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Chapter 1: Analyzing The Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture

CCNP SWITCH: Implementing IP Switching

Chapter 1 Objectives
Describe common campus design options and how design choices affect implementation and support of a campus LAN. Describe the access, distribution, and core layers. Describe small, medium, and large campus network designs. Describe the prepare, plan, design, implement, operate, optimize (PPDIOO) methodology. Describe the network lifecycle approach to campus design.

ntroduction to Enterprise Campus Network Design

Enterprise Network
Core (Backbone) Campus Data Center Branch WAN Internet Edge

Regulatory Standards (U.S.)

There may be several legal regulations that have an impact on a networks design. US regulations on networks include:
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Sarbanes-Oxley Act Records to Be Preserved by Certain Exchange Members, Brokers and Dealers: Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Rule 17a4

Campus Designs
Modular - easily supports growth and change. Scaling the network is eased by adding new modules in lieu of complete redesigns. Resilient - proper high-availability (HA) characteristics result in near-100% uptime. Flexible - change in business is a guarantee for any enterprise. These changes drive campus network requirements to adapt quickly.

Multilayer Switches in Campus Networks

Hardware-based routing using Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP are supported Layer 3 switching speeds approximate that of Layer 2 switches Layer 4 and Layer 7 switching supported on some switches Future: Pure Layer 3 environment leveraging inexpensive L3 access layer switches

Cisco Switches
Catalyst 6500 Family used in campus, data center, and core as well as WAN and branch
Up to 13 slots and 16 10-Gigabit Ethernet interfaces Redundant power supplies, fans, and supervisor engines Runs Cisco IOS

Catalyst 4500 Family used in distribution layer and in collapsed core environments
Up to 10 slots and several 10-Gigabit Ethernet interfaces Runs Cisco IOS

Catalyst 3560 and 3750 Families used in fixed-port scenarios at the access and distribution layers Nexus 2000, 5000, and 7000 Families NX-OS based modular data center switches

Multilayer Switching Miscellany

ASIC-based (hardware) switching is supported even with QoS and ACLs, depending on the platform; 6500 switches support hardware-based switching with much larger ACLs than 3560 switches. ASICs on Catalyst switches work in tandem with ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) and packet-matching algorithms for high-speed switching. Catalyst 6500 switches with a Supervisor Engine 720 and a Multilayer Switch Feature Card (MSFC3) must software-switch all packets requiring Network Address Translation. Unlike CPUs, ASICs scale in switching architectures. ASICs integrate onto individual line modules of Catalyst switches to hardware-switch packets in a distributed manner.

Traffic Types
Network Management BPDU, CDP, SNMP, RMON, SSH traffic (for example); low bandwidth IP Telephony Signaling traffic and encapsulated voice traffic; low bandwidth IP Multicast IP/TV and market data applications; intensive configuration requirements; very high bandwidth Normal Data File and print services, email, Internet browsing, database access, shared network applications; low to medium bandwidth Scavenger Class All traffic with protocols or patterns that exceed normal data flows; less than best-effort traffic, such as peer-to-peer traffic (instant messaging, file sharing, IP phone calls, video conferencing); medium to high bandwidth

Client-Server Applications
Mail servers File servers Database servers Access to applications is fast, reliable, and secure

Client-Enterprise Edge Applications

Servers on the enterprise edge, exchanging data between an organization and its public servers Examples: external mail servers, e-commerce servers, and public web servers Security and high availability are paramount

Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA)

Application Layer business and collaboration applications; meet business requirements leveraging interactive services layer. Interactive Services Layer enable efficient allocation of resources to applications and business processes through the networked infrastructure. Networked Infrastructure Layer where all IT resources interconnect.

Borderless Networks
Enterprise architecture launched by Cisco in October 2009. Model enables businesses to transcend borders, access resources anywhere, embrace business productivity, and lower business and IT costs. Focuses more on growing enterprises into global companies. Technical architecture based on three principles:
Decoupling hardware from software Unifying computation, storage, and network Policy throughout the unified system

Provides a platform for business innovation. Serves as the foundation for rich-media communications.

Enterprise Campus Design

Building Access, Building Distribution, and Building Core Layers

Building Core Layer: highspeed campus backbone designed to switch packets as fast as possible; provides high availability and adapts quickly to changes. Building Distribution Layer: aggregate wiring closets and use switches to segment workgroups and isolate network problems. Building Access Layer: grant user access to network devices.

Core Layer
Aggregates distribution layer switches. Implements scalable protocols and technologies and load balancing. High-speed layer 3 switching using 10-Gigabit Ethernet. Uses redundant L3 links.

Distribution Layer
High availability, fast path recovery, load balancing, QoS, and security Route summarization and packet manipulation Redistribution point between routing domains Packet filtering and policy routing to implement policy-based connectivity Terminate VLANs First Hop Redundancy Protocol

Access Layer
High availability supported by many hardware and software features, such as redundant power supplies and First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRP). Convergence provides inline Power over Ethernet (PoE) to support IP telephony and wireless access points. Security includes port security, DHCP snooping, Dynamic ARP inspection, IP source guard.

Small Campus Network

<200 end devices Collapsed core Catalyst 3560 and 2960G switches for access layer Cisco 1900 and 2900 routers to interconnect branch/WAN

Medium Campus Network

200-1000 end devices Redundant multilayer switches at distribution layer Catalyst 4500 or 6500 switches

Large Campus Network

>2000 end users Stricter adherence to core, distribution, access delineation Catalyst 6500 switches in core and distribution layers Nexus 7000 switches in data centers Division of labor amongst network engineers

Data Center Infrastructure

Core layer high-speed packet switching backplane Aggregation layer service module integration, default gateway redundancy, security, load balancing, content switching, firewall, SSL offload, intrusion detection, network analysis Access layer connects servers to network

PPDIOO Lifecycle Approach to Network Design and Implementation

Prepare establish organizational requirements. Plan identify initial network requirements. Design comprehensive, based on planning outcomes. Implement build network according to design. Operate maintain network health. Optimize proactive management of network.

Lifecycle Approach
Lowering the total cost of network ownership Increasing network availability Improving business agility Speeding access to applications and services Identifying and validating technology requirements Planning for infrastructure changes and resource requirements Developing a sound network design aligned with technical requirements and business goals Accelerating successful implementation Improving the efficiency of your network and of the staff supporting it Reducing operating expenses by improving the efficiency of operational processes and tools

Lifecycle Approach (1)

Lowering the total cost of network ownership Increasing network availability Improving business agility Speeding access to applications and services

Lower costs:
Identify and validate technology requirements Plan for infrastructure changes and resource requirements Develop a sound network design aligned with technical requirements and business goals Accelerate successful implementation Improve the efficiency of your network and of the staff supporting it Reduce operating expenses by improving the efficiency of operational processes and tools

Lifecycle Approach (2)

Improve high availability:
Assessing the networks security state and its capability to support the proposed de-sign Specifying the correct set of hardware and software releases, and keeping them opera-tional and current Producing a sound operations design and validating network operations Staging and testing the proposed system before deployment Improving staff skills Proactively monitoring the system and assessing availability trends and alerts Establishing business requirements and technology strategies Readying sites to support the system that you want to implement Integrating technical requirements and business goals into a detailed design and demonstrating that the network is functioning as specified Expertly installing, configuring, and integrating system components Continually enhancing performance Assessing and improving operational preparedness to support current and planned network technologies and services Improving service-delivery efficiency and effectiveness by increasing availability, resource capacity, and performance Improving the availability, reliability, and stability of the network and the applications running on it Managing and resolving problems affecting your system and keeping software applications current

Gain business agility:

Accelerate access to network applications and services:

Planning a Network Implementation

Implementation Components:
Description of the step Reference to design documents Detailed implementation guidelines Detailed roll-back guidelines in case of failure Estimated time needed for implementation

Summary Implementation Plan overview of implementation plan Detailed Implementation Plan describes exact steps necessary to complete the implementation phase, including steps to verify and check the work of the network engineers implementing the plan

Chapter 1 Summary
Evolutionary changes are occurring within the campus network. Evolution requires careful planning and deployments based on hierarchical designs. As the network evolves, new capabilities are added, usually driven by application data flows. Implementing the increasingly complex set of businessdriven capabilities and services in the campus architecture is challenging if done in a piecemeal fashion. Any successful architecture must be based on a foundation of solid design theory and principles. The adoption of an integrated approach based on solid systems design principles is a key to success.

Chapter 1 Labs
Lab 1-1 Lab 1-2 Clearing a Switch Clearing a Switch Connected to a Larger Network