or receptor language. Resemblance in form is the basis for the resemblance in spirit and the latter is the crystallization of the former. The translation process consists of two steps. First, the translator should carefully appreciate the tone and spirit of the whole original work through words, sentences and paragraphs it is made up of and determine what kind of style it reflects from both the literary and linguistic points of view. Then he starts translating it sentence by sentence and paragraph by paragraph from beginning to the end, with the reproduction of the original style kept in mind. Faced with a passage in the original language, the translator must ask himself: 1. What does the author say? 2. What does he mean? 3. How does he say it? This method of analysis may be applied to the paragraph, to the sentence, or even the phrase. Meanwhile, a translator should pay attention to the three aspects of an utterance, i.e., the verbal, syntactic, and semantic aspects. The verbal aspect

is reflected by the sentences in the work. The syntactic aspect involves the interrelation of the parts of the text. The semantic aspect involves the global sense of the utterance, the theme it evokes. Translatability of the literary style of original works has been reaffirmed, and guiding principles and proper methods have been given. Literary translators must consider the reproduction of the original style as their common goal and strive for it in their work. [Taylor & Francis, p.125-134]