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Silicon Epitaxy

Episil Technologies Inc.

What is EPITAXY ?
EPI TAXIS = Ordered on
Epitaxy is the growth of a thin layer of single-crystal material on the crystal face of the same (homoepitaxy) or another (heteroepitaxy). VPE LPE MBE - Vapor Phase Epitaxy - Liquid Phase Epitaxy - Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Typical Epi Wafer Designs


(Schottky Diode)
Device Structure Epi Layer Structure

N- Epi

N+ Substrate

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Typical Epi Wafer Designs


(FRED)
Device Structure Epi Layer Structure

N- Epi

N+ Substrate

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Typical Epi Wafer Designs


(Power BJT)
Device Structure Epi Layer Structure

N- Epi

N+ Substrate

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Typical Epi Wafer Designs


(Power MOSFET)
Device Structure
Source Gate

Epi Layer Structure

N- Epi

N+ Substrate

Drain

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Typical Epi Wafer Designs


(IGBT)
Device Structure Epi Layer Structure

N- Epi
N+ buffer layer

P+ Substrate

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Typical Epi Wafer Designs


(CMOS)
Device Structure Epi Layer Structure

P- Epi
P-Epi

P+ Substrate

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Gemini 2 Reactor

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Gemini 3 Reactor

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NuFlare Reactor

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LPE 3061 Reactor

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ASM E2000 Reactor

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AMAT Centura Reactor


3 Process chambers Cooldown Centerfinder

Robot Loadlocks

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Epi Key Parameters


Thickness Thickness variation (within wafer and wafer to wafer) Resistivity Resistivity variation
(within wafer, wafer to wafer and vertical gradient)

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Process Control Parameters


Temperature of the substrate Pressure within the chamber Carrier gas flow (H2) Flow rate of reactive gases (silicon and dopant) Flow patterns within the chamber Temperature profile across the susceptor

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Chemistry for Epi Deposition


SiCl4 + 2 H2 Si + 4 HCl SiHCl3 + H2 Si + 3 HCl SiH2Cl2 Si + 2 HCl SiH4 Si + 2 H2

chemical process for epi deposition in a SiHCl3-H2 system

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Deposition Rate
The growth rate depends on temperature and gas flow
G.R. increases linearly with square root of gas flow
Deposition rate (um/min) Temperature ()

Deposition from SiHCl3 + H2 Activation energy = 22 kcal/mol Mass transfer Increasing controlled
flow rate

Reaction controlled 10,000/ T (K)

For single wafer reactor, growth rate 4~5um/min is available

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

TCS Bubbler System


The TCS concentration depends on pressure , temperature and TCS level

TCS Main Tank

TCS Bubbler

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Thickness Uniformity Adjustment


Flow patterns within the chamber
Main H2 flow rate Silicon source flow rate Deposition Temperature

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Thickness Uniformity Adjustment

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Doping
The dopant is co-deposited with silicon. Usually, a lightly doped layer is deposited on a heavily doped substrate. dopant precursors :
p-type : diborane (B2H6) in H2 n-type : phosphine (PH3) in H2 arsine (AsH3) in H2

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Dopant Mix / Delivery System

SRC mixer mixer

SRC

DIL

INJ

DIL

INJ 1

INJ 2

INJ 3

Chamber A

Chamber B

vent line

Chamber A

Chamber B

Chamber C

vent line

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Temperature Dependence of Doping

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Resistivity Uniformity Adjustment

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Resistivity Uniformity Adjustment

Radial lamp array

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Resistivity Uniformity Adjustment

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Autodoping
Solid-phase out-diffusion:
Dopant diffusion up from substrate.
Lightly doped epi

Gas-phase autodoping:
Dopant from wafer backside and edges.

System autodoping:
Dopant from other wafers, susceptor and reactor wall.

Heavily doped substrate

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Breakdown Voltage Mapping

With light autodoping

With serious autodoping

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Epi Thickness Measurements


Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (Bio-Rad QS-300)

1 1 1 m+1 m 2 n2 d
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Epi Layer Resistivity Measurements


Capacitance / Voltage
(Hg-CV: SSM 490i/495)

4 Point Probe
(Tencor RS-35)

Epi layer of at least 3 um are required for reliable 4PP evaluation

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SSM Mercury Probe

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CV Profiling

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Doping Profile Measurements


Spreading Resistance Probe
(SSM 150, SSM 2000)

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Probes and Probe Contacts

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Calibration Chart
Spreading Resistance vs. Resistivity (traceable Si bulk standards)

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SR Profile Sample
Rm: resistance Rho: resistivity CC: concentration

analysis algorithms

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N/N++ SR Profiles
from different correction methods

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Epi Wafer Visual Inspection


Human Inspection
Diffuse Light High Density Light Optical Microscope

Automatic Inspection
Laser Scanner

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Wafer Mechanical Inspection


Multifunction Dimensional Measurements
(ADE 9X00 UltraGage)
D=a+t+b t = D (a + b)

Thickness Global Shape Flatness

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TTV
(Total Thickness Variation)

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Global Flatness

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Site Flatness

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Site-partitions on 8 Wafer

( 25*25 sq.mm)

(20*20 sq.mm)

* 194 mm as diameter for FQA (Fixed Quality Area)

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Stepper Focus at the Edge

Defocus at the edge because of poor edge site flatness

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Bow

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Warp
ASTM F1390
entire surface scanned

ASTM F657
partial surface scanned

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Taper
T2

T1

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Typical Defects in Epi Layers


a b c d e

Schematic representation of typical epi defects a) epi stacking fault b) growth hillock c) dislocation (continuation from the bulk) d) stacking fault (continuation from the bulk) e) epi spike

Silicon Epitaxy 2012

Thank you
Silicon Epitaxy 2012