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CHAPTER-III Methodology Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem.

It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/ techniques but also methodology. Why a research study has been under taken, how the research problem has been defined in what way the hypothesis has been formulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted why particular technique of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research study. The present study is an Experimental study. Experimental design is the only method of research that can truly test hypothesis concerning cause and effect relationship. It represents the strongest chain of reasoning about the links between variables (L.R.Gay,2009 ). It is important to note that the experimental researcher controls both the selection and the assignment of the research participants. That is the researcher randomly selects participants form a single, well-defined population and then randomly assign there participant to different treatments randomly makes experimental design for the present study. Experimental designs are classified as pre experimental, Experimental, quasi- Experimental or single subject Experimental design, depending on the degree of control provided.

The present study was conducted to find out the study on effects of pictorial home based programme on family involvement towards enhancing personal and social skills among children with intellectual disability.

Research Design For conducting the present study experimental method Single subject research design was used because the researcher wanted to know the effect of pictorial home based programme on each family involvement and effect of family involvement on each childs performance. The experimental method is the only method of the research that can truly test hypothesis concerning cause and effect relationship (Cohen, Manion & Morrison,2007).For the present study the pre test post test design was used. The main advantage of this design is the initial randomization of the subjects which provides equaliance. This design, with its randomization seeks to control most of the extraneous variable that pose threat to internal validity. Sample The sampling is define as the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study a way that the individuals represent the large group from which they were selecting ( Gay & Airasian, 2009 ). The sample for the study consist of family, having children with mild intellectual disability from the age range of 7 to 10years, drawn from general services, registered at NIMH Secunderabad.

Selection of the sample A group of 5 families having children with mild intellectual disability between the age group of 7 to 10 years were assessed using the checklist for family involvement. Based on the score derived from the assessment, families which score less were taken as my sample.5 families were purposive randomly selected. Inclusion Criteria Families of children with mild intellectual disability, with age range of 7-10 years. Families of children with intellectual disability who score 40% on the family involvement checklist. Families with different literacy levels. Families belonging to multilingual background. Characteristics of the sample(table) give suggestions

Tool All research studies involve data collection to test hypothesis for collecting the data, the researcher has administered self developed instrument which was validated by 8 special educators. Before developing the tool a review of literature on existing assessment tools was done. The search did not reveal much of information regarding the assessment tool to find out the effect of family involvement on child performance, however the literature available on effect of family involvement developing the present tool. For the present study researcher has developed the following tools. and it was considered while

Pre Requisites checklist of families having students with mild intellectual disability at primary level.

Checklist for assessing family involvement of students having intellectual disability. Checklist on personal and social skills among students with intellectual disability. Checklist for assessing performance level of students in task. Pictorial home based programme based on the selected task. Development of tool

Pre Requisites checklist of families having students with mild intellectual disability at primary level.

Checklist for assessing family involvement of students having intellectual disability.

Checklist on personal and social skills among students with intellectual disability. Checklist for assessing performance level of students in task. Pictorial home based programme based on the selected task. Pre-requisite checklist The researcher prepared the checklist for assessing the pre-requisite of family background. It consist 10 items. Pre-requisite checklist was given to 10 experts work for validation. As per the suggestions of the checklist has been modified and final checklist consists of 10 items. Scoring key: Each items consist 1,2,3 score Minimum -1 and Maximum -3 Checklist for assessing family involvement of students having intellectual disability. The researcher prepared the Checklist for assessing family involvement of students having intellectual disability. It consist 10 items. This checklist was given to 10 experts working in NIMH for validation. As per the suggestions of the experts the checklist has been modified and final checklist consists of 10 items. Scoring Key Each items consist 1,2,3,4 score All family member involve = 4 score

Parents and siblings involve= 3 score Only parents involve = 2 score

Only single parent involve = 1 score Checklist on personal and social skills among students with intellectual disability This checklist has been developed to assess the performance of the students in personal and social skills. The researcher drawn the items from FACP, MDPS, and Skill training book. The checklist consists of 44 items. It has been given to 10 special educators who are actively involved in teaching students with ID for validation. As per the suggestions from the experts, changes have been made in the checklist. The final checklist consists of 44 items. Scoring Keys Independent- 4, verbal prompt 3, Gestural prompt 2, physical prompt - 1 Checklist for assessing performance level of students in task. Using task analysis strategy were developed for personal and social skill this check list consist 4 task. It consist 25 items. Based on this checklist recoded the pretest score performance of the students. The performance was recoded on the 4 subtask. Using the codes as physical prompt, Gestural prompt, verbal prompt and independent the researcher gave a scores. Scoring Keys Independent- 4, verbal prompt 3, Gestural prompt 2, physical prompt 1 Pictorial home based programme based on the selected task After the selection of the skill and developing the task analysis, the researcher has developed a pictorial home based programme keeping in view the steps in task

analysis. It consist a photographs of the targeted skill, pasted on the colour A4 size sheets and put in the plastic transparent folder in a sequential order which has been put in a file. The activity was focused in the picture. The picture of each subtask has been taken by the researcher as the task was being performed by a special educator and family members in the home environment. Each picture sheet consist the instruction of that particular task which depicted in the picture. Finally 5 pictorial home based programme have been developed by the researcher which has been used by family members during the intervention programme. Validity Validity is the degree to which a test measures what it intends to measure. Validity is the extent to which the concept one which the concept one wishes to measure is actually being measured by a particular scale or index. The different types of validity are content validity. Construct validity, concurrent and predictive validity. For the present study content validity has been done. Content validity is the degree to which a test measure intended content area (Gay et.al,2009). For the purpose of validation, the tool was given to 10 professionals working in the field of Intellectual Disability .. In the present study the investigator has used pre-requisites checklist for sample selection. And other checklist for assessing the family involvement. Based on these two checklist the researcher were selected the sample for present study. This checklist was submitted for validation to 10 professionals who are working in NIMH. The responses of the experts were collected on the point scale ( Appropriate, Inappropriate ). A separate column was kept for suggestions of professionals for each item. Those items which were agreed by 80% of the professional were included in the tool. After selection the sample the Checklist

to assessing the performance of the student in personal and social skills has been validate by 10 professional. Change have been made as per the suggestions given by the valuators. The researcher developed a Checklist for assessing performance level of students in task. On the based of selected priority task. The researcher developed a pictorial home based programme into consideration all the sub-tasks in the training of the targeted skill.After the approval of all the valuators the pictorial home based programme has been used in the course of study. Setting The instruction was given to the parents in General service at NIMH Secunderabad. And the family members implemented the intervention in home environment. Sessions The intervention program was conducted for 20 sessions for all families.The duration of each session was------ .Daily researcher observe the child in the home environment and give the score of the child and family members. Treatment conditions The instruction was given to the parents And the family members implemented the intervention in home environment. Material development The pictorial home based programme give to the family members and the use material as per the task at home.

Procedure The instruction was given to family members in general service NIMH secunderabad. The researcher selected the sample with the help of pre requisite checklist and family involvement checklist. And selected a 5 sample for the study. Prior to the study written permission was obtained from the family members for selected as a sample and for daily home visit. Than assessing the child performance with the help of checklist and based on the priority task the researcher prepared IEP and home visit programme for each student. the researcher collected all information about students and his/her family. And than prepared a pictorial home based programme. This programme give it to the family members and the family members implemented this programme at home environment. And researcher did the daily home visit and observed the child performance and family involvement. Evaluation The researcher went for daily home visit and observed the student performance and family involvement. The performance of the every subject was evaluated and was recorded through scores. Analysis of data Data were analyze d by using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Mean, SD was calculated and Wilcoxon signed rank test and correlation were computed to find out the level significant between pre-test and post-test and the correlation between the child performance and family involvement.